IMPLANT MATERIALS AND SURFACE COATINGS ON IMPLANTS

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 Definition :
A prosthetic device of alloplastic material(s) implanted into the oral tissues beneath the mucosal and/or periosteal layer, and on/or within the bone to provide retention and support for a fixed or removable prosthesis ; a substance that is placed into and/or upon the jaw bone to support a fixed or removable prosthesis.

A biocompatible material is defined as being harmonious with life and not having toxic or injurious effects on biologic function.

A biomaterial can be defined as any substance other than a drug, that can be used for any period as a part of a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue organ or function of the body.

 The body is a harsh chemical environment for foreign materials.  An implanted material can have its properties altered by body fluids.  Degradation mechanisms such as corrosion or leaching can be

accelerated by ion concentrations and pH changes in body fluids. 

The body s response to an implant can range from benign to a

chronic inflammatory reaction, with the degree of biologic response largely dependent on the implanted material. 

The physical, mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of the

basic materials components must always be fully evaluated for any biomaterial application as these properties provide key inputs into the interrelated biomechanical and biologic analyses of function.

o Archeological findings showed that the ancient Egyptian and South American civilizations already experimented with re-implanting lost reteeth with hand-shaped ivory or wood substitutes. Allergy??? . donors. hand- In the 18th century lost teeth were sometimes replaced with extracted teeth of other human donors. The implantation process was probably somewhat crude and the success rates extremely low due to the strong immune reaction of the receiving individual.HISTORY o Replacing lost teeth with a bone-anchored device is not a new boneconcept at all.

500 BC used gold wire to stabilize the periodontally weak teeth First evidence of use of implants implantation of pieces of shell .

Maggiolo fabricated a gold implant In 1887.In 1809. instead of a gold post. a physician named Harris attempted the same procedure with a platinum post. .

Strock placed the first somewhat successful oral implants in 1937 at Harvard University. and thus placed a series of vitallium implants into test animals and humans. to which a porcelain crown was fixated.o In 1886 Edmunds was the first in the US to implant a platinum disc into the jawbone. Strock published a paper on the physiological effects of cobaltcobaltchromiumchromium-molybdenum alloy (vitallium) in bone. .

Modern Historical Developments: The first Subperiosteal Implant was placed in 1948 by Gustav Dahl Implant. introduced independently in 1967 by Leonard Linkow and Ralph and Harold Roberts . The Endosteal Blade Implant.

Types of endosseous implants .

including the use of titanium screws as bone anchors for lost teeth. . In 1982. the Toronto Conference on Osseointegration in Clinical Dentistry laid down the first parameters on what is to be considered successful implant treatment within the stringent confines of the scientific community. Branemark's research shifted more towards the use of titanium appliances in human bone.The quantum leap in Oral Implantology was achieved in 1952 in Sweden by Per Ingvar Branemark He founded the phenomenon of Osseointegration Dr.

Co-Cr-MoCo-Cr-Mo-Ni Alumina. Titanium.BIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF IMPLANT MATERIALS Biologic classification based on tissue response and systemic toxicity effects of implant DEGREE OF COMPATIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF REACTIONS OF BONY TISSUE characterized by a thin fibrous tissue interface: distance osteogenesis are characterized by direct bone contact: contact osteogenesis MATERIALS biotolerant Stainless Steel. PMMA. surrounding bone : glassglass-ceramics. ceramics. titanium? bonding osteogenesis . Co-CrCo-Cr-Mo. Tantalum. Carbon bioinert bioactive direct chemical bonding Calcium phosphatephosphateof the implant with the containing glasses.

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. polymers.The entire group of possible alloplastic implant materials. will fall into one of three categories :    Metals and metal alloys. alloys. regardless of their clinical applications. Ceramics and carbons and Synthetic polymers.

Implant Material Metals Titanium Titanium Alloy Stainless Steel Cobalt Chromium Alloy Gold Alloys Tantalum Ceramics Alumina Hydroxyapatite Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Carbon Carbon-Silicon Bioglass Polymers Polymethylmethacrylate Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyethelene Polysulfone Polyurethane Common name or abbreviation cpTi Ti6Al4v SS. 316. vitreous. ultra-low temperature isotropic C-Si SiO2 / CaO / Na2O / P2O3 PMMA PTFE PE PSF PU . Ca3(PO4)2 C. amorphous or single crystal sapphire (Kyocera) HA. low temperature isotropic (LT1). Ca10(PO4) (OH)2 B-TCP. L SS Vitallium. Co-Cr-Mo Ta Al2O3.

