‡ Paediatrics: Branch of medicine concerned with children: the branch of medicine concerned with the care and development of children and with the prevention and treatment of children's diseases. ‡ Paed: child, children

‡ Pediatric nursing is a medical specialty that promotes the care, both urgent and preventative, of children and youth. ‡ Nurses in this field must have a wide range of knowledge, including the physiological differences between children and adults. ‡ This specialized care propels nurses into different roles, including caregiver, advocate and educator.

or somebody who is yet to become an adult. ‡ The legal definition of ³child´ refers to a minor. ‡ ´Biologically.Who is a child? ‡ UN convention on the Rights of Child defines a child as ³every human being below the age of 18 unless under the law applicable to the child. majority is attained earlier. ‡ A child is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty. a child is anyone between the stages of infancy and adulthood. .

Historical development ‡ Origins traced back from the 14th century ‡ First law concerning childhood is attributed to the founder of Rome-Romulus.physical education and the mind. ‡ This gave fathers the power to kill with deformities and second son but this horrible practice was abolished by emperor constatine. . ‡ Historical information dedicated to children were to ensure proper nourishment to the infant. body care and ends with practical suggestions to strenghen constitution.

Historical cont¶d ‡ Dr solano (98-128 AD) founder of the medical schools and author of Demorbis mulierum considered the 1st treteaties of science in obstetrics and gynaecology and some information regarding the child such as double ligation of the umblical cord. . cleaning of ears and mouth with oil. nutrition and breastfeedingand care and the disturbances of early childhood. wrappingtechniques.

apoplexy and vomiting in children ‡ Albucasis (1013-1106) provides indications neonatology .acute meningitis.pleurisy.History cont¶d ‡ Highly regarded as the precussor of paediatrics ‡ The arab doctors that helped to put up paediatric expertise include: ‡ Avicenna (930-1037) describes in detail exanthematous fevers.

vomiting. skin. epilepsy. diseases dependent on the ear. altered dentition. mumps abscess tonsil. and scalet fever ‡ Aldobrandin of Siena in mid 13th century wrote treties on hygiene starting from early childhood ‡ Paul Bagellardo 15th century eczema. smallpox. throat. nose. cough.History cont¶d ‡ Rhazes (890-923) measles. diarrhoea. muscle spasms. . worms and hernia. insomnia. stomatitis. eye diseases.

detailed description of symptoms and the clinical symptomatology.History ‡ He also dealt with the treatment system. .

On the American scene ‡ The end of the 19th century was regarde as the dark ages of paediatrics ‡ The 1st half of the 20th century regarded as the dawn of improved healthcare for children ‡ Began in the 1st half of the 1800¶s under the influence of the perussian born physician Abraham jacobi(1830-1919) regarded as the father of paediatrics .

‡ Mothers could bring their sick children for treatment . ‡ This crusade helped bring the diary industry under legal control ‡ The decline in infant mortality since 1900 was achieved through prevention. health promotion measures.improved sanitation and paeusterization of milk.learn the importance of pure milk and its proper preparation.‡ One of his outstanding achievements was the start of the milk stations. .

History cont¶d ‡ Before these regulations unsanitary milk supply was a chief source of infantile diarrhoeaand bovine tuberculosis. .

Social welfare of children ‡ Lillian Wald(1867-1940) a social reformer founded the Henry street settlement in New yolk city. cultural and educational activities were being provided ‡ As caused of diseases were identified. emphasis on isolation and asepsis occurred. . social work and organized programes of social. The founder of public health / community nursing ‡ Nsg services.

.‡ In 1900¶s children with contagious diseases were isolated from adult patients ‡ Parents were prohibited from visiting because the might transmit diseases to and from home ‡ Even toys and personal articles of clothing were kept from the child.

Isolation and Asepsis ‡ Spits and Robinson in 1940 identified the effects of isolation and maternal deprivation ‡ This has brought about the surge in psychological health of children ‡ Resulted in changes in hospitalized children such as rooming in . parent education and hospital schooling. child life/play. sibling visitation. . programmes such as pre hospitalization preparation.

LANDMARKS IN CHILD HEALTH NURSING ‡ 1771 New Yolk hospital one of the 1st teaching hospitals in USA provided classroom presentations designed for nurses ‡ 1851 the hospitals of sick children was founded in London ‡ 1855 one of the earliest known paediatric textbook was .

