Generation of wireless Network

Technologies used in 1G/2G/2.5G/3G/4G

Analog and Digital Signals
Analog Signals

Advantage of Analog Signals

Digital Signals .


Advantage of Digital Signals .

Analog and Digital Clocks .

ones and zeros. from one point to another. This process is called analogue to digital conversion (A/D conversion).Analog to digital Transmission Digital transmission involves sending a series of symbols. . it must be converted to digital signals before it can be transmitted. Because speech is analogue. a continuous wave form. that is.

It involves the three main steps described below: Sampling Quantization Coding .The A/D conversion is performed by using a process called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). PCM is a common method used in telecommunication systems.

among other things. Each measurement is called a sample and the sampling time interval is defined as Ts [s].SAMPLING Sampling involves measuring the analogue signal at specific time intervals. The accuracy of describing the analogue signal in digital terms depends on how often the analogue signal is sampled. . This is expressed as the sampling frequency: fs=1/Ts [Hz].

According to the Sampling principle:

Normal speech mainly contains frequency components lower than 3000 Hz. Higher components have quite low energy and may be omitted without affecting the speech quality very much. Applying the sampling principle when sampling analogue speech signals, the sampling frequency, fs, should be at least 2 x 3 kHz = 6 kHz. Telecommunication systems use a sampling frequency of 8 kHz, which is acceptable based on the Sampling principle.

In order to limit the number of values transmitted, the amplitude level is divided into a finite set of levels. Each sample within a certain interval is represented by one of these levels. Figure 6.6 shows the principle of quantization applied to the analogue signal the actual sample and the quantified value. The figure shows the principle of Uniform Quantization used in the GSM system. In uniform quantization, the distance between two levels is constant.

Every quantified value is represented by a binary code. In order to obtain the 256 levels, 8 bits are used (2^8 = 256). In GSM, 13 bits are used to obtain the 8192 levels (2^13 = 8192). The process of PCM, including sampling at 8 kHz and performing quantization and coding using 8 bits; produces a bit rate of 8000 x 8 = 64 kbit/s. A digital link used to transmit these bits is called a PCM link.

Figure 6. forming a first order PCM system. . The technique used is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and it means that several channels share the same link.7 shows how 32 channels are multiplexed onto one PCM link. Each channel uses the link during a certain amount of time called a time slot. The bit rate on such a link is 32 x 8 x 8000 = 2048 kbit/s called as E1 Link Multiplexing 32 channels into one PCM link.In order to use the link more efficiently several channels are multiplexed onto the same link.

Recalling the general rule of 1 bit per Hertz. The bit rate must be reduced somehow . . the overall bit rate would be 8 x 104 kbits/s = 832 kbits/s. The result from the process of A/D conversion is 8.000 samples per second of 13 bits each. This is a bit rate of 104 kbits/s. this bit rate would not fit into the 200 kHz available for all 8 subscribers. When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one radio channel. This type of link is preferable in the US Called as T1 Link. The bit rate for this solution is 24 x 8 x 8000 = 1544 kbit/s.There is also a solution where 24 channels are multiplexed onto one PCM link.this is achieved using segmentation and speech coding.

To send signal up to longer distance Modulation is Required .Modulation Modulation is the Process of Varying the Characteristics of high Signal(Carrier) in accordance with instantaneous Value of low signal(modulating Signal). Signals are of low amplitude Strength with low frequency (20 Hz to 20 KHz).

a kind of Phase frequency Shift Keying. .Types of Modulation Three types of Digital Modulation Technique Amplitude Shift Keying Modulation Frequency Shift Keying Modulation Phase Shift Keying Modulation The Modulation used in GSM is Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying(GMSK).