PHYSICAL. MECHANICAL.AND CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS for IMPLANT MATERIALS .

Forces exerted on the implant material consists of tensile. compressive and shear components. For most of the implant materials compressive strengths are usually greater than their shear bond tensile counterparts A recurring problem occurs between the mechanical strength and deformability of the material and the recipient bone different approach to match more closely the implanted material and hard tissue properties led to the experimentation of polymeric carbonitic and metallic materials because of low modulus of elasticity .

In general the fatigue limit of metallic implant materials reaches approximately 50% of their ultimate tensile strength Ceramic materials are weak under shear forces because of the combination of fracture strength and low ductility which can lead to brittle facture. swaging or forging followed by age or dispersion hardening until the strength of material is optimized for the intended application.The higher the applied load. the higher the mechanical stress and the greater the possibility for exceeding the fatigue limit of the material. Metals are Modified by the addition of alloying elements or altered by mechanical processing such as drawing . .

. This especially is relevant for dental implants. Most of all consensus standards for metal are given by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). American dental association (ADA) require a minimum of 8% ductility to minimize brittle fractures.A general rule is that constitution of mechanical process hardening procedures result in an increased strength but also invariably correspond to a loss of ductility. International standardization organization (ISO).

145) 690 (100) >8 > 15 Ti oxide Ti oxide Cr oxide Cr oxide Ta oxide Titanium (T1) Titanium-aluminium vanadium (Ti-Al-V) Cobalt-Chromium molybdenum (casting) (CoCr-Mo) Stainless Steel (316L) 99+Ti 90Ti-6A14V 66Co -27Cr -7Mo 70Fe ² 18Cr ² 12 Ni 99+Ta 117 (34) > 12 193 (28) > 30 Tantalum (Ta) - 11 .Material Nominal Analysis (w/o) Modulu s of Ultimate Elongati Elasticit tensile on to Surface y strength fracture GN/m2 MN/m2 (ksi) (%) (psix106) 97 (14) 240-550 (2570) 869 ² 896 (125 ² 130) 655 (95) 235 (34) 480 ² 1000 (70 .

CORROSION AND BIODEGRADATION  Corrosion is a special concern for metallic materials in dental implantology because implants must be placed in oral cavity and oxygen compositions differ from that of tissue fluids  In addition the pH can vary significantly in areas below plaque and within the oral cavity. tantalum and related alloys. niobium. zirconium. Galvanic processes depends on the passivity of oxide layers.  The effect of galvanic corrosion is greater in case of dental implants.  The passive layer is usually made of oxides or hydroxides of the metallic elements that have greatest affinity for oxygen.  In reactive group metals such as titanium. the base materials determine the properties of the passive layer. .

 Three types of corrosion are most relevant to dental implants: implants:  stress corrosion galvanic corrosion and  cracking. .  fretting corrosion.

STRESS CORROSION CRACKING The combination of high magnitudes of applied mechanical stress plus simultaneous exposure to a corrosive environment can result in the failure of metallic materials by cracking Most traditional implant body designs under three dimensional finite element stress analysis show a concentration of stresses at the crest of the bone support and cervical one third of the implant. This tends to support potential stress corrosion at the implant interface areas .

 FRETTING CORROSION Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a micromotion and rubbing contact within a corrosive environment Fretting corrosion has been shown to occur along implant abutment superstructure interfaces. . GALVANIC CORROSION Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metallic materials are in contact and are within an electrolyte resulting in current to flow between the two.

depends not only on their composition and structural from but also on the degree of polymerization. . polymers are not only dissolved but also penetrated by water and substance from biologic environment. This is observed for iron chromium nickel molybdenum (Fe-Cr-NiMo) steels ceramic oxide materials are not fully degradation resistant.CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE of CORROSION passive oxide layers on metallic substrates dissolves at much slower rates more critical problem is irreversible local perforation of the passive layer that is often caused by chloride ions which may result in localized pitting corrosion. corrosion resistance of synthetic polymers on the other hand.

