Instrumentation engineering

 Instrumentation engineering is the engineering specialization focused on the principle and operation of measuring instruments which are used in design and configuration of automated systems in electrical, pneumatic domains etc. They typically work for industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants, with the goal of productivity, improving system productivity, reliability, safety, optimization, and stability.

Applications of Instrumentation to Measurement  Instrumentation is used to measure many parameters (physical values). These parameters include: 
        Pressure, Pressure, either differential or static Flow Temperature Levels of liquids etc. Density Viscosity Other mechanical properties of materials Frequency Current

Applications of Instrumentation in Measurement 


Voltage Inductance Capacitance Resistivity Chemical composition Chemical properties Properties of light Vibration Weight

Example: Control Panel of a Steam Turbine .

flow and temperature. temperature. . example. For theory. The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. thermocouples use the PeltierPeltierSeebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.Instrumentation Engineering  Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure.

Instrumentation Engineering  Often instrumentation is not used by itself. For this reason. instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering . a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For example. but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems.

temperature. Instruments often comprise control systems of varied processes such as refineries. Instruments include many varied contrivances which can be as simple as valves and transmitters. and vehicles.Instrumentation engineering  An instrument is a device that measures and/or regulates process variables such as flow. factories. analyzers. level. or pressure. analyzers. and as complex as transmitters. .

are made possible by using devices such as microprocessors. microcontrollers or PLCs.  The control of the parameters in a process or in a particular system.Instrumentation engineering  The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. but their ultimate aim is to control the parameters of a system. .

and provide either remote or automated control capabilities.Instrumentation engineering  Output instrumentation includes devices such as solenoids. relays. These devices control a desired output variable. solenoids. and as such are a loops. relays.  Control Instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters. circuit breakers. valves. key part of control loops. regulators. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or system. by a control system. . and breakers. regulators. valves.

frequency. SCADA PLC. DCS. or ethernet are possible. or it can be sent to a PLC. or other type of computerized controller. DCS. This signal can be used for informational purposes. .Instrumentation engineering  Transmitters are devices which produce an output signal. where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system. often in the form of a 4±20 mA electrical 4± current signal. pressure. system. although many other options using voltage. voltage. pressure. frequency.

immunity to electrical noise. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. amusement rides. extended temperature ranges. otherwise unintended operation will result. the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements. lines.Instrumentation engineering  A programmable logic controller (PLC) or PLC) programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. or lighting fixtures. Unlike generalgeneralpurpose computers. PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time. . A batterynonmemory. and resistance to vibration and impact. such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.

The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backedbattery-backed-up RAM or some other nonnonvolatile flash memory. relays.Instrumentation engineering  Programming  PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer. then downloaded by a direct-connection directcable or over a network to the PLC. . Often. a single PLC memory. can be programmed to replace thousands of relays.

programming language). . differences in I/O addressing. language) (Sequential to assembly language) and SFC (Sequential function chart). LD (Ladder (Function diagram). similar to the Pascal (Structured text. IL (Instruction list. similar language). (Instruction list. ST (Structured text. (Ladder diagram). diagram). memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers.Instrumentation engineering  IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming 61131languages for programmable control systems: FBD (Function block diagram). Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer. different models may not be directly compatible. logical organization of operations. These techniques emphasize chart).  While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers.

signals are sent using either voltage or current. and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal.Digital and analog signals  Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches. For example. PLCs had only discrete I/O. and Off. . Initially. Push buttons. True or False. V DC I/O. Discrete current. On. yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0. intermediate values undefined. respectively). a PLC might use 24 Off. limit switches. with values above 22 V DC representing On. where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. values below 2VDC representing Off.

768 and +32. These are typically fullinterpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC. temperature.10 V input or 4-20 mA would be converted into an integer value of 0 . an analog 0 .32767. the integer 16values are limited between -32. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. For example.767. flow. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors. with a range of values between zero and full-scale.Digital and analog signals  Analog signals are like volume controls. and weight are often represented by analog signals. . Pressure.

and our example system must manage the water level in the tank. say a facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is drawn from the tank by another system. as needed. the PLC has two digital inputs from float switches (Low Level and High Level). The PLC uses a digital output to open and close the inlet valve into the tank. When the water level is above the switch it closes a contact and passes a signal to an input.Using only digital signals. . .Example: PLC Application  As an example.