GSM s GMSK offers more tolerance of interference.GMSK(Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying ) In GSM. In this way the capacity of other mobile standards is higher. As a general rule. only 200 kbits/s could be transmitted within 200 kHz. 1 bit/s can be transmitted within 1 Hz. the carrier bandwidth is 200 kHz. Using this method. GMSK enables the transmission of 270kbit/s within a 200 kHz channel. using simpler modulation techniques. However. which can fit more bits/s into a channel. The modulation technique used in GSM is Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). The channel capacity in GSM does not compare favorably with other digital mobile standards. more advanced modulation techniques are available which can transmit more bits/s within 1 Hz. This in turn enables the tighter re-use of frequencies. . which leads to an overall gain in capacity which out-performs that of other systems. However.

GMSK Diagram .

Each user data is coded with unique code) .GSM each user frequency channel is 200Hz ) ± Time division multiple access (TDMA) ( eg.Multiple Access Technology Multiple Access Technique is achieved by dividing the available radio frequency spectrum.GSM each frequency channel is divided into 8 time slots ) ± Code division multiple access (CDMA) ( eg. So that multiple users can be given at the same time. ± Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) ( eg.IS 95.


each using his own time slot. he user transmit in rapid success in . It allows several user to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots .Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Frequency division multiplexing is used to allow multiple user to share a physical communication channel . It is called frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) TDMA is a channel access method for shared medium network .one after the other . . Code division multiple access (CDMA) CDMA is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies .

In GSM the up link and down link of a user will be the same frequency but at different Time) .Duplex Technology Types of Duplexing Technology Frequency division duplex (FDD) ( eg. In GSM the up link and down link of a user is separated by 45 MHz) Time division duplex (TDD) ( eg.

Duplex Technology .

FREQUENCY CONCEPTS The following table summarizes the frequency-related specifications of each of the GSM systems. The terms used in the table are explained in the remainder of this section. .

The frequency of a radio wave is the number of times that the wave oscillates per second. Mobile networks: 300 . An operator applies for the available frequencies . Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz).2000 MHz approx. where 1 Hz indicates one oscillation per second. Radio frequencies are used for many applications in the world today. Some common uses include: Television: 300 MHz approx. which consist of electromagnetic energy.FREQUENCY An MS (Mobile Station) communicates with a BTS by transmitting or receiving radio waves. FM Radio: 100 MHz approx. The frequencies used by mobile networks vary according to the standard being used.

uplink frequency in mobile system are always the lower band of frequency.this saves a valuable battery power of the MS .UPLINK AND DOWNLINK The MS to the network is referred to as uplink. The direction from the network to the MS is referred to as downlink. Logic question Why uplink band consists of lower range of frequency? Because it requires less power to transmit a lower frequency over a given distance .

These electromagnetic waves can be described by a sinusoidal function. Wavelength is the length of one complete oscillation and is measured in meters (m).Wave Length There are many different types of electromagnetic waves. Frequency and wavelength are related via the speed of propagation. The wavelength of a frequency can be determined by using the following formula: Wavelength = Speed/Frequency . which for radio waves is the speed of light (3 x108 m/s). which is characterized by wavelength.

because they bounce on the surface of the earth and in the atmosphere. with longer wavelengths. Lower frequencies. the shorter the wavelength.33 m (or 33 cm) From this formula it can be determined that the higher the frequency.000 Wavelength = 0.Thus. are better suited to transmission over large distances.000 m/s/900. .000. Television and FM radio are examples of applications. for GSM 900 the wavelength is: Wavelength = 3 x 108m/s/900 MHz Wavelength = 300.000. which use lower frequencies.

The frequencies used by mobile systems compromise between the large-coverage advantages offered by lower frequencies and the closeness-to-the-receiver advantages offered by use of higher frequencies. with shorter wavelengths. because they are sensitive to such problems as obstacles in the line of the transmission path. Higher frequencies are suited to small areas of coverage. where the receiver is relatively close to the transmitter. are better suited to transmission over small distances.Higher frequencies. .

Overview of GSM .Module B.

What is GSM? Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation .

Evolution of GSM GSM in world .


including operation across international boundaries.Fundamentals of GSM The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network. These recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment from different GSM manufacturers. and are an extension of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). They are consistent with the world-wide digitization of the telephone network. GSM networks are digital and can cater for high system capacities. using a digital radio interface between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber equipment. or PLMN). and interconnectivity between different administrations. .

‡ Cell Radio Mobile subscriber . Hence the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile. The service area in which mobile communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells. Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area.CELLULAR TELEPHONY ‡ ‡ A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular subscriber. Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication.

UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES 890 915 935 960 UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ . RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz. one used in each direction. An RF carrier is a pair of radio frequencies. allowing a total of 124 carriers for use.GSM FREQUENCIES GSM systems use radio frequencies between 890-915 MHz for receive and between 935-960 MHz for transmit. Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 45 MHz.

Transmit bandwidth is from 925 MHz to 935 MHz. Total RF carriers in EGSM is 50.Extended GSM (EGSM) EGSM has 10MHz of bandwidth on both transmit and receive. UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES 880 880 925 935 960 UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ . Receive bandwidth is from 880 MHz to 890 MHz.

0 MHz and 1805.9 MHz and 1880. There is a 100 kHz guard band between 1710.0 MHz for receive. RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz.9 MHz and 1785. Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 95 MHz. DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES UPLINK FREQUENCIES ‡ 1805 MHz 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1805 MHz 1880 MHz UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 95MHZ . allowing a total of 373 carriers.0 MHz for transmit.0 MHz and 1710.1 MHz and between 1879. and between 1805.DCS1800 Freqency DCS1800 DCS1800 systems use radio frequencies between 1710-1785 MHz for receive and between 1805-1880 MHz for transmit.1 MHz and between 1784.


27 .GSM Architecture Home Location Register BTS = Base Transceiver Station AuC = Authentication Center OMC = Operation and Maintenance Center PSTN = Public Switched Telephone Network ME = Mobile Equipment AuC Equipment ID Network Management Center Visitor Location Register OMC Subscriber Identity Module Subscriber Identity Module Subscriber Identity Module ME BT S Mobile switching center Base station controller PSTN Data communication network ME BT S ME BT S Source: Stallings. 313 Source: Mehrotra.

INTERFACE NAMES Each interface specified in GSM has a name associated with it .

GSM System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Operational support Subsystem(OSS) .

Mobile Station(MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1. Mobile Equipment (ME) 2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .

vehicle mounted.8W 20 W 160 character long SMS. hand held device Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Voice and data transmission Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover Power level : 0.Mobile Equipment       Portable. .

Kc and A3.Key Ki.Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)      Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services Encoded network identification details .A5 and A8 algorithms Protected by a password or PIN Can be moved from phone to phone contains key information to activate the phone .

International Mobile Subscribers Identity .10 MCC = Mobile Country Code ( 3 Digits ) MNC = Mobile Network Code ( 2 Digits ) MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identity Number .. MCC MNC MSIN 404 XX 12345.  The IMSI can be maximum of 15 digits.IMSI  Network Identity Unique to a MS  The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identity of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to that subscriber.

CC 98 NDC XXX SN 12345 CC= Country code NDC= National Destination Code SN= Subscriber Number .  It is used by the land network to route calls toward the MSC.Mobile Station International Subscribers Dialling Number ( MSISDN ) :  Human identity used to call a MS  The Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number is the telephone number of the MS.  This is the number a calling party dials to reach the subscriber.

 The TMSI is a local number and is always allocated by the VLR. the TMSI can be used for sending messages backwards and forwards across the network to identify the subscriber.  After the subscriber's IMSI has been initialized on the system.  The system automatically changes the TMSI at regular intervals. . thus protecting the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio channels.  The TMSI is maximum of 4 octets.Temporary Mobile Subscribers Identity ( TMSI ) :  The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).

2. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) .Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers 1.

modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna.Base Transceiver Station (BTS):     Encodes . Frequency hopping Communicates with Mobile station and BSC Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units .multiplexes .encrypts .