The amount dissolved by biodegradation per time unit The amount of material removed by metabolic activity in the same time unit Quantities of solid particles and ions deposited in the tissue The transformation of harmful primary products is dependent on their level of solubility and transfer. 2. 3.TOXICITY CONSIDERATIONS Toxicity is related to primary biodegradation product  Factors to be considered include : 1. electrochemical behaviour of implanted materials has been instrumental in assessing their biocompatibility .

titanium. nickel or cobalt are not as resistant to transfer through the oxide the passive surface zones. Charge transfer appear to be a significant factor specific to the biocompatibility of metallic biomaterials.  passive layers along the surfaces of niobium. . metals of iron.  On the other hand. zirconium and tantalum increase resistance to charge transfer processes by isolating the substrate from the electrolyte in addition to providing a higher resistance to ion transfers.

Commonly used biomaterials for dental implants are

Commercially pure (CP) titanium and titanium aluminium vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy are most often used for endosseous (Ti-6Alimplants whereas cobalt chromium molybedenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy is most (Co-Croften used for subperiosteal implants. Calcium phosphate ceramics, particularly hydroxyapatite (HA), have been used in monolithic form as augmentation material for alveolar ridges and as coating on metal devices for endosseous implantation.

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM 6 ALUMINIUM -4 VANDIUM (Ti 6Al 4V)
Titanium appears on the periodic table as element, 22, a fourth row transition metal with an atomic weight of 47.88. An extremely reactive metal, titanium forms a tenacious oxide layer that contributes to its electrochemical passivity. The element was discovered by Wilheim Gregor, a clergyman who found the metal in a black magnetic sand in cornwall in 1791. Klaproth has named titanium after the Greek Titans. In 1930 s Krol developed commercially extraction procedures that are still used today.

Commercially pure (CP) (CP) titanium and titanium-based alloys titaniumare low density metals that have chemical properties suitable for implant applications Titanium has a high corrosion resistance Titanium oxidizes or passivates upon contact with room temperature air and normal tissue fluids. This activity is favourable for dental implant devices in the absence of interfacial motion or adverse environmental conditions. This passivated surface condition minimizes biocorrosion phenomena.

commercially pure grade II titanium commercially pure grade III titanium and commercially pure grade IV titanium . 4V and Ti-6Al.Among these two general groups. commercially pure grade I titanium. are commercially available. are six distinct materials defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). All six of these materials. 4. The mechanical and physical properties of these materials differs significantly. which include four grades of CP titanium and two titanium alloys. The two alloys are Ti-6Al Ti(ELI). 2. however.4V extra low interstitial Ti-6Al- The commercially pure titanium materials are 1. 3.

13 3.03 0.03 0.02 0.10 0.015 0.10 0.50-6.03 0.012 0.30 0.03 0.20 5.03 0.08 0.50-4. Bal.50 0.35 0. Bal.03 0. Bal.18 0.10 0.015 0.50-4.015 0.10 0.25 0. Bal.10 0.015 0. 0.7 3.50 .05 0. Bal.Titanium N C H Fe O Al V Ti Cp Grade I Cp Grade II Cp Grade III Cp Grade IV Ti-6AL-4V alloy Ti-6AL-4V-ELI alloy 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.40 - - Bal.015 0.

Vanadium acts to inhibit corrosion by acting as an aluminium scavenger. Vanadium stabilizes the beta phase of Ti-6Al-4V alloys Ti-6AlThis combination of phases gives the alloy strength .Cp Ti is available in different grades which vary mostly in the oxygen content Grade 4 cp Ti has the most oxygen at 0. Iron is added for corrosion resistance Aluminium increases the strength of the alloy and decreases its density.40%.

Extra low interstitial describes the low levels of oxygen dissolved in interstitial sites in the metal. ductility is improved slightly. With lower amounts of oxygen and iron residuals in the ELI alloy. .

Mechanical Properties of CP Titanium and Alloys Material Ultimate Yield Modulus Tensile Strength (Gpa) Strength MPa) (MPa) 102 102 102 104 113 113 240 200 18 18.2 3 .5 4.5 7.3 84 240 345 450 550 860 930 700 965 140 52 10 170 275 380 483 795 860 450 690 n/a n/a n/a Elongation (%) Density (G / cc) Cp grade I Ti Cp grade II Ti Cp grade III Ti Cp grade IV Ti Ti-6Al-4V ELI Ti-6Al-4V Co-Cr-Mo 316L steel Cortical Bone Dentin Enamel 24 20 18 15 10 10 8 20 1 0 0 4.5 4.9 0.4 4.5 4.4 8.5 4.7 2.

