LTE WLAN Interoperability


Sagar Chandawale Susmit Mogarkar

Prof. Melody Moh
CS 268 Project 1 Tutorial

Tutorial Outline
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Wireless Mobile Technology LTE ± Evolution, Features, Architecture, Protocols Current Issues & Possible Solutions SON, Interoperability LTE-WLAN WLAN Architecture Papers Recent Developments Applications Future Challenges

Wireless Mobile Technology
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Wireless Mobile Technology 2G ± Only Voice 2.5G - Adding Packet Services: GPRS, EDGE 3G - Adding 3G Air Interface: UMTS - Supports 2G/2.5G also -Handover between GSM and UMTS technologies ‡ 3G Extensions (3.5G) -HSDPA/HSUPA -IMS -Inter-working with WLAN (I-WLAN) ‡ Beyond 3.5G -LTE -SAE -Adding mobility towards I-WLAN and non-3GPP air interfaces

How LTE evolved? ‡ Need for PS optimized systems -Evolved UMTS towards packet only system ‡ Need for higher data rates -Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA ‡ Need for high quality of services -Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services -Always-on experience (reduces control plane latency) -Reduced RTT ‡ Need for simplified Infrastructure -Simplified architecture by reducing number of network elements .

20 MHz . 2-4 x Re16) -Improved inner cell average data throughputs (MIMO) -Scalable Bandwidth ± 1. 15. 2. ‡ Related to Radio Area Network (RAN) -Improved ³cell-edge rates´ and spectral efficiency (e.25.6. setup times (< 100 ms) -LTE uses the concept of bearer: an IP flow with defined Quality of Service.5. 50 Mbps UL -Low U-Plane/ C-Plane latency ± transit time (< 10 ms). 10.LTE Features ‡ Related to services: -Provides future advanced services for VoIP -High peak data rates ± 100 Mbps DL.g. 1. 5.

.) ‡ Related to cost requirements: reduced CAPEX & OPEX -Less complex architecture -Backhaul capacity usage is economical. simplified and unified transport (IP) ‡ Related to compatibility requirements -Supports cost-effective migrations with non-3GPP technologies and legacy 3G technology .LTE Features (cont.

eNodeB.User-plane traffic (UE. Serving Gateway.LTE Architecture ‡ It Consists of 4 parts: 1. IMS 3. HSS. HSS. PDN Gateway. Access Network (E-UTRAN) ± UE. SGW.Control-plane traffic (MME. PCRF. IMS) . eNodeB 2. PDNGW.Core Network (CN) ± MME. PCRF) 4.

) Fig 1 [11] ..LTE Architecture (Cont.

LTE Protocol Architecture: User Plane Fig 2 [12] .

Fig 2.1 LTE System Architecture [9] Protocol Architecture: Control Plane Fig 3 [12] .

Better Peak-to-Average Power Ratio 3. Total BW is divided into small frequency blocks for UE (15 blocks for 5 MHz BW) . A FFT-based transmission scheme like OFDM 2.LTE Physical Layer ‡ Modulation/Multiple Access -Downlink: OFDM / OFDMA -Uplink: SC-FDMA 1.

2 Rx at UE ‡ Beam forming used to improve throughput at cell edge ‡ Spatial Multiplexing using MIMO ‡ Multiple parallel uncorrelated paths ( Nt x Nr) to increase data rate ‡ Uses Space Frequency Block Codes .LTE PHY ² Multiple Antennas ‡ Minimum antenna requirement: 2 at eNodeB.SCBC (a frequencydomain version of the STBC) .

Transport format selection . Scheduling of resources 4. error correction using HARQ (Forward Error Correcting (FEC) + ARQ Error-control) 5. Maps Logical channels to Radio Channels 2.LTE MAC Layer (Media Access Control) 1. Multiplexes/Demultiplexes MAC SDU 3.

MAC Layer Diagram Fig 4 [14] .

LTE RLC Layer (Radio Link Control) ‡ Segmentation and reassembly and error correction functions using ARQ ‡ Reformats PDCP PDU ‡ Reorder the out-of-sequence MAC PDU .

LTE RLC Layer (Cont.) Fig 5 [14] ..

PDCP Layer(Packet Data Convergence Protocol) ‡ Data Transfer ‡ Header compression using RoHC algorithm ‡ Ciphering in both User & Control-plane ‡ Integrity protection of the control-plane ‡ Every radio bearer has one PDCP ‡ Handover support .

PDCP Layer (Cont..) Fig 6 [14] .

Radio Resource Control (RRC) Main aspects of Control Plane ‡ RRC (When the UE is in Idle mode) 1. Reselection 3. Paging Procedures . Cell Selection 2.

modification and release of radio bearers 4.) ‡ RRC (When the UE is in Connected mode) ± According to 3GPP TS 36. Cell selection info.331 1. Measurement reporting 5. Support for self-configuration and self-optimization 6. RRC Connection control like Paging and QoS control ..Radio Resource Control (RRC) (Cont. Establishment. common channel configuration info 2. Broadcast of system information eg. Inter-RAT Mobility/handover including security activation 3.