This rung is an example of sealseal-in (latching) logic. The output is sealed in until some condition breaks the circuit.Example: PLC Application . the PLC will shut the inlet to stop the water from overflowing. . Once the water level rises enough so that the High Level switch is on (up). the PLC will open the valve to let more water in.When the water level drops enough so that the Low Level float switch is off (down).

Example: PLC Application  Ladder Diagram Low Level High Level Fill Valve ----------------------[/]------------------------[/]--------------------(OUT)-----------------------------[/]------------------------[/]--------------------(OUT)-------- Fill Valve -----------------------[ ]---------------------------------[ ]----------- .

 A real system might combine both approaches. This will in turn minimize the motion of the valve. . a real system very complicated.  In this system.Considerations:  An analog system might use a water pressure sensor or a load cell. and reduce its wear. Backup and maintenance methods can make hammer. A technician "deadband" adjusts this deadband so the valve moves only for a significant change in rate. and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates and prevent water hammer. many PLCs incorporate "hysteresis" which "hysteresis" essentially creates a "deadband" of activity. and an adjustable (throttling) dripping out of the cell. the valve adjusts to slowly drip water back into the tank. to avoid 'flutter' adjustments that can wear out the valve. using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills. tank.

bulk oil carrier ships . plants. Traffic signals. Chemical plants. Pharmaceutical manufacturing.  DCS is a very broad term used in a variety of industries. Oil refining plants. Water management systems. Dry cargo and networks.Instrumentation engineering  A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system. signals. system. Sensor networks. kind of dynamic system. radio signals. Environmental control systems. process or any system. to monitor and control distributed equipment: Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants. in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed brain) throughout the system with each component sub-system subcontrolled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring.

Example: DCS applied to Building Automation .

and space stations. production. and refining. -Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones. . and energy consumption. Wind farms. power manufacturing. and may run in continuous. fabrication. wastewater collection and treatment. batch. and include water treatment and distribution. oil and treatment. access. refining. It generally refers to industrial control systems: computer systems that monitor and control industrial. fabrication. or facilityfacility-based processes: -Industrial processes include those of manufacturing. airports. gas pipelines. repetitive. electrical power transmission and distribution. ships. generation. and large communication systems. and control HVAC.Infrastructure processes may be public or private.Instrumentation Engineering  SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. generation. production. civil defense siren systems. They monitor HVAC. including buildings. or discrete modes. infrastructure. acquisition. farms. .

SCADA schematic overview .

. and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. can often be easily described using control theory techniques. as electronic circuits engineering.What is Control Engineering? engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modeling systems of a diverse nature. Control engineering is closely related to electrical engineering. analyzing their dynamic behavior.

What is meant by Control?  Control ± the process in a system in which one or several input variables influence other output variables as a result of the laws pertaining to the system. (according to DIN 19226) . Controlling is characterized by the open-loop sequence of openactions via the single transfer element or the control chain.

not only to the control operation itself.1. now act on the energy flow or mass flow to be controlled.As shown in the Fig. Fig 1. .contained box and selfissued as output variables xa«. and these variables xa«... this system are linked in a self.acting on Fig. the input variables xe «.1 xe1 xe2 xa1 xe3 xa2 In general: xa = f ( xe ) The term ³control´ is often applied to the complete system in which controlling takes place.1..

. control. It employs many of the principles in control engineering.What is meant by Control?  The field of control within chemical engineering is often known as process control. and is a well-established field wellin its own right. It deals primarily with the control of variables in a chemical process in a plant.

mechanisms. and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process.  uses analog sensors to monitor real-world realsignals and digital computers to do the analysis and controlling. makes extensive use of analog/digital and digital/analog conversion.Process Control (process control engineering):  an engineering discipline that deals with architecture. .

such as that found in automotive production. . and generate a set of outputs. discrete process control systems use a device called a programmable logic controller (PLC) to read a set of digital and analog inputs. can also be characterized as discrete process control. apply a set of logic statements. motion and packaging applications. process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms:  Discrete ± Found in many manufacturing. Robotic assembly.In practice.