. raises the modulus about 10%.Strength is beneficial because materials better resist occlusal forces without fracture or failure. Lower modulus is desirable because the implant biomaterial better transmits forces to the bone. which make up 10% of titanium alloys. The addition of aluminium and vanadium.

Surface Properties The surface properties of implants are important to the biological response that the material will elicit from the body. the surface oxide which forms on the titanium alloys is of paramount importance to its favorable biological properties. In air. Thus. . the oxide begins to form in nanoseconds and reaches 2020-100A thickness by 1 sec The oxide thickness of Ti alloy (83 A) has been reported to be thicker than that of cp Ti (32 A) The composition of oxide is primarily TiO2. The surface oxide layer protects against corrosion. depending on the position of the oxide within the oxide layer. it cannot completely prevent release of elements into the body. but also contains TiO and Ti2O3 among other oxide .

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the stability of complexes which form when release does occur. in the osseointegrated implant. and the limited biological effects of the ions . the layer is probably only 20 50 A thick. The favourable biological response to Ti materials is most likely to the limited release of ions from the material. The final layer before the mineralized tissue is that of collagen fibrils in the ground substance which are continuous with the organic phase of the bone itself. The molecules which occur are probably the proteins and carbohydrates of the ground substance of bone.Biological Response Evidence suggests that the oxide layer is first hydrated then covered by molecular layers of water.

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 Any residues of surface changes must be removed before implantation to ensure mechanically and chemically cleaned conditions. mechanical and biological penetration. It prevent the apical migration of the epithelium and subsequent bone loss. .  The Titanium alloy is approximately 6 times stronger than compact bone and thus affords more opportunities for design with thinner sections. The interface of titanium implants with the gingival tissue is also important because in the natural tooth the junctional epithelium creates a barrier to chemical.  The connective tissue fibers below the epithelium form a tight cuff around the implant which may act as a seal.

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 Minor concentrations of nickel.COBALT CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM BASED ALLOY  The cobalt based alloys are most often used in as cast or cast and annealed metallurgic dentition.  Cobalt provide the continuous phase for basic properties  Chromium provides corrosion resistance through the oxide surface.  The elemental composition of this alloy includes cobalt . .  While molybdenum provides strength and bulk corrosion resistance. Chromium and molybdenum as major elements. manganese and carbon are also included in this alloy.

 Thus bending of the finished implants should be avoided.  The carbon content must be precisely controlled to maintain mechanical properties such as ductility.  when properly fabricated implant from this alloy groups have shown excellent biocompatibility profiles. Nickel has been identified as biocorrosion products. .  In general the cast cobalt alloys are the least ductile alloy systems used for dental surgical implants.

ramus frame stabilizer pins (old) and some mucosal insert systems have been made from the iron based alloys.IRON CHROMIUM NICKEL BASED ALLOYS This alloy. So care must be taken to use and retain the passivated surface condition. as with titanium systems is used most often in a wrought and heat treated metallic condition which results in a high strength ductility alloy. Hence its use in patients allergic or hypersensitive to nickel should be avoided . This alloy contains nickel as a major element. The ramus blade . OF the implant alloys this alloy is most subject to crevice and pitting biocorrosion.

and each device would function independently . the galvanic couple would not exist. cobalt. where the alloys are not in contact or not electrically interconnected.The iron based alloys have galvanic potentials and corrosion characteristics that cause concern about galvanic coupling and biocorrosion if interconnected with titanium. zirconium or carbon implant biomaterials If used independently.

 More recently devices made from zirconium. :  Early spiral and cages included tantalum. . iridium. gold. hafnium and tungsten.OTHER METALS AND ALLOYS palladium and alloys of these metals.  Also cost per unit weight and the weight per unit volume (density) of the device along the upper arch have been suggested as possible limitations for gold and platinum.  These are still in the experimental stage  Gold. platinum. platinum and palladium are metals of relatively low strength.