‡ 1970¶s health became a more comprehensive concept than suggested by the traditional definition which indicated merely absence of diseases.‡ 1896 nurses association Alumni of the united states of Canada was founded later it became the ANA ‡ 1903 Recognition of nurses was initiated ‡ 1912 Us children Bureau which overseas children¶s health and environment was established. .

‡ Nursing process cleave was developed ‡ Nurses developed their roles as child advocates ensuring the highest quality of health care for children. .

. ‡ Technological influences related to patient care as well as knowledge in computer in the work setting.Future trends ‡ Shift in focus from treatment of disease to promotion of health will expand the nurses role in ambulatory care with prevention and health teaching receiving major emphasis.

Future trends ‡ Changing demographics and their impact to paediatric nursing ‡ Disease pattern and emerging ones .

Qualities of a good paediatric nurse ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Good observer Honest and trustful Sympathetic. patient and cheerful Love to work with children Interest in family care Able to provide teaching to children and their families. . kind.

Roles of a paediatric nurse ‡ Therapeutic relationship.the nurse must work with the family members identify their goals and needs and plan interventions that best meet the defined problems-assist to make informed decisions .to relate meaningfully to the children and their families and yet separate enough to distinguish their own feelings and needs ‡ Family advocate.

touching and physical presence.involves transmitting information at the child¶s and family level of understanding and desire for information appropriate health teaching with generous feedback and evaluation to promote learning ‡ Support/ counseling± Support.most helpful with children because they facilitate non-verbal communication .Roles cont¶d ‡ Health listening .

emotional needs of the patients continual assessment and evaluation of physical status. greater self esteem and closer relationships Restorative role ± most basis of the nurses role. Also enables the family to attain higher level of functionality. Meeting the physical.± exchange of ideas and opinions that provide the basis for mutual problem solving. The nurse must be aware of normal findings in order to intelligently identify and document deviations .

‡ -Coordination and a member of .



‡ A child's head is larger in proportion to his body than an adult's head is in proportion to his body ‡ In babies. the body's temperature control mechanism is immature and unstable ‡ Children have smaller airways with more soft tissue and a narrowing at the cricoid cartilage DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A CHILD'S BODY AND AN ADULT'S BODY .

. ‡ A child's trachea opening and the esophagus opening are closer together than in an adult.‡ The respiratory rate of a child is faster than that of an adult. This makes children at greater risk than adults from bleeding to death or developing severe shock from a relatively minor wound. ‡ Children dehydrate easily ‡ Children have less blood than adults.

Stages of childhood General definitions for the ages and stages of a child include: ‡ Newborn or Neonate .1 to 3 years ‡ Preschooler .5 to 11 years .3 to 5 years ‡ School Age .1 to 12 months ‡ Toddler .birth to 28 days ‡ Infant .

.' so those are likely the definitions that you should use.13 and older These are not universal definitions though.11 to 12 years ‡ Teen . The State of Texas actually defines an infant as 'a child from birth through 17 months' and a toddler as being from 'from 18 months through 35 months.‡ Preteen or Tween .

Role of family in child care .

‡ If is able to understand may assent to treatment but should be given time to ask questions.Ethical and cultural issues in child care ‡ Informed consent: parents legal custodians of minor children and are customarily requsted to give informed consent on behalf of the child. . ‡ Children need to be actively involved in descisions regarding their care when appropriate.

Child rights vs parents rights ‡ Parents or guardins .

assessment.identify the diagnosis that describe the responses of the child and family to the illness or injury and implements and evaluates Nsg.Role of nurse in paediatrics ‡ Direct nursing care to children and their families. Follows the nursing process to provide the framework for delivery of direct paed. out hospital and at home. Nsg. Care. . ‡ This meets the child¶s physical and emotional needs. Care. ‡ Guide and help the family to support their child in..

‡ Case management: meets the child¶s medical. educational.‡ Patient education: Improves treatment results ‡ Patient advocacy: acting to safeguard and advance the interests of another. nursing developmental. and psychosocial needs. it is a process of coordinating the delivery of health care services in a manner that focuses on quality and cost outcomes .

‡ Discharge planning: this promotes smooth. and safe transition into the community and improves the results of treatment that begun in the hospital. .‡ It promotes continuity of care. rapid.