# Calendering

Mike Coster James Coffey Carly Snyder

The Machine .

Typical Calender Line .

Calender Roll Arrangements L I F Z .

Problems with Rollers .

shear stress Power to drive system Roll separating force Rise in temperature  Advantages  Disadvantages  Inaccurate for values less than = - . shear strain. only velocity components Large bank of melt in feed side Uniform velocity at outlet. no shear stress Compute flow rate per unit width Maximum pressure.Newtonian Model  Assumptions           Newtonian flow Very small gap-to-radius ratio gap-toLubrication approximation.

. Cincinnati.Modeling and Simulation. Hernández-Ortiz. Polymer Processing . 2006.Newtonian Model vs. Tim A. 1st ed. . OH: Hanser Publishers. and Juan P. Experimental Data Osswald.

. 1st ed.Roller Schematic Osswald. Hernández-Ortiz. 2006. and Juan P. Cincinnati.Modeling and Simulation. Tim A. OH: Hanser Publishers. Polymer Processing ..

x = position on x-axis of roll W = gap width. µ=velocity component. p= pressure. = dimensionless x-direction Maximum pressure: h0 = half the gap height Roll Separating Force: Maximum Shear Strain: Rise in Temperature: = height to roll from half gap height for given x-axis position Q = heat transfer. Cp = constant pressure heat capacity . R = radius of roll Flow rate per unit width: Power to drive system: h = gap height.Newtonian Model Equations Maximum Shear Stress: Speed on roll surface: n = revolutions per second.

only velocity components  Large bank of melt in feed side  Advantages  Correlates very well with experimental values (max pressure)  Can compute the pressure gradient. and power required to drive system .Shear Thinning Model  Assumptions  Lubrication approximation. roll separating force.

Cincinnati. Polymer Processing . . Hernández-Ortiz.Shear Thinning Model vs.. and Juan P. OH: Hanser Publishers. 1st ed.Modeling and Simulation. 2006. Tim A. Experimental Data Osswald.

and Juan P..Shear Thinning ModelModelShear Stress: Equations m = consistency index. 2006. Cincinnati. Tim A. Polymer Processing . Hernández-Ortiz.Modeling and Simulation. n = power law index Pressure Gradient: Power law dimensionless pressure Roll Separating Force: Power to drive system: Osswald. 1st ed. . OH: Hanser Publishers.

1st ed.  Mathematical conform P(n) = rolling pressure as a function of power law index n well with experimental data for both Newtonian The position where the sheet being fed enters the system: and shear thinning polymers. h = half the spacing between the rollers . Polymer Processing . 0 hf = initial finite sheet thickness Osswald.Modeling and Simulation. . 2006. OH: Hanser Publishers. Tim A. and Juan P. Cincinnati.. Hernández-Ortiz.Finite Sheet Thickness  Previous had large mass Power law dimensionless of polymer melt fed pressure:  A finite polymer sheet of thickness hf is fed R = roll radius.

Calendering Sheet Defects  Dimensional Non-uniformities Non Thickness variations in the sheets due to roll bending with large separation forces. Can be prevented from passing through the calender rolls through high pressure. Air Bubbles  Captured in the melt bank. . Compensated with crowned rolls ± larger diameter in center than at ends. Due to vundulating motions in the melt bank from the center to edges.   Structural Anomalies  Particulate and crystalline structure changes under the influence of high temperature and stress Mattness  Micro-irregularity or loss of surface gloss on the surface not in contact with the Microroll when leaving the calender gap.   V-shapes  Surface thickness variations with vertex of v-shape at center of sheet. Onsets at a wall shear stress value of 5x108 Pa.

jpg .allproducts.com/machine/shinekon/02.Uses  Major plastic material is PVC  Also produced are: Wall coverings Upholstery fabrics Reservoir linings Agricultural mulching materials  Rubber sheet     http://www.

Groover.Rubber  Made by a combination of extrusion and calendering  ³roller die process´  Better quality products than single process ©2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ . P.

Coating and Impregnating Fabrics  Industrial process used to produce: Car tires Conveyer belts Inflatable rafts Waterproof cloth tents  Rain coats     ©2002 John Wiley & Sons. M. Inc. P. Groover. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ .

Limitations  Thickness  Generate film or sheet with a uniform thickness distribution  Precise dimensions of the rolls  Cost  Installation requires large capital investment  Extruder is fraction of cost of calender  Superior for product production due to high quality and volume capabilities .

Department of Chemical Engineering.." McMaster University. Engineering. and Juan P. Inc. Tim A. 2006. J.  Vlachopoulos. Cincinnati. Hernández-Ortiz. ³Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e´ . "Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Calendering. ©2002 John Wiley & Sons.. P. M. Polymer HernándezProcessing .References  Osswald. OH: Simulation. 1st ed. Mitsoulis.Modeling and Simulation. and E. Hanser Publishers. Groover.