.In practice. One example is the production of adhesives and glues. process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms:  Batch ± Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular duration to produce an intermediate or end result. which normally require the mixing of raw materials in a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product.

process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms:  Continuous ± Often. for example. a physical system is represented though variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. is an example of continuous process control. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket.In practice.applications having elements of discrete.  Hybrid . batch and continuous process control .

 an interconnection of components (mechanical.What is a Control System?  a device or set of devices that manage the behavior of other devices. direct. . thermal or hydraulic) connected or related in such a manner as to command. or regulate itself or another system to maintain a desired output. electrical. optical.

Generally. . known as closed-loop control. it system.  a device that attempts to control the states or outputs of a dynamic system. accomplishes this using feedback to correct disturbances to the system.What is a Controller?  a component of a system that makes it operate within desired limits. closedcontrol.

Example 1. is the control element  The opening provided by the valve is the controlled variable y. . then:  The opening and closing of the valve is the control operation  The valve. it is not possible to compensate for such disturbance variables. whose setting affects the quantity drawn in. This also applies to speed fluctuations or variations in the degree of efficiency caused by the compressor.  The varying load on the compressed air system caused by the users that affects the control system is the disturbance z. On the account of the open action loop of the control system.1: If the output of an air compressor is controlled by the quantity drawn in.  The handwheel with which the valve is actuated is the control device. variables. device.

. Opencontrol states or outputs of a dynamic system.Types of control loops:  open-loop controller does not use feedback to opensystem. E. Openloop control is used for systems that are sufficiently well characterized to predict what inputs are necessary to achieve the desired states or outputs.  closed-loop controller uses feedback to control closedstates or outputs of a dynamic system. system. the velocity of a motor may be well characterized for the voltage fed into it.g. in which case feedback may not be necessary.

2 Disturbance z1 Controlled System Energy/Mass Flow Controller Output y Controller Sequence of Actions (Action Loop) Disturbance z2 . 1.Fig. 1.2 shows the block diagram representing an openopenloop control itself together with the system to be controlled. Fig.

3 Closed-Loop Controller Disturbance z1 Controlled Variable x Energy/ Mass Flow Controlled System Sequence of Actions Controller Output (Error) y Controller Controller Command Variable w Disturbance z2 . 1.Fig.

the control loop. variable. (according circumstances.  The sequence of actions resulting from this takes loop. The purpose of the closed loop control is to match the value of the controlled variable to the value specified by the command variable even if perfect equalization is not attained under the prevailing circumstances. the process being influenced according to the result of this comparison by modifying to match the command variable. place in a closed loop. to DIN 19226) 19226) .Automatic control  Process in which the controlled variable is continuously measured and compared with another variable. the command variable.

 Disturbance point .  Actuating path ± path along which the actions determining a control operation are transmitted. the control or automatic control proper whose elements link the input signals in accordance with the respective laws. .  Controller ± part of the actuating path causing the controlled system to be influenced by the actuator.point at which a factor acts that is not influenced by the system and which disturbs the condition to be maintained.  Actuator ± element that acts on the mass flow or energy flow to be controlled and is located at the input to the controlled system.Terms and Definitions:  Controlled System ± the part of the total system to be influenced.

Variables and their ranges in the actuating path:  Controller output y ± output from the controller and at the same time input variable to the control system. .  Desired value xA ± value to be acted upon by the control  Control range xAh ± range within which the desired value may be when the control is operated properly.  Controller output range yh ± range within which the output maybe adjusted.

setpoint device in close loop control. . input signal in open loop control. (ie.  zh ± range within which the disturbance variable may be allowed without adversely affecting the operability of the control.Variables and their ranges in the actuating path:  Command variable w ± value introduced from the outside to the control chain or to the control loop whose output value is to follow in a predetermined manner (ie.)  wh ± range of command variable  Disturbance variable z ± variable acting from the outside that influences the intended action of the control.

 heater or the air-conditioner is the processor that airwarms or cools the air inside the house.Example 2: House heating/ Air-conditioning system Air- In this example:  The thermostat acts as the controller which directs the activities of the heater. input. feedbacks.  the air going out of the heater or air conditioner is its output.  and finally. the house is the environment in which the heating/airheating/air-conditioning system operates . output.  the air temperature readings inside the house are the feedbacks.  the air coming into the heater or air-conditioner is the airinput.