CERAMICS : Ceramics are inorganic. non polymeric material manufactured by compacting and sintering at elevated temperatures . high strength. physical characteristics such as colour and minimal thermal and electrical conductivity and wide range of material specific elastic properties. Oxide ceramics were introduced for surgical implant devices because of their inertness to biodegradation. Ceramics may be used in bulk forms and more recently as coatings on metals and alloys . non metallic.

Minimal thermal and electrical conductivity. tensile.ALUMINIUM TITANIUM AND ZIRCONIUM OXIDES: High ceramics form aluminium . endosteal plate form and pin type dental implant. soft tissue and the oral environment also recognized as beneficial when compared with other types of synthetic biomaterials. Ceramics have exhibited direct interfaces similar to an osseointegrated condition with titanium. minimum biodegradation and minimal reactions with bone. and bending strengths exceed the strength of compact bone by 3 to 5 times. . The compressive. These properties combined with a high modulus of elasticity and with high fracture and fatigue strengths have resulted in specialized design requirements for these classes of biomaterials. titanium and zirconium oxides have been used for root form.

Exposure to steam sterilization results in a measurable decrease in strength for some ceramics Scratches or notches many introduce fracture initiation sites. chemical solutions may leave residues Dry heat sterilization within a clear and dry atmosphere is recommended for most ceramics .care must be taken in the handling and placement of these biomaterials.

this surface layer develops on the bioglass when its silica contents is greater than 60 mol%. phosphates. calcia and soda Glass ceramics have poor mechanical properties for load carrying applications because they are extremely brittle. . The ability of bioglass to bond depends on this layer.GLASS CERAMICS Glass ceramics such as bioglass and polycrystalline ceramics produced by the controlled crystallization of glasses Glass ceramic made up of crystalline oxyapatite and flourapatite & wollastonite (Si O2 CaO) in MgO CaO SiO2 glassy matrix Bio glass is synthesis of several glasses containing mix of silica. A calcium phosphate layer forms on the surface.

-TCP is an non crystalline amorphous material. Hydroxyapatite forms non resorbable form of calcium phosphate Tribasic calcium phosphate should not be confused with other calcium phosphate ceramics especially tricalcium phosphate [(Ca(PO4)2] which is chemically similar to hyroxyapatite but is not a natural bone mineral. which is resorbable .BIOACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLE CERAMICS BASED ON CALCIUM PHOSPHATES Calcium phosphate ceramics classified as polycrystalline ceramic similar to mineral phase of bone (Ca5[PO4]3OH) Hydroxyapatite commonly called tribasic calcium phosphate is a geologic mineral that closely resembles the natural mineral in vertebrate bone tissue.

The coatings have been applied to a wide range of endosteal and subperiosteal dental implant designs with an overall indent of improving implant surface biocompatibility profiles and implant longevities. Mixtures of particulates with collagen.Used in wide range of implant types The coatings of metallic surfaces using flame or plasma spraying have increased rapidly for the calcium phosphate ceramics. and subsequently with drugs and active organic compounds such as BMP increases the range of applications .

ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CERAMICS ADVANTAGES Chemistry mimics normal biological tissues (Ca.O. tensile Excellent biocompatibility Attachment between cpc and hard and soft tissues and shear strength under fatigue loading Low attachment between coating and substrate Minimal thermal and electrical conductivity Variable solubility variable mechanical stability of coatings under load bearing conditions Moduli of elasticity closer to bone Colour similar to hard tissues overuse .H) DISADVANTAGES Variable chemical and structural characteristics Relatively low mechanical.P.

 The calcium phosphate ceramics have proved to be one of the more successful high technology based biomaterials that has evolved with the past decades. . hardness and moduli of elasticity than the more chemically inert forms.  Their advantages properties strongly support the expanding clinical applications and the enhancement of the biocompatibility profiles for surgical implant uses. classes of bioceramics have low strength.

