BY MS.

SHAFIZA HANIM BINTI AZIZAN

Electrochemistry

Electrolytes

Electrolysis

Voltaic cells

Electrochemical series (ECS)

Molten compounds

Aqueous solutions

Electrolysis in industry

Simple voltaic cell

Potential difference between 2 metals

Position of ions in ECS

Extraction of metals

Daniell cell

Displacement of metals

Concentration of ions

Purification of metals

Types of electrodes

Electroplating

.ELECTROLYTES ` NON-ELECTROLYTES ` Substances S can conduct electricity S in molten state or S aqueous solution S undergo chemical changes. Substances S cannot conduct electricity S in any state. ELECTROLYTES ` Substances S can conduct electricity S in solid or molten state S but not chemically changed.

MOLTEN COMPOUNDS AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS .

` Movement of ions to electrodes : + p Anions .p Cations ` Discharge of ions : + = Anion donates electron .= Cation accepts electron .

ANODE ` CATHODE ` Br. Half equation : Pb2+ + 2e p Pb ` OVERALL EQUATION ` Pb2+ + 2Br.p Br2 + 2e ` Pb2+ ions receive electrons to form Pb atoms.ions donate electrons to form Br2 molecules. Half equation : 2Br.p Pb + Br2 .

ELECTROLYSIS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION POSITION OF TYPES OF IONS IN ECS ELECTRODES CONCENTRATION OF IONS .

p H+ ions & cations + p OH.` Movement of ions to electrodes : .ions & anions ` Discharge of ions : + = Lower ion in ECS is discharged (donates electron) .= Lower ion in ECS is discharged (accepts electron) .

ion is discharged because it is lower in ECS.and OH.p 4e + O2 + 2H2O Cu2+ and H+ ions move to cathode. Half equation : 4OH.ions move to anode. Cu2+ ions receive electrons to form Cu atoms. Half equation : Cu2+ + 2e p Cu ` ` ` ` ` ` . Cu2+ ion is discharged because it is lower in ECS. OH. OH.Electrolysis of CuSO4 solution using carbon electrodes ANODE ` CATHODE ` SO42.ions donate electrons to form oxygen molecules.

p H+ ions & Cations + p OH.ions & Anions ` Discharge of ions : .` Movement of ions to electrodes : .= Lower ion in ECS is discharged (accepts electron) + = Ion of higher concentration is discharged (donates electron) .

Cu2+ ions accept electrons to form Cu atoms.ions move to anode. Half equation : Cu2+ + 2e p Cu ` ` ` ` ` ` .ions donate electrons to form chlorine molecules. Cl.and OH.p Cl2 + 2e Cu2+ and H+ ions move to cathode.ion is discharged because its concentration is higher. Cl. Cu2+ ion is discharged because it is lower in ECS.Electrolysis of CuCl2 solution using carbon electrodes ANODE ` CATHODE ` Cl. Half equation : 2Cl.

ions & Anions SO42` Discharge of ions : + = Ion is not discharged Metal anode is ionized (donates electron) .= Metal ion is discharged (accepts electron) .` Movement of ions to electrodes : .p H+ ions & Cations Cu2+ + p OH.

No ion is discharged. Cu2+ ions receive electrons to form Cu atoms.ions move to anode. Cu atoms donate electrons to form Cu2+ ions.and OH. Cu2+ ion is discharged.Electrolysis of CuSO4 solution using copper electrodes ANODE ` CATHODE ` SO42. Cu2+ and H+ ions move to anode. Half equation : Cu2+ + 2e p Cu ` ` ` ` ` ` Half equation : Cu p 2e + Cu2+ . Cu atom (electrode) is ionized.

Because : Metal is formed.` Colourless gas is released. If I2 is formed. Greenish-yellow gas is released. Or (types of electrodes) : ` ` ` ` ` ` Grey / Brown solids deposited. ` ANODE CATHODE . If O2 gas is formed. If H2 gas is formed. If Cl2 gas is formed. All metals except Cu = GREY. Cu = BROWN Or : Colourless gas is released. ` Electrode dissolves and becomes thinner. Brown solution is form.