What is feedback? 
In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. Often this is done intentionally, in order to control the dynamic behavior of the system. Feedback may be:  negative, which tends to reduce output, or negative,  positive, which tends to increase output. positive,

Example 3
Process: cooling a room Desired outcome: reach/ maintain a defined temperature constant over time, say 20 o C Controlled variable: temperature variable: Input variable: temperature, since it is measured by a thermometer and is used to decide whether to cool or not Setpoint: Setpoint: 20 o C Manipulated variable: state of the cooler (the setting of the valve allowing chilled water to flow through it)

Signals represent information, the representation may refer to the value or the change in values of a physical dimension and may refer to transmission, processing or storage of information.  In abstract considerations, signal refers to values or change in value of mathematical quantities.

signal.  Digital ± the range to be considered is divided into a finite number of separate value ranges. two items of information. and one specific item of information is assigned to each range of values. representing on. also known as an on-off signal. .  The digital group includes the binary signal.signal.Types of Signals  Analog ± information is assigned continuously point by point to a range of values.

 These binary signals are of considerable significance for information processing because they can easily be produced by equipment (e.Types of Signals  Digital signals are used more frequently in control engineering and the digital signals are mainly in the form of binary signals.  In practice.g. switches) and can also be processed simply. it is essential to clearly define the relationship between range of values and signal in the case of binary signals .

. The position of the pointer represents an analog signal. each intermediate value of the range maybe assigned a specific signal.Analog/Digital Analog/Digital Signals illustrated  If a continuously changeable pressure from 0 to 600kPa is considered. each intermediate value corresponds to a specific position of the pointer.  If the pressure is indicated on a Bourdon pressure gauge.

100 . 150 . say in pressure steps of 50 kPa and if each range is assigned a specific item of information: 50 . we are dealing with digital signals! . kPa. Then. value =1 value = 1. . . . 200kPa. 100 kPa.5 value =2. . .Analog/Digital Analog/Digital Signals illustrated  If the dial is now divided into separate value ranges. 150 kPa. . kPa.

Signal Flow Diagram  The Symbolic representation of the effective relationships between the signals in a system.  Block and line of action Xe1  Linkage points Xe2  Branch points X X X X xa1 .

Representation of a closed loop in the signal flow diagram Xe1 Xe2 = y X _ y Xd = W .X W + .

Breakdown of the Control Chain  In the preceding sections. the controller has been represented as a self-contained block selfwhich can be broken down even further. at the same time showing the signal flow. A control can always be broken down by the same method to show the arrangement of the individual components.  The control chain is thus characterized by a signal flow from signal input via signal processing to signal output/execution of instruction. .

Breakdown of the control chain: Actuating Device Signal output/ execution of instruction Processing Element Signal Processing Input Element Signal input Hardware breakdown Signal Flow .

where necessary using auxiliary energy.  Signal Converter ± devices in which input and output signals have different structure .Hardware terms:  Actuating mechanism ± element that has direct effect on a controlled system.  Signal transducer ± device transform an input signal as clearly as possible into an associated output signal. Among others.  Signal amplifier ± device using auxiliary energy for power amplification. moves the final control element when mechanically actuated.  Actuating device ± consists of actuating mechanism and final control element. this group of devices includes amplifiers and signal converters.

valves released by pneumatic logic. light barriers. . relays.Examples of Hardware Elements  Signal elements: limit switch with cam and roller operation.  Final control elements: Power contactors. etc. etc.  Processing elements: Electronic logic elements. contactors. pneumatic and hydraulic (directional control) valves. etc.  Drive elements: Electric motors. push buttons. pneumatic/ hydraulic motors. etc. cylinders. manual switches. reflex sensors. proximity switches.

from the control energy that supplies the signal input and signal processing. .Types of controls vis a vis power requirement:  Control without auxiliary ± power requirement to adjust the final control element is provided by the input element of the control. It is possible to operate with different levels of energy within the control chain. thus it is necessary to distinguish the working energy ± the energy required to operate the actuating device.  Control with auxiliary energy ± power required to adjust the final control element is supplied entirely or in part through a source of auxiliary energy.

Based on these considerations. an extended control chain can be drawn up as follows: Controlled System Actuating Device Execution of Instruction Operative part Signal Output Transducer Processing element Controller Processing element Input Element Signal element .

Examples of hardware used for Electrical and Pneumatic Systems Electrical Systems Actuating Mechanism Electric Motor Solenoid Linear motor Power contactors Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic cylinder Air motor Final Control Elements Directional control valves Processing Elements Auxiliary Contactors Relays Directional control valves Non-return valves Pressure control valves Flow Control valves Input Elements Switches Push buttons Limit switches Program generators Proximity signallers Switches Push buttons Limit switches Program generators Proximity signallers .