They are conductors of heat and electricity. material and application limitations resulted in a significant number of clinical failures and its subsequent withdrawal from clinical use. Their excellent biocompatibility and moduli of elasticity close to that of bone have resulted in clinical trials of these compounds in dental prostheses.CARBON AND CARBON SILICON COMPOUNDS Carbon compounds are often classified as ceramics because of their chemical inertness and absence of ductility. combination of design. .

sterilizing or placing methodologies. associated with oral hygiene. 2. 3. Minimal resistance to scratching or scarping procedures. The possible limitation are : Those relating to mechanical strength properties along the substrate to coating interface. Biodegradation that could adversely influence tissue stability. 1. . 4. Susceptibility to standard handling.

and can be coated for attachment to tissues.POLYMER AND COMPOSITES : Fiber reinforced polymers offer advantages in that they can be designed to match tissue properties. STRUCTURAL BIOMEDICAL POLYMERS The more inert polymeric biomaterials include Polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) Polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) (UHMWPolypropylene (PP) Polysulfone (PSF) and Poly dimethyl siloxane (PDS) or silicone rubber (SR) .

They are thermal and electrical insulators. . Polymers have been fabricated in porous and solid forms for tissue attachment. They are relatively resistant to biodegradation.In general the polymers have lower strengths and elastic moduli and higher elongations to fracture compared with others. replacement and augmentation and as coatings for force transfer to soft tissue and hard tissue regions. Compared with bone most polymers have lower elastic moduli with magnitudes closer to soft tissue.

PTFE) (PP.  PTFE has a low resistance to contact abrasion and wear phenomena .UHMA-PE.UHMAfor mechanical force transfer within selected implant designs. Extremly tough and fatigue cycle resistant (PP.  Internal force distribution connectors for osseointegrated implants where the connector is intended to better stimulate biomechanical conditions for normal tooth functions.

cyanoacrylates or other hydratable forms have been combined with calcium phosphate particulate or fibres.COMPOSITES :  Combinations of polymers and other categories of synthetic biomaterials continues  Biodegradable polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polylactides or glycolides.  If intended for implant use most cannot be sterilized by steam or ethylene oxide .  polymers and composite of polymers are especially sensitive to sterilization and handling techniques.

or the touching of any contaminated area must be avoided. Extreme care must be taken to maintain quality surface conditions of the implant.  Cleaning of contaminated porous polymers is not possible without a laboratory environment .  Porous polymers can be deformed by elastic deformation . contact with a towel or gauze pad.  Talc or starch on surgical gloves. . which can close open regions intended for tissue in growth.

prevents mobility of the implant and stimulates the growth of bone Thus reduces the incidence of implant failure is dependent on material biocompatibility implant surface. surgical technique.Osseo integration : IT is DEFINED as direct structural and functional contact of ordered living bone to the surface of loaded implant materials this contact helps in direct transfer of forces onto the surrounding bone . status of bone. and biting forces. . healing conditions.

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screw threaded plasma sprayed and porous coated Surface coatings enhance the bond of bone to the implants Roughness and porosities of the surface conducive to cell attachment Surface roughening can be done by sand blasting Titanium implants may be etched with a solution of nitric acid and hydroflouric acid to chemically alter the surface Alumina grit blasting and glass bead blasting .Metallic oxides dictate type of cellular and protein binding at implant surface Progression of surface from the lowest implant tissue strength to the highest: smooth. textured.

SURFACE COATINGS The implant surface may be covered with a porous coating. These may be titanium or ceramics .

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.Plasma spray coating process: a thermal spraying process in which an arc is utilized as a source of heat that ionizes a gas which melts and propels the coating material to the work piece.

Powder is carried at the velocity of the gas to the substrate where it is quenched and bonds to the substrate.powders are injected into the plasma stream thus melting the material. both thermal and kinetic energy in the particles bring out the high bond strength Plasma is generated by passing the gas between 2 concentric electrodes (water cooled) where it is heated by sustained high current .

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These types of surface were first developed by Hahn and Palich rough and porous surfaces showed a three-dimensional threeinterconnected configuration likely to achieve bone-implant boneattachment for stable anchorage .05 mm thickness.04 to 0.Titanium Plasma Sprayed: Porous or rough titanium surfaces have been fabricated by plasma spraying at high temperatures of 15.000 degree C at very high velocity 600 m/sec The plasma sprayed layer after solidification (fusion) is often provided with a 0.

o Bone forms within the porosities even in the presence of some micromovement during the healing phase. Porous titanium surface from various fabrication methods may      increase the total surface area. o The basic theory was based on increased area for bone contact. introduce a dual physical and chemical anchor systems and increase the load bearing capacity 25% to 30%. enhance attachment by increasing ionic interactions. o In 1981 Clemow et al showed that the rate and percentage of bone ingrowth into the surface was inversely proportional to the square root of the pore size for sizes greater than 100 Qm o porous surfaces can result in an increase in tensile strength. produce attachment by osteoformation. .