Handovers in LTE Scenario 1: 1. Inter-eNodeB handover ± UE Leaving out from the cell site Fig 7 [15] .

Handovers in LTE (Inter-eNodeB Handover)
2. Inter-eNodeB handover ± UE coming to the cell site

Fig 8 [15]

Handovers in LTE (Intra-eNodeB Handover)
Scenario 2: 3. Intra eNodeB Handover in same E-UTRAN: UE leaving out of the sector

4. Intra eNodeB Handover in same E-UTRAN: UE coming into the sector

Fig 9 [15]

Current Issues and Possible Solutions
‡ Congestion Control ‡ Coverage Issues ‡ LTE roll-out or country-wide deployment expenditures ‡ Power Consumption of LTE powered devices

Congestion Control: ‡ Packet loss.000 % from 2007 to 2010 . jamming. delivery delay ‡ Smart devices ± voice/video/data ‡ No help from high data rates & high BW ‡ Cisco Virtual Networking index (VNI) forecast ± mobile data traffic x 2 till 2014 ‡ AT&T data volume surged 8.

Fading.Coverage issues in LTE ‡ Scattering. Refraction ‡ Urban Areas ± obstacle causes call drop & disturbance or noise during phone call ‡ dead spots . Reflection.

.LTE roll-out/country-wide Deployments Expenditures ‡ LTE ± new technology ‡ Huge investments ± Risk in technology transformation ‡ Verizon Wireless ± 1st to deploy LTE ‡ $8. Deployments 2. Trouble-shooting & Maintenance procedures. Post-commissioning 3.9 billion total CAPEX in early 2011 ‡ Roll-out Steps 1.

Power Consumption ‡ Smart phones ± high battery consumption ‡ 66% of battery utilized by 3G enabled phones ± downloading data .

Improving TCP Performance ‡ Issues during Handover -More bytes(packets) transmitted in the network during handover -Causes TCP timeout at the transmitter -Causes handover quality to degrade .

congestion avoidance -Two variable: Congestion window. threshold - .TCP Congestion Control ‡ Sender receives network congestion -Loss event is occurred due to timeout or 3 Duplicate ACKS -Sender Limits the sending rate -Congestion Window ‡ Algorithm between congestion and rate -Two state: slow start.

Congestion avoidance in TCP ‡ TCP Reno Fig 10 [16] .

LTE Intra eNodeB Handover Fig 11A [7] .

.) Fig 11A [7] .LTE Intra eNodeB Handover (Cont.

Performance Analysis ‡ Difference between ideal case and timeout occurrence Fig 11B[7] .

Congestion window fluctuation Analysis ‡ In Optimal Case Ref. [7] .

Congestion window fluctuation Analysis (Cont.) ‡ In Window halving state Ref.. [7] .

.) ‡ In Timeout state Ref.Congestion window fluctuation Analysis (Cont. [7] .

Handover Prediction 2.Possible Solutions 1. Active Queue Management . Better Congestion Control -Improving TCP performance during intra LTE handover -Techniques: 1. Forwarding Avoidance .Fast Path Switch .

Fast Path Switch Modification to LTE Handover Fig 12 [7] .

Inter-cell interference co-ordination .PCI Planning .Possible Solutions (Cont. Traffic Management ± Self organization networks (SON) .) 2.Automatic Neighbor Relation .Handover optimization ..Load Balancing .

. Data Offloading techniques .) 3. LTE/WiMAX 3. LTE/3G and other 3GPP technologies .Interoperability pairs 1.Possible Solutions (Cont.Interoperability with HetNets . LTE/Wi-Fi 2.Femtocells cellular network at small level .

Interoperability WLAN Fig 13 [14] .

11b oldest ± 11Mbps (no more used) works only on 2.11 standard ‡ 802.WLAN Features & Architecture ‡ IEEE 802.11n ± 140 Mbps ‡ All are backward compatible ‡ Architecture ± Wireless Nodes.4 GHz frequency ‡ New ± 802.11 a/g/n ± Based on MIMO & OFDMA ‡ 802. AP.11 a/g ± 54 Mbps & 802. BSS. AAA/Proxy/Application Server .

WLAN Architecture Fig 14 [13] .

database and authentication can be shared ‡ Services can be shared ‡ Service continuity ± seamless handover .LTE-WLAN Interoperability ‡ Used for data offloading ‡ To improve coverage/load balancing ‡ WLAN access zone can be connected to core cellular network ‡ WLAN direct IP access ± Subscriber charging.