3 . Control with the same form of energy for the operative and control part II I Controlled System Actuating Mechanism Final control element 1.1 1.Ex.2 1.5 Signal processing Signal input 1.

one can work within the controlled system with different types of energy. environmental influences.  In practice however. it is not always easy to select the ³right control system´. etc. Apart from the immediate requirements of the problem.) determine the solution.Types of energy for operative and control part  By means of suitable devices (signal transformers/ transducers) it is possible to convert one type of energy into signals of another type of energy ± in control engineering. These auxiliary often conflict with the simple solution to the problem that can make project engineering more difficult. . the auxiliary requirements in particular (place of installation.

one refers to a mixed technology ± which is being used to an increasing extent in control design. Working Media: -Mechanical -Electrical -Hydraulics -Pneumatics Criteria for system selection: -Force -Displacement -Type of motion -Speed -Physical size -Life -Sensitivity -Working safety .Types of energy for operative and control part  If a system uses different types of energy for the operative and control parts.

costs low. . speed torque regulation difficult and elaborate  Elements not overload-proof.  Creation of rotary motion at very high efficiency.Characteristics of working media:  Electrical:  Energy storage difficult. as it is necessary either to convert by mechanical means or short displacements possible with lifting magnets and only small forces possible with linear motors. transmission fast. large physical size.  Creation of straight line motion complex and expensive. not intrinsically overloadexplosionexplosion-proof. speed limited.

line installation difficult overloadand expensive and must be insured that system is completely sealed. high energy cost. high efficiency.Characteristics of working media:  Hydraulics  Storage of energy only to a limited degree.5m/s max.).  Creation of rotary motion is simple. however at not very high speed. high torque  Elements are overload-proof. very small dimensions. limited and slow energy transmission. .  Creation of straight line motion is very simple. working speed not too high (up to 0. speeds constant even at low range. large to very large forces can be achieved.

Characteristics of working media:  Pneumatics  Energy storage presents no problem.. high working speeds (1-2m/s). torque. high energy costs  Creation of straight line motion simple and cheap. intrinsically explosionoverexplosionproof. very simple regulation of speed. . limited and slow energy transmission.000m/min). torque obtainable not too high  Elements are over-load proof. high operating costs due to poor efficiency. stroke length limited (1up to 2m depending on the design. high speeds (up to 500.  Creation of rotary motion simple and cheap. small dimensions. force obtainable is limited up 40000N max. force.

Hydraulics .Switching times of elements .Electrical .Ease of maintenance .Signal speed .Sensitivity to environmental influences .Working safety of elements .Types of energy for operative and control part Control Media: Criteria for system selection: .Space requirement .Mechanical .Electronics .Low pressure pneumatics .Normal pressure pneumatics .Life .

transistors Very large digital Directional control valves Main type of digital signal processing Components Contactors. analog Electronic valves. dynamic elements Distance w/c can be covered Switching times of elements Reliability Space requirement Limited by speed of signal Greater than 10 ms Sensitive to envi Very sensitive to Insensitive to envi influences envi influences influences large Very small Digital. relays . approx speed of sound Practically unlimited Less than 1 ms Normal-pressure Low-pressure pneumatics pneumatics Approx 40-70 m/s 100-200m/s normal.Characteristics of Control media: Electrical Signal speed Very high. analog Static. approx speed of sound Practically unlimited Greater than 10 ms Electronics Very high. to some extent speed of light Limited by speed of signal Greater than 10 ms Insensitive to envi influences small Digital.

g. These signals operate without time behavior.Differentiating characteristics of controls Controls can be classified according to:  Control energy used  Mode of operation with respect to signal processing  Combined controls ± a certain combination of input signals is always associated with a combination of output signals. behavior. storage devices. Timing elements. etc.  Sequential controls ± controls containing elements with time behavior (e. .

Differentiating characteristics of controls  According to the type of operating sequence CONTROL Pilot Control Memory Control Program Control Time-schedule control Coordinated motion control Sequence control .