o Implants of solid sintered hydroxyapatite have been shown to be susceptible to fatigue failure. o The bone adjacent to this implant shows better organized then with other implant materials and with a higher degree of mineralization.Hydroxyapatite Coating dental profession by deGroot. : o Hydroxyapatite coating by plasma spraying was brought to the o HA coating can also lower the corrosion rate of the alloy. . along metallic substrate. o HA to bone attachment is superior to the HA to implant interface. . This situation can be altered by the use of CPC coatings.

.The bond between CPC and metal should be dense. One advantage of CPC coatings is that they can act as a protective shield to reduce potential slow ion release from the Ti-6AI-4V Ti-6AIsubstrate . more tenacious and thinner this minimize the problem of poor shear strength and fatigue at the coating substrate interface. CPC coatings may resorb in infected or chronic inflammation areas.

Bone like apatite can form on bio active coatings Plasma spray Al2O3 coatings is harmful because of existence of alumina in the coating alumina forms when stable Al2O3 is plasma sprayed The compatibility of wollastonite is similar to that of bio active glass.BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF PLASMA SPRAYED BIOMEDICAL COATINGS Osteoblasts grows better on hydroxyapatite and wollastonite coating than on zirconium dioxide coatings and alumina oxide coatings Biocompatibility of bio active ceramic coatings is better than of bio inert ceramic coatings.E is close to Ti alloys . it forms tight bond to Ti alloy substrate as its T.

Hyroxyapatite .e.thin film coating Adhesive strength of coating to implant surface are maximized by:  incorporation of bio compatible bond coats such as titanium  use of radio frequency sputtering technique for the deposition of HA thin film coatings These coatings can be applied on complex shapes and provide complete coverage. This deposition forms graded micro structure for selective dissolution of coating i. sub layer with high crystallanity (low dissolution rate) and amorphous layer on top .

4V Al- .4V is its poor strength 6.AlHA coated Ti 6.AlHA coatings have tendency of cracking or peeling off under the influence of bending or shearing forces These drawbacks have led to the invention of HA and Ti 6.4V 6.Al.Al.Al. The composite powder improves bonding between HA and underlying substrate and prevents oxidation and corrosion of Ti 66Al.Alcomposite powder and its deposition by plasma spraying.4V of the corrosion of underlying material 6.The drawback of Ti 6.

The reaction of nitrogen with titanium alloys at elevated temperatures results in titanium nitride compounds being formed along the surface. These nitride surface compounds are biochemically inert and alter the surface mechanical properties to increase hardness and abrasion resistance. the titanium substrate reoxidizes when the surface layer of nitride is removed. the titanium nitrides are similar to the oxides (TiO2) and no adverse electrochemical behaviour has been noted if the nitride is lost regionally. electrochemically. . The element most commonly used is nitrogen.Other Surface Modifications: Surface modification methods include controlled chemical reactions with nitrogen or other elements or surface ion implantation procedures.

2% de-acetylated chitosan were chemically debonded to titanium coupons via silane-glutaraldehyde molecules silanethe bond strengths were not affected by gas sterilization. The local treatment of sol gel derived coatings with CO2 laser is a promising technique for implants with varying properties to interface different tissues both hard and soft tissues  CHITOSAN is a biopolymer that exhibits osteoconductive. . Coatings made from 91. enhanced wound healing and antimicrobial properties which make it attractive for use as a bioactive coating to improve osseointegration of orthopaedic and craniofacial implant devices.

dense bone-like apatite layer was formed on the surface of the bonetitanium by a simple chemical method This chemical apatite layer also bonded tighter to the titanium than the plasma-sprayed apatite. longimplant- . This chemically made apatite coating is plasmaexpected to provide a long-term implant-bone fixation. CHEMICAL-MADE APATITE LAYER CHEMICALCommercially pure titanium plates were heated and chemically treated to deposit crystalline apatite on their surface.

Pulsed Laser Assisted Surface Modification PLASMUltra fine layers of polymers are deposited through non aqueous. PLASM. non solvent techniques near atmospheric pressure Advantages: control of both thickness and uniformity of polymer coating on any surface .

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