Mike Coster James Coffey Carly Snyder

The Machine .

Typical Calender Line .

Calender Roll Arrangements L I F Z .

Problems with Rollers .

shear stress Power to drive system Roll separating force Rise in temperature  Advantages  Disadvantages  Inaccurate for values less than = - . shear strain. only velocity components Large bank of melt in feed side Uniform velocity at outlet. no shear stress Compute flow rate per unit width Maximum pressure.Newtonian Model  Assumptions           Newtonian flow Very small gap-to-radius ratio gap-toLubrication approximation.

. Cincinnati.Modeling and Simulation. Hernández-Ortiz. Polymer Processing . 2006.Newtonian Model vs. Tim A. 1st ed. . OH: Hanser Publishers. and Juan P. Experimental Data Osswald.

. 1st ed.Roller Schematic Osswald. Hernández-Ortiz. 2006. and Juan P. Cincinnati.Modeling and Simulation. Tim A. OH: Hanser Publishers. Polymer Processing ..

x = position on x-axis of roll W = gap width. µ=velocity component. p= pressure. = dimensionless x-direction Maximum pressure: h0 = half the gap height Roll Separating Force: Maximum Shear Strain: Rise in Temperature: = height to roll from half gap height for given x-axis position Q = heat transfer. Cp = constant pressure heat capacity . R = radius of roll Flow rate per unit width: Power to drive system: h = gap height.Newtonian Model Equations Maximum Shear Stress: Speed on roll surface: n = revolutions per second.

only velocity components  Large bank of melt in feed side  Advantages  Correlates very well with experimental values (max pressure)  Can compute the pressure gradient. and power required to drive system .Shear Thinning Model  Assumptions  Lubrication approximation. roll separating force.

Cincinnati. Polymer Processing . . Hernández-Ortiz.Shear Thinning Model vs.. and Juan P. OH: Hanser Publishers. 1st ed.Modeling and Simulation. 2006. Tim A. Experimental Data Osswald.

and Juan P..Shear Thinning ModelModelShear Stress: Equations m = consistency index. 2006. Cincinnati. Tim A. Polymer Processing . Hernández-Ortiz.Modeling and Simulation. n = power law index Pressure Gradient: Power law dimensionless pressure Roll Separating Force: Power to drive system: Osswald. 1st ed. . OH: Hanser Publishers.

1st ed.  Mathematical conform P(n) = rolling pressure as a function of power law index n well with experimental data for both Newtonian The position where the sheet being fed enters the system: and shear thinning polymers. h = half the spacing between the rollers . Polymer Processing . 0 hf = initial finite sheet thickness Osswald.Modeling and Simulation. . 2006. OH: Hanser Publishers. Tim A. and Juan P. Cincinnati.. Hernández-Ortiz.Finite Sheet Thickness  Previous had large mass Power law dimensionless of polymer melt fed pressure:  A finite polymer sheet of thickness hf is fed R = roll radius.

Calendering Sheet Defects  Dimensional Non-uniformities Non Thickness variations in the sheets due to roll bending with large separation forces. Can be prevented from passing through the calender rolls through high pressure. Air Bubbles  Captured in the melt bank. . Compensated with crowned rolls ± larger diameter in center than at ends. Due to vundulating motions in the melt bank from the center to edges.   Structural Anomalies  Particulate and crystalline structure changes under the influence of high temperature and stress Mattness  Micro-irregularity or loss of surface gloss on the surface not in contact with the Microroll when leaving the calender gap.   V-shapes  Surface thickness variations with vertex of v-shape at center of sheet. Onsets at a wall shear stress value of 5x108 Pa.

jpg  Major plastic material is PVC  Also produced are: Wall coverings Upholstery fabrics Reservoir linings Agricultural mulching materials  Rubber sheet     http://www.

Groover.Rubber  Made by a combination of extrusion and calendering  ³roller die process´  Better quality products than single process ©2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ . P.

Coating and Impregnating Fabrics  Industrial process used to produce: Car tires Conveyer belts Inflatable rafts Waterproof cloth tents  Rain coats     ©2002 John Wiley & Sons. M. Inc. P. Groover. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ .

Limitations  Thickness  Generate film or sheet with a uniform thickness distribution  Precise dimensions of the rolls  Cost  Installation requires large capital investment  Extruder is fraction of cost of calender  Superior for product production due to high quality and volume capabilities .

Department of Chemical Engineering.." McMaster University. Engineering. and Juan P. Inc. Tim A. 2006. J.  Vlachopoulos. Cincinnati. Hernández-Ortiz. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ . "Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Calendering. ©2002 John Wiley & Sons.. P. M. Polymer HernándezProcessing .References  Osswald. OH: Simulation. 1st ed. Mitsoulis.Modeling and Simulation. and E. Hanser Publishers. Groover.