Section 1.

‡ Explain the reasons for using a network ‡ Show how networks are useful ‡ Describe the difference between synchronous and asynchronous networking ‡ Identify traits that make a good network

Section 1.2
‡ Describe important milestones in networking history ‡ List uses of networks today ‡ Identify emerging network technologies

Section 1.3
‡ Differentiate between careers in the networking industry ‡ Describe duties of each career track in networking

Section 1.4
‡ Identify parts of a computer system ‡ Explain the uses of computer components



Principles of Networking
Guide to Reading
Main Ideas Networks help us share data and resources. This increases efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Networks must be reliable, redundant, scalable, secure, and fast. Key Terms network file sharing resources synchronous communication asynchronous communication reliable redundant scalable throughput


(p. 6) .pp. or scanner. 6) file sharing Sharing files between computers. 1. printer. Networks: ‡ allow users to engage in file sharing ‡ allow users to share resources ‡ centralize administration and support ‡ improve communication 6-10 network A system of two or more computer systems connected together so they can share and exchange data.1 Principles of Networking Reasons to Use a Network Computer networks connect systems together to make better use of limited resources. that can be shared over a network. the act of making files on one computer accessible to others on a network. (p. such as a hard drive. (p. 6) resource Software or hardware.

1. provides many benefits. such as a printer.1 Principles of Networking Reasons to Use a Network Sharing resources. 6-10 .pp.

1 Principles of Networking Reasons to Use a Network Networking allows two kinds of communication: ‡ synchronous (real-time) ‡ asynchronous 6-10 synchronous communication When people talk to each other at the same time. or even days.pp. Communication does not happen instantly. (p. 8) . (p. 8) asynchronous communication A form of data transmission that involves a delay of seconds. minutes. 1.

9) redundant network Networks that duplicate data and/or resources to minimize down time and losses in the event of a disaster.1 Principles of Networking Traits of a Good Network The five main traits of a good network are: ‡ reliability ‡ scalable ‡ redundant ‡ secure ‡ speed 6-10 reliable network A dependable network that user¶s trust to work. 9) . (p. (p.pp. 8) scalable network A network that the hardware or software can grow (scale) up or down to meet an organization¶s needs. 1. (p.

. 1.pp.1 Principles of Networking Traits of a Good Network 6-10 A server cluster acts as a single server to other computers on the network.

1 Principles of Networking Traits of a Good Network The speed of a network is critical. A measure for network data transfer performance. Network speed is measured by several factors. such as the rate at which data will travel. 10) .pp. (p. which is related to its throughput. 1. 6-10 throughput The capacity to handle network traffic.

anytime.pp.2 The Evolution of Networks Guide to Reading Main Ideas Understanding how networks evolved in the past helps you to understand today¶s technology. Future networks will enable us to connect almost anywhere. Key Terms multitask timesharing terminal dumb terminal ARPANET hyperlink distributed computing 12-17 . 1. and faster than ever before.

12) timesharing In the early days of computers.pp. 12-17 multitask A computer¶s ability to work on more than one job at a time. 1. The processor can turn its attention from one job to another if one is held up waiting for input or output. Within a few years. (p. computer. the concept of running multiple jobs at the same time. The idea of switching the computer¶s processing from one task to another and incorporating a main. computers were able to multitask and timeshare. which increased the computer¶s productivity.2 The Evolution of Networks The First Networks The first computers could only perform one task at a time. (p. 12) . or host.

13) . Terminals used with timesharing computers were known as dumb terminals. (p.2 The Evolution of Networks The First Networks Timesharing allowed for direct human/machine interaction through terminals. (p. 12-17 terminal A device with a keyboard and a monitor that connects directly to a mainframe through a communications link or cable. The terminal requests information from the mainframe computer. 1. 13) dumb terminal Computers consisting of keyboards for input and screens for output.pp. They are wired directly to the host computer and have little or no processing power of their own.

pp. 1. (p. Department of Defense established ARPANET. 12-17 ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network created in the 1960s made it possible for military and university computers to communicate long distances and to share files through an interconnected network. ARPANET linked computers around the country and provided a data highway for military communications. 13) .S.2 The Evolution of Networks ARPANET The U.

. 1.pp.2 The Evolution of Networks ARPANET 12-17 ARPANET allowed host computers around the country to communicate with each other.

14) . The original Internet was primarily a text-based network.pp. 12-17 hyperlink Text or image that ³links´ the user to another document when clicked. Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web.2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks Networks have become a part of everyday life. (p. 1. using a graphic user interface (GUI) with hyperlinks to access information on the Internet.

most users think they are the same thing. ‡ The Internet is hardware connected together to create a network. ‡ The Web includes software (browsers) that send information along the Internet¶s hardware.pp. 1. 12-17 .2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks Although the Web is only one part of the Internet.

1. such as the following examples: ‡ business ‡ health care ‡ education ‡ leisure and recreation .pp.2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks 12-17 Networks are important parts of many facets of our lives.