‡ Bring a piece of moist blue litmus paper to the mouth of the test tube containing the gas. ‡ Lower a glowing wooden splinter into the test tube containing the gas.H2 O2 Cl2 ‡ Bring a burning wooden splinter to the mouth of the test tube containing the gas. ‡ The blue litmus paper turns red and then bleached / white. ‡ A µpop¶ sound is produced. ‡ The glowing wooden splinter is rekindled. .

ELECTROLYSIS IN INDUSTRIES EXTRACTION OF METALS ELECTROPLATIN G PURIFICATION OF METALS .

` Objects are electroplated : To protect them from corrosion To give them an attractive appearance. ` Good quality of plating : The metal object is cleaned and free of grease Concentration of ions is low Use small electric current The object is turned steadily throughout the plating process .

SIMPLE VOLTAIC CELL DANIELL CELL .

Zn atoms donate electrons to form Zn2+ ions.` Zn is higher than Cu in the ECS ‡ Zn is more electro(+). Half equation : ‡ Zn p Zn2+ + 2e Zn becomes (-) terminal = anode. Observation : ? ` ` ` ` . ‡ Zn releases electrons more easily.

Half equation : ‡ 2H+ + 2e p H2 Observation : ? ` ` ` ` ` . Cu acts as the (+) terminal = cathode H+ & Zn2+ ions are attracted to the Cu electrodes. ‡ It is lower than Zn2+ ion in the ECS. H + ion is discharged.` Electron flows from Zn to Cu electrodes through the external circuit.

Zn is higher than Cu in the ECS ‡ Zn is more electro(+). Half equation : ‡ Zn p Zn2+ + 2e Zn acts as (-) terminal = anode Observation : ? ` ` ` ` ` .` Salt bridge / porous pot = To allow the movement of ions to complete the circuit. Zn atoms donate electrons to form Zn2+ ions. ‡ Zn releases electrons more easily.

Half equation : ‡ 2Cu2+ + 2e p Cu Observation : ‡ ? ‡ Intensity of blue colour of the solution decreases.` Electron flows from Zn to Cu electrodes through the external circuit. Cu acts as the (+) terminal = cathode H+ & Cu2+ ions are attracted to the Cu electrodes. ` ` ` ` ` . Cu2+ ion is discharged. ‡ It is lower than H+ ion in the ECS.

VARIOUS VOLTAIC CELLS ` ` ` Dry cell Mercury cell Alkaline cell PRIMARY CELLS ` ` Lead-acid accumulator Nickel-cadmium cell SECONDARY CELLS .

` ` ` Anode = Donation of electrons Cathode = Acceptance of electrons Electron flow = From anode to cathode ELECTROLYTIC CELL ` ` ` ` Electrical p chemical energy Anode = (+) terminal Cathode = (-) terminal Electrodes : C / 2 same metals / 2 different metals ` ` ` ` Chemical p electrical energy Anode = (-) terminal Cathode = (+) terminal Electrodes : 2 different metals VOLTAIC CELL .

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POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 2 METALS METALS DISPLACEMENT ` .

` ` . the further the distance between 2 metals in the ECS. The greater the voltage produced by the cell.POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 2 METALS ` Potential difference shown by the voltmeter reading. (-) terminal = higher position in ECS.

Predict : ` Zn + CuSO4 p Ag + CuSO4 p / / ` .METALS DISPLACEMENT ` A higher metal in ECS can displace a lower metal (ion).

` Predict metals displacement.` Determine the terminals of a voltaic cell. . the further the distance between 2 metals. Higher metal in ECS = (-) terminal Lower metal in ECS = (+) terminal ` Compare the standard cell voltages of voltaic cells. A higher metal can displace a lower metal (ion) in ECS. The greater the voltage.