Differentiating characteristics of controls  Pilot Control ± establishes always a unique relationship between the command variable and output variable. Copying on machine tools ± the movements of the tracer pin are uniquely related to the movement of the cutting tool 2. . Examples: 1. Brightness control ± the brightness of the lamp is at all times uniquely related to the position of the resistor or of the transformer.

the value reached by the output variable is retained until an opposing signal is presented.Differentiating characteristics of controls  Memory control ± after removing or taking back the command variable.  Example: Switch-on and switch off of an electric motor Switchby means of a pressure switch Ro ³ OFF´ b2 ³ON´ b1 R S T 3 ± 380 V c1 Mp M .

1.3 .1 1.Example: Controlling the advance and return movement of a doubleacting cylinder by manual switch. the condition obtained by the output variable is retained after the command variable has been removed. until the opposing signal is presented. Here.2 1.

hence no sequence reliability. usually compact construction  Time-constant program execution. execution Timeinsensitive to disturbing factors and independent/no check of operating sequence. . Disturbances in the operating sequence have no effect on program execution.Differentiating characteristics of controls  Time-schedule control Time Command variables are supplied by a time-dependent timeprogram transmitter (program storage device) and a timetime-dependent operating sequence of the program.  Centrally stored program.

disturbances in the operating sequence can be registered. program execution maybe interrupted . hence the layout is not clearly arranged and is not easy to service  Operating sequence reliability is provided by displacementdisplacement-dependent sequence.Differentiating characteristics of controls  Coordinated motion control  The command variables are provided by a program transmitter.  Program is defined by the arrangement of limit switches/ signal elements. the output variables of w/c are dependent on the distance covered (displacement or position of a movable part of the controlled system.

program belt. punch card/tape.Differentiating characteristics of controls A program transmitter maybe: . Example: A piano displays the characteristics of a time-schedule control.camshaft. etc. The program is timecontained in a program transmitter. which in this case maybe a drum and is run through on a time-dependent basis (constant speed timeof program transmitter drive motor) . cam disk.

3 1. depending on the position of LS 1. the return motion being effected by a limit switch1.2.3 after a certain length of travel.3 1.Example ± Coordinated motion control Movement of a double-acting pneumatic cylinder: The advance motion is tripped by operating START button 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.3 .

. ‡ Is identified by having a program transmitter and an equipment w/c is capable of ³interrogating´ the conditions prevailing in the system. has the advantage of ³check the momentary machine status´ (operating sequence reliability and is possible to advance the program transmitter stepstepbyby-step (stepping motor).Differentiating characteristics of controls  Sequence control ‡ The operating sequence program is stored in a program transmitter w/c runs through a ³step-by³step-bystep´ program in accordance w/ the condition reached at any one time by the controlled system.

. As we maybe confronted with a more difficult problem.Means of representing motion sequences and switching conditions:  Movement sequences and switching conditions of working and control elements must be represented in a clear fashion. the relationships can be identified quickly and with certainty only if a suitable form of representation can be selected.  Only neat representation allows large-scale largeprojects to be understood clearly.

commonly referred to as Function Diagram.Means of representing motion sequences and switching conditions:     Writing down in chronological sequence Tabular form Vector diagram Graphical representation in graphical form. Control Diagram ± provides information concerning the condition of individual control elements . Motion Diagram ± records conditions relating to working elements and components 2. consisting of: 1. Diagram.

Motion diagrams:  Displacement-step diagram ± The operating sequence Displacementof a working element is represented in a manner such that the displacement is recorded in relation to the various steps or change in condition of any component. 1 Forward (1) Cylinder A Rear (0) Steps Displacement 2 3 4 5=1 . If a control has several working elements. each is represented in the same manner and each is drawn one beneath the other.

intermediate steps maybe introduced.  The designation of the condition may be optional. the displacement should not be drawn to scale. binary digits may be used.  The steps may be numbered as required.  If the condition of the system changes during motion. but of equal size for all components. say 0 for rear end position and 1 for forward end position.  If possible.Recommendations for layout when drawing displacementdisplacement-step diagram:  The steps should be drawn (when possible) linearly and horizontally. .  The designation of the unit must be written on the left side of the diagram.