Interoperability between LTE-WLAN Scenarios: ‡ Non-roaming scenario ‡ Roaming Scenario ‡ Operator owned Wi-Fi hot-spot ‡ Aggregator provided Wi-Fi hotspot .

Architecture for Voice over LTE-WLAN IMS using IMS WAG UE#2 PDG WLAN HSS MME UE#1 eUTRAN AAA CSCF VALW N AS S/PGW Fig 15 [5] LTE .

Call Flow UE#1 Registration eUTRAN Detect UE#2 Initiate HO MME Forward Rel Req PDG Inform S/PGW CSCF Invite Update VALW N AS -Release old session and completes new session -Remote leg update Fig 16 [5] .

AAA. MME ‡ WAG ± firewall to WLAN users ‡ AAA ± proxy server used for authentication.. PDG.) ‡ IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) acts as mediator ‡ Key blocks ± AS. authorization and defines routes for PDG ‡ PDG ± IP tunneling ‡ MME ± handles mobility and handover procedures .Architecture for Voice over LTE-WLAN using IMS (Cont.

Release 10 and beyond .Recent Developments .data rates 1 Gbps & 128 QAM .enabling roaming ‡ LTE-Advanced .reducing complexity .I ‡ VOLGA .promoting scalability .Voice over LTE Generic Access was a failure! -only backed up by T-Mobile ‡ Rest supported OneVoice ± VoLTE .

Relay of femtocells/mobile-femtocells .Recent Developments .For ubiquitous multimedia networks .II Broadband evolved FEMTO (BeFEMTO) .Another goal is to achieve interoperability between femtocells/Wi-Fi Fig 17 .

Applications of LTE ‡ High-speed networks -Telepresence hot-spots .office basements or factory floors . Verizons' VGo -Video conferencing .Virtual conference & class room teaching ‡ Interoperability with Wi-Fi .

live feed from vehicle/home when away e..display traffic details .g.Applications of LTE (Cont.) ‡ Remote Monitoring . OnStar .

21) .Future Challenges ‡ Managing risk in technology transformation ‡ LTE deployments with seamless mobility ‡ Inter-working of LTE with other 3GPP/non-3GPP ‡ Seamless handover between HetNets (802.

Thank You! .

References [1] A White Paper. [5] Jinho Hwang. 9th ACM SIGCOMM conference. ³Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update´. Winters. Core N/W Development Team Mobile R&D Laboratory Personal Customer Group. 2010 Second International Conference . Sept 2002 [4] Niranjan & Aruna Balasubramanian ³Energy Consumption in Mobile Phones: A Measurement Study and Implications for Network Applications´. IEEE transactions on communications. Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS). 9. Yungha Ji. ³LTE WLAN Interoperability for Wi-Fi Hotspots´. 50. Cisco 2009-2014 [3] Ye (Geoffrey) Li. Jack H. 2009 [2] White Paper. Sollenberger. 2010 [6] Guruprasad Naik. ³MIMO-OFDM for Wireless Communications: Signal Detection with Enhanced Channel Estimation´. Verizon Wireless. Nelson R. Nakpo Kim. ³A Mobile VoIP Architecture over LTE & WLAN network´. VOL. 2009. NO. ³LTE: The Future of Mobile Broadband technology´. Jongseog Koh.

com/2009/01/lte-protocolstack. H. Public Interest Showing and Related Demonstrations´.vzw. Back Department of Information Engineering ± University of Padova ± Italy . 2009. by AT&T Inc. [14] Nicola Bui. Palamara. Filed with the Federal Communications Commission. April 21. January. [13] Acquisition of T-Mobile USA. 2011. January ³Realizing LTE: Understanding the Challenges and Planning for LTE Introduction´. ³Description of Transaction. C. [11] A White paper. IEEE INFOCOM. K. Pacifico.ict-befemto.html´ [10] Maria E. ³http://news. Federico Guerra. H. M. Inc. ³http://wired-n-wireless. Alcatel-Lucent. Motorola .html´ [9] Verizon Wireless 'OnStar' LTE application. Hjalrmasson. Johansson.2008 [12] Wired n Wireless.References [7] D. Pacifico. 2009 [8] Broadband evolved FEMTO networks. ³Long Term Evolution (LTE) an overview´. ³LTE Inter-Technology Mobility´.html´ . ³Improving TCP Performance during the Intra LTE Handover´.blogspot.´ http://www. 2009.

2011 [16] Kurose.artizanetworks. 2009 [17] Broadband evolved FEMTO´ .References [15 ]Artiza Networks.´ http://www.html´ .´ http://www. ³Computer Networking A Top Down Approach 5th Ross.

Non-Roaming Scenario Fig 18 .

Roaming Scenario Fig 19 .

Operator owned Wi-Fi hot-spot Fig 20 .

Aggregator Provided Wi-Fi Hotspot Fig 21 .