Base Station Controller (BSC)        Manages Radio resources for BTS Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS s in its area Handles call set up Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality Handover for each MS Radio Power control It communicates with MSC and BTS .

Structure of Base Station Controller(BSC) Base Station Controller (BSC) ± Siemens BSC (BSC) .

Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC)       Heart of the network Manages communication between GSM and other networks Call setup function and basic switching Call routing Billing information and collection Mobility management .Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff  MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to other network by using HLR/VLR.Location Updating .Registration . .

Structure of Mobile Switching Centre(MSC) Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) ± Lucent MSC .

Location Area . by HLR database Controls those mobiles roaming in its area Reduces number of queries to HLR Database contains IMSI .permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area(generally one per GSM network operator) database contains IMSI .MSRN . authentication key .supplementary services.roaming restrictions .Home Location Registers (HLR) .MSISDN .MSISDN .prepaid/postpaid .TMSI . Visitor Location Registers (VLR) Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area.

The Black List and the Gray List  Only one EIR per PLMN .Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)  Made up of three sub-classes: The White List.Kc)  Generally associated with HLR Equipment Identity Register (EIR)  .SRES .Authentication Center (AUC)  Protects against intruders in air interface  Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets ( RAND .

 The OMC also monitors the quality of service being provided by the Network. .Operational support Subsystem(OSS) OR Operation And Maintenance Centre For Radio (OMC-R) OMC The OMC controls and monitors the Network elements within a region. The status of network devices can be checked from the OMC and tests and diagnostics invoked.  The following are the main functions performed by the OMC-R The OMC allows network devices to be manually removed for or restored to service.

The OMC keeps on collecting and accumulating traffic statistics from the network elements for analysis.The alarms generated by the Network elements are reported and logged at the OMC. The OMC-R Engineer can monitor and analyze these alarms and take appropriate action like informing the maintenance personal. Software loads can be downloaded to network elements or uploaded to the OMC. .

Operation And Maintenance Centre For Radio (OMC-R) (OMC- .

 It is made up of 8 bits. NCC = National Colour Code( Differs from operator to operator ) BCC = Base Station Colour Code. identifies the base station to help distinguish between Cell s using the same BCCH frequencies .Base Station Identity Code  BSIC allows a mobile station to distinguish between neighboring base stations.

Cell Global Identity ( CGI ) .

The logical channels are of two types ± Traffic channel ± Control channel .Variety of information is transmitted between the MS and BTS.GSM CHANNEL CONCEPT Physical channel .Each timeslot on a carrier is referred to as a physical channel. Logical channel . Per carrier there are 8 physical channels. There are different logical channels depending on the information sent.

GSM Traffic Channels .

GSM Control Channels .

Also helps mobiles of the n cells to locate TS 0 of BCCH carrier. Enables MS to synchronize to the frequency. frame number and BSIC. Downlink only Carries information for frame synchronization.BCH Channels BCCH( Broadcast Control Channel ) ± ± ± ± ± ± Downlink only Broadcasts general information of the serving cell called System Information BCCH is transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH carrier Read only by idle mobile at least once every 30 secs . . SCH( Synchronization Channel ) Contains TDMA FCCH( Frequency Correction Channel ) ± ± ± Downlink only.

.CCCH Channels RACH( Random Access Channel ) ± ± Uplink only Used by the MS to access the Network. Used by the Network to contact the MS. AGCH( Access Grant Channel ) ± ± Downlink only Used by the network to assign a signaling channel upon success full decoding of access bursts. PCH( Paging Channel ) ± ± Downlink only.

Works by stealing traffic bursts. Uplink SACCH messages . location update and SMS. Downlink SACCH messages . FACCH( Fast Associated Control Channel ) ± ± ± ± Uplink and Downlink.control info. Associated with TCH only. SACCH( Slow Associated Control Channel ) ± ± ± Used on Uplink and Downlink only in dedicated mode.Measurement reports. Is used to send fast messages like handover messages.DCCH Channels SDCCH( Standalone Dedicated Control Channel ) ± ± Uplink and Downlink Used for call setup. .

6 kbps/s Half rate used for Speech at 6.8kbps/s used for Speech at 13 kbps/s or Sending data at 9.8 kbps/s .5 kbps/s or Sending data at 4.Traffic Channel TCH carries the Voice data one TCH is allocated for every active call Full Rate used 22.


Frame Multiframe TDMA Frame .715.648 TDMA frames 2045 2046 2047 1 Superframe = 1326 TDMAframes = 51(26 fr) 0r 26(51 fr) multiframes 3 47 48 24 49 25 50 120ms 0 1 2 23 24 25 0 1 2 235.615ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Control 51 .38ms 48 49 50 Traffic 26 .12s 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 Hyperframe = 2048 superframes = 2.Frame Multiframe 4.Channel Concept HYPERFRAME AND SUPERFRAME STRUCTURE 3h 28min 53s 760ms 0 1 6.

Every time the ARFCN increases. The offset is the frequency separation of the uplink from the downlink. the uplink will increase by 200 khz and the downlink also increases by 200 khz.Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) The ARFCN is a number that describes a pair of frequencies. . The uplink and downlink frequencies each have a bandwidth of 200 kHz. The uplink and downlink have a specific offset that varies for each band. one uplink and one downlink.

2+(n-512)*0.2(1<n=124) DL freq-F(d)(n)=Fu(n)+45 For GSM 900 Band UL freq-Fu(n)=1710.2(512<n<=124) DL freq-F(d)(n)=Fu(n)+95 .Therefore 124 channels available for each UL and DL in GSM 900 and 374 channels available in GSM 1800 GSM 900= 1 to 124 GSM 1800= 512 to 885 To calculate actual frequency. For GSM 900 Band UL freq-Fu(n)=890+0.

Call Flow in GSM  Mobile Originated Call  Mobile Terminated Call .

Mobile Originated Call .

Mobile Terminated Call .



What is interference Interference is the sum of the all signals contributions that are neither noise not the wanted signal.

Source of interference
Another mobile in the same cell. A call in process in the neighbor cell. Other base station operating on the same frequency.

Two types of Interference
Co Channel Interference Adjacent Channel Interference

eg Several cells use the same set of frequency . Co Channel cells must be physically separated by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation or reduce the foot print of cell .This is because an increase in carrier transmit power increases the Interference to neighbor co-channel cells.Co Channel Interference This type of Interference is due to frequency reuse. These cells are called Co Channel Interference Co Channel Interference cannot be combated by increasing the power of the transmitter . . To reduce Co Channel Interference .

Adjacent Channel Interference can be minimized through careful filtering and channe3 assignments. .Adjacent Channel Interference Interference resulting from signal which are adjacent in frequency to the desired signal is called Adjacent Channel Interference. the adjacent interference may be reduced considerably. By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large as possible. Adjacent Channel Interference results from imperfect receiver filters which are near by frequency to leak into the baseband.


The way it works  Each burst is transmitted on a different frequency  Both mobile and base station follow the same hopping sequence .  Can be used to improve the quality of the network  Also can be used to increase the capacity of the Network thereby reducing the number of sites required for CAPACITY.Frequency Hopping Frequency Hopping is sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between BS and MS.

TYPES OF HOPPING Base Band Hopping (BBH) Synthesiser Frequency Hopping (SFH) .

‡ Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Determines the hopping order used in the cell. where HSN = 0 provides a cyclic hopping sequence and HSN = 1 to 63 provide various pseudorandom hopping sequences. ‡ Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): Determines inside the hopping sequence which frequency the mobile starts to transmit on. . GSM defines the following set of parameters: ‡ Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies the mobile is allowed to hop over. Eg:.If the operator has frequencies from 1 -32. MA is a subset of all the frequencies allocated by the system operator to the cell (cell allocation) although it can be the same.Hopping Parameters For frequency hopping operability. then he can use 1-15 for BCCH and 17-32 for hopping ( MA). 64 different HSNs can be assigned.