Motion Diagram:  Displacement-time diagram ± The displacement Displacementof a component is drawn in relation to time. the time is drawn linearly and establishes the relationship (motion/displacement) between the individual components. 1 Cylinder A 0 1 Cylinder B 0 Displacement Time t .

the relationships to the displacementdisplacementdisplacement-step diagram are indicated by the broken lines (step lines). although the distance between them is not drawn to scale.e. overlaps and varying speeds can be shown better in the displacement-time diagram displacement In case of rotating elements.g. in the displacementdisplacement-step diagram. the changes in condition with respect to time are no longer accounted for. a change in condition (e.  Whereas the displace-step diagram allows the relationships displaceto be seen more clearly.Recommendations for layout when drawing displacementdisplacement-step diagram:  The rules for drawing the diagram are roughly the same as for the displacement-step diagram. i. Switching of an electric motor) does not extend over the whole step but is entered directly on the step line .

Control Diagram  In the control diagram. the switching time itself not being considered. . for example the condition of a relay b1 being opened: 1 Open b1 Closed Steps 2 3 4 5 6=1 Condition Note that relay b1 pulls up at step 2 and drops off again at step 5. the switching condition of control element is shown in relation to the steps or the times.

1 2.1 which controls cylinder A. 2. Example: 1 A 1 0 1 B 0 1.2 which is installed at the front end position of cylinder A. .2 2 3 4 5=1 The control diagram shows the conditions of the directional control valves 1.Function Diagram.1 2.1 which controls cylinder B and limit switch 2.

functional sequence: as start conditions.Working out a control problem Step 1 . safety conditions . personnel .Problem definition. setting up conditions. determination of conditions  Right at the start. place of installation. it is very important to list the auxiliary conditions with respect to: sequence: . Also. supply.auxiliary conditions for operating influences: influences: environmental influences. the problem and specifically the objectives must be clearly defined.reliability of performance .

Jogging operation . the system is brought into a defined position .Single cycle .Continuous cycling .Automatic operation: AUT .Manual operation: MAN  Setting up: each element can be operated in any sequence  Setting: by operating the ³set´ button.Working out a control problem  Possible auxiliary conditions for the functional sequence:  Start and setting up conditions: .

Working out a control problem  Possible auxiliary conditions for the functional sequence:  Safety conditions: EMERGENCY STOP: the position of the working elements assumed when this condition applies must be clearly defined EMERGENCY STOP unlocking: the system is again released for re-start and continuance of reoperation .

Working out a control problem Step 2 ± Determination of the sequence of operations Step 3 ± Selection of the type of control and control energy Step 4 ± Selection of the type of control and control energy Step 5 ± Draw the positional sketch Step 6 ± Draw the circuit diagram .

most such systems are constructed with programmable logic controllers. controllers. Nowadays. . and designed with a notation logic. with many variations and/ or combinations of which are:  Logic controls  Pure logic controls were historically implemented by electricians with networks of relays.What are the common types of control systems? The common types of controllers. called ladder logic.

but notably poor at managing continuous process controls in such places as oil refineries and steel mills. and cause the machinery to perform some operation. .Logic Controllers Logic controllers usually respond to switches or photoelectric cells. Logic systems are great for sequencing mechanical operations in places like elevators and factories.

similar to Boolean logic. electronic diodes. are commonly employed. . diodes.Logic Controllers  Logic systems are quite easy to design. optical or even mechanical fluidics. elements. (Logic gates that are primarily electronically-controlled but electronicallycan also be constructed from electromagnetic relays. Logic systems may be designed with a system logic. relays. fluidics. and can handle very complex operations.

Linear or feedback controls  Linear controls use negative feedback to keep some desired process within an acceptable range. control starts. when the temperature goes below a threshold. which is oscillation of output resulting from improperly tuned inputs of first positive then negative feedback. Systems that include feedback are prone to hunting. hunting. a thermostat is a simple negative feedback control. . For example.

the valve may open and shut indefinitely in a cycle as the furnace heats. In a furnace. and then overruns the target temperature. the fluctuating temperature causes expansion and contraction all through the furnace. the constantly turning valve will quickly wear out. . This is bad because it stresses the system. causing unnecessary. More expensively.Linear or feedback controls  In the furnace example. very expensive mechanical wear. Most systems have similar problems.