2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks New ways of using existing systems.pp. For example. (p. 12-17 distributed computing Using the processing power of thousands of idle computers to process large data sets. 1. like distributed computing. it is the primary source of computing power for research into the human genome. 15) . allow computers connected to a network to share resources.

pp. 1.2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks Example of Distributed Computing 12-17 .

pp.2 The Evolution of Networks Today¶s Networks Other important developments in networking in recent years have been: ‡ Next Generation Internet (NGI) and Internet2 ‡ educational Webcasts ‡ collaborative health care 12-17 . 1.

Although educational backgrounds for many career paths in networking are similar. 1. Key Terms network administrator network engineer network architect network support technician outsourcing 18-22 .3 Networking Careers Guide to Reading Main Ideas There are many career paths in networking. on-the-job experience and a continued interest in learning are keys to success in networking.pp.

1. ‡ network administrator ‡ network engineer network administrator Trained individual responsible for installing computers and their operating systems and managing networks on a daily basis. 19) . (p. 18) 18-22 network engineer Highly trained individual responsible for connecting computers to the network and connecting networks to networks.3 Networking Careers Career Paths There are many careers tied to networks and networking.pp. (p.

and expansion of a company¶s network. maintenance. 1. 20) Some companies outsource their networking needs to contractors. (p.pp. 20) outsourcing To hire an outside company to handle various information technology (IT) services. . such as technical support. (p. (p.3 Networking Careers Career Paths ‡ network architect ‡ network support technician 18-22 network architect Highly trained individual who oversees the construction. 19) network support technician Individual with specialized technical knowledge to troubleshoot the many problems that arise in network usage.

pp. Because the technology is always changing. problem solving.3 Networking Careers Job Skills 18-22 The job skills required to succeed in a networking career are communication. teamwork. you can no longer count on going to college and learning all you will ever need to know for the rest of your career. 1. and leadership. .

1. 22) .pp.3 Networking Careers You Try It 18-22 ‡ Activity 1A Creating a Career Development Plan (p.

1. Key Terms 24-28 input output operating system (OS) central processing unit (CPU) reduced instruction set computers (RISC) complex instruction set computers (CISC) random-access memory (RAM) read-only memory (ROM) .4 The Computer System Guide to Reading Main Ideas A computer is made up of many components that interact with each other. Software is a compiled set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Hardware is the physical components of the system.pp.

pp. The four main parts of a computer system are: ‡ hardware ‡ software ‡ data ‡ users 24-28 . 1.4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System It is very important in networking to understand how the different parts of a computer work together.

25) . Hardware is broken into several groups: ‡ input ‡ output ‡ storage devices 24-28 input Provides some sort of instruction to the computer so that it knows what to do.pp. (p. (p. 1. 24) output Data that are displayed (for example. on a screen or printer) or heard as music from speakers. A device such as a keyboard is an example of an input device.4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System Hardware identifies all the physical components of a computer.

24-28 . A port. The port connects input and output devices to the computer. is a socket in the back of the computer. 1.pp. as shown in this figure.4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System Hardware devices allow users to interact with the computer.

4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System The second part of the computer system is software. Software is often divided into two broad categories: ‡ systems software ‡ applications software 24-28 . Software is a set of instructions for the computer processors. 1.pp.

4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System The third part of the computer system. 1. such as text.pp. . is the information the computer works on. As you input data. data. the operating system translates data into 1¶s and 0¶s so the computer can process and store the data. 24-28 Data are stored in binary format.

pp. 24-28 Users include the people who program computers. 1.4 The Computer System The Parts of a Computer System The user is the fourth part of the computer system. as well as those who use the applications. .

4 The Computer System Inside the Machine Your computer is made of powerful hardware.pp. The components in your computer include the following: ‡ processor ‡ memory ‡ communication devices 24-28 . 1.

1. (p. leading to somewhat higher costs. (p. 27) reduced instruction set computers (RISC) A type of microprocessor that relies on a relatively small set of simplified instructions. or processor component.pp. of the computer that performs basic functions.4 The Computer System Inside the Machine The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. (p. 27) . allowing them to operate very fast. CPUs fall into two groups: ‡ RISC ‡ CISC 24-28 central processing unit (CPU) The brain. 27) complex instruction set computers (CISC) A type of microprocessor that supports most instructions and is difficult to design and build.

and check the operating system. look for hardware devices. 1. 28) .4 The Computer System Inside the Machine Memory consists of two types: ‡ random-access memory (RAM) ‡ read-only memory (ROM) 24-28 random-access memory (RAM) Provides a storage area for data going into and out of the CPU. 28) read-only memory (ROM) A set of prerecorded instructions that tells the computer how to start.pp. (p. (p.

. 1. NICs allow your computer to communicate with other computers on other networks. enable your computer to connect to other computers.4 The Computer System Inside the Machine 24-28 Communication devices. such as modems and network interface cards (NICs).pp.

26) .4 The Computer System You Try It 24-28 ‡ Activity 1B Analyzing a Hard Drive (p.pp. 1.

go to the Introduction to Networks and Networking Web site at http://networking. 1 Resources For more resources on this chapter.