Short Message Services (SMS) Short Message Services(SMS) is the text communication services component of phone . .web or mobile communication system . using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short message between f5xed line 6r mobile phone devices .

SMS Applications  SMS up to 160 alphabets characters. from TV/Radio station data feeds) .  Alert services (MT-SMS) voice message alert FAX/Telex Message Alert E-mail system Alert  Information Services Financial Services (stock market queries and alerts) Weather OR traffic information (eg.

Concept of GPRS/EDGE .

as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time. GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuit-switched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use.GPRS(General Packet Radio Services ) General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile(GSM) communication and complements existing services such circuit Switch cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS). The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handled devices as well as notebook computers. .

transport for internet protocol packet services in GSM network GPRS support node(GSN)-It is node which support use of GPRS in GSM network .session management . Efficient use of Bandwidth Circuit Switching and Pocket Switching are used in parallel.GPRS Network GPRS network provide the mobility management .there are 2 key variant GGSN(Gateway GPRS Support Node) SGSN(Serving GPRS Support Node) Benefits of GPRS network. High speed data rate 14.4-115 kbps. Constant Connectivity .

Comparison of GSM and GPRS .

. using the same time-division multiple access (TDMA) frame structure and existing cell arrangements. The EDGE standard is built on the existing GSM standard.EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) is a faster version the Global System for Mobile (GSM) wireless service designed to deliver data at rates up to 384 kbps and enable the delivery of multimedia and other broad band applications to mobile phone and computer users.Such as Streaming Video and Video Conferencing. EDGE is particular used as a GPRS solution for large data services .


After receiving the information about the signal strength and quality the BSC ranks the neighbour BTSs using through information. . he network makes the decision about the change . During call setup or busy state is called Handover.HAND OVER The changing to a new traffic channel .

HANDOVER CONDITIONS HANDOVER CONDITIONS Handover is done on five conditions Interference RXQUAL RXLEV Distance or Timing Advance Power Budget .

. It ranges from 0 to 7 . 0 being the best and 7 the worst RXLEV .It is the receive level. then the RXQUAL problem is because of interference.It is used to save the power of the MS. It varies from -47dBm to -110dBm. Timing Advance . It is the receive quality.Ranges from 0 to 63.Interference RXQUAL - If signal level is high and still there is RXQUAL problem. Power budget .

.  Intra-cell handover is triggered only if the cause is interference.HANDOVER HANDOVER TYPES IntraIntra-Cell Handover  Handover takes place in the same cell from one timeslot to another timeslot of the same carrier or different carriers( but the same cell).  Intra-cell handover can be enabled or disabled in a cell.

HANDOVER HANDOVER TYPES InterInter-BSC Handover Handover takes place between different cell which are controlled by the different BSC. .

HANDOVER HANDOVER TYPES InterInter-MSC Handover Handover takes place between different cell which are controlled by the different BSC and each BSC is controlled by different MSC .

Uses of Handover  To keep a continuous communication with a moving MS  To improve network service performance ‡ To reduce the call drop rate ‡ To reduce the congestion rate .

Cell Selection  When the mobile is turned on .C1>0 must be ensured .called proper cell.For the so.This selection process is called cell selection . it ill try to contact o public GSM PLMN . so the MS ill select a proper cell and extract from the cell the control channel parameters and system message .the quality of radio channel is important factor cell selection . GSM specification defines the path loss rule C1.

This process is called Cell reselection.when MS change its service cell idle mode.Cell Reselection  Cell Reselection (C2) is a process . record the Adjacent cells whose signal levels are the strongest and extract from them various types of strongest and extract from them various types of system message and control message of each adjacent cell. .  When the MS selects a cell it will begin to measure the signal levels of