# Attitude Measurement and Scales

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you will be aware of:       Concept of Attitude Attitude Measurement Scale Comparison of Measurement Scale Locket's Scale Thrustone¶s Equal Appearing Interval Scale Guttaman¶s Cumulative Scale .After completion of this unit.

Concept of Attitude Mental state of an individual which makes him to act or respond for or against. with which his/her vested feelings of interest. situations etc. are directly or indirectly linked or associated. desire and so on. . liking.

Basic Purpose for Conducting Attitude Survey    To compare results with other survey results To measure the effect of change that occurs To determine the nature and extent of feeling .

Types of Scales Attitude measurement is qualitative and abstract in nature. intervals or absolute zero. Cont« . . The four widely accepted levels of measurement called µmeasurement scales¶ are:  Nominal Scale  Ordinal Scale  Interval Scale  Ratio Scale Nominal Scale : Applied to qualitative data where the objects or items are classified into various discrete and distinctive groups or categories without any ranking or order associated Example :  Categorizing people according to religion  According to political affiliation  Smoking Vs non-smoking It doesn¶t posses attribute like magnitude.

Example :    Categorization of students according to grades Categorization of teachers according to designation Ranking of two household according to income Interval Scale : It possess both : magnitude as well as equal interval magnitude. weight and time are examples of interval scale Cont« . Example :  Measures of height.Ordinal Scale: Categories of items can be compared with each other only in order of rank assigned to these categories. Does not posses the absolute zero point. . It posses the attribute of magnitude only.

distance etc. weight. Example :  Physical measurement such as height. .Ratio Scale : It posses the attribute of absolute zero beside other attributes of magnitude and equal intervals.

market position. Standard Deviation Geometric Mean Ratio . attitude measurement Index numbers. costs. number of customers. age etc. smoker-non smoker Ranking : Preference data. units produced. Percentage mode Median Inferential Chi-square Ordinal Rank-order correlation T-Test. attitude measurement Sales.Comparison of Measurement Scales Type Basic Empirical Operations Determination of Equality Determination of greater or less Determination of equality of intervals Determination of equality of ratios Typical Usage Typical Statistics Descriptive Nominal Classification of malefemale. Range. Factor analysis Coefficient of variation Interval Mean.

. 1.Types of Scales Lickert¶s Summated Scale A set of attitude statements of which all are considered or approximated as having equal attitude value and each of which subjects respond with a degree of agreement or disagreement carrying different scores. Statement Advertising promotes sales HRD is an exploitation of people Agree 1 1 Disagree 0 0 Cont«. S.No. Each respondent¶s ranking is found out by totaling score on all statements. 2.

Lickert¶s Item Analysis Respondents are asked to respond to a certain number of statements. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree . Reply to each statement is given in terms of five degrees of agreement or disagreement.