Linear or feedback controls 
Often, if the response of the system is slowed down enough to prevent oscillation, the system doesn't respond fast enough to work in normal situations. To resolve the problems, the most common feedback loop scheme has mathematical extensions to cope with the future and the past. This type of loop is called a Proportional-IntegralProportional-Integralloop. Derivative Loop, or PID loop. Loop,

Linear or feedback controls 
If the error curve is graphed over time, the past is considered by adding a number proportional to the area under the curve over a certain amount of time in the past (this is the "integration" part). The future is considered by the adding a number proportional to the slope of a line tangent to the error's curve at the present time (this is the "differential" part). A PID loop always adds its result to the current output, so that it effortlessly floats to a new steady output level.

What is PID? 
A Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller or Proportional-IntegralPID is a standard feedback loop component in industrial control applications. It measures an applications. "output" of a process and controls an "input", with a goal of maintaining the output at a target value, which is called the "setpoint". An example of a PID "setpoint". application is the control of a process temperature, although it can be used to control any measurable variable which can be affected by manipulating some other process variable. For example, it can be used to control pressure, flow rate, chemical composition, force, speed or a number of other variables.

g. sensor. The error is then setpoint" treated in three different ways simultaneously:  Proportional . For example. and sent to the output. the error is multiplied by a negative proportional constant P. P represents the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the system. E. Adding the change to the output makes the output self-adjusting. a controller with a proportional band of 10degC and a setpoint of 20deg C would have an output of 100% at 10 deg C. 50% at 15 Deg C and 10% at 1.9 deg C. for a heater. Then it subtracts the measurement from a desired "setpoint" to determine an "error".To handle the present. if the selfburner were to get dirty. decreasing the heater's efficiency. re- .What is PID?  The basic idea is that the controller reads a sensor. the baseline output would just drift upwards a bit. and then re-stabilize.

Using the Proportional term alone it is not possible to reach a steady set point temperature. or summed) over a period of time. can be measured and compensated for. Real world processes are not perfect and are subject to a number of environmental variables. As these variables are often constant they. and then multiplied by a constant I. . and added to the proportional output.To handle the past. the error is integrated (or averaged. I represents the steady state error of the system.What is PID?  Integral .

the Integral term of a controller only considers a relatively short history of the controller.What is PID? Using the Proportional example above. In this scenario the system controller will never be able to reach setpoint. however it can be corrected by introducing an Integral term. at 19. . that last for some time. In practice.9 deg C the controller output is 1%. which will attempt to remove errors term. at this temperature environmental losses through heat transmission are 3%. setpoint.

What is PID?  Derivative . . The derivative term is used to govern a controller's response to a change in the system.To handle the future. This is a good thing to reduce when trying to dampen a controller's response to short term changes. The larger the derivative term the more rapidly the controller will respond to changes in the process value. and multiplied by another constant D. and summed with the proportional and integral terms. the first derivative of the error (its rate of change) is calculated with respect to time.

.001). with C being a constant (typically .01 or .What is PID?  The generic transfer function for a PID controller is: H(s) = (Ds2 + Ps + I)/ (s + C).

by adjusting them many times per second. the deadband is programmable. a region around the current deadband. In commercial controls. they often have a deadband. Therefore.Linear or feedback controls  Most real feedback loops are concerned about wearing out control machinery like valves. value in which no control action occurs. .

. By filtering out that frequency. A filter eliminates undesirable frequencies (cycles) from the system under control. which perfectly eliminates oscillations. Many systems oscillate at just one frequency. one can use very "stiff" feedback and the system can be very responsive without shaking itself apart.Linear or feedback controls  Another common method is to filter the feedback loop.

back and up). the flight plan determines the desired autopilot. Usually each input and output number is filtered for particular oscillations of the aircraft or the control part. and calculates the control's position. For example. . pitch. in an airplane's autopilot. Each mechanical control has a differential equation that takes the desired movement in six different axes (roll. forward.Linear or feedback controls  Some feedback controls operate through complex indirect effects. yaw. numbers (where to move) that drives everything.

The chemical reaction paths Control). the core codes of hundredmany modern aircraft autopilots are actually themselves coded by computer programs. speeding design times by a hundred-fold or more. they caused a revolution. and control systems are normally designed together using specialized computer-aided-design computer-aidedsoftware.Linear or feedback controls  The most complex linear control systems developed to date are in oil refineries (Model (Model Predictive Control). Now. When the automated control-system controldesign techniques pioneered by oil refinery controls were applied to aircraft control systems. .

Linear or feedback controls  Feedback loops can be combined and modified in many ways. . a feedback loop will be present for each of them. Usually if a system has several measurements to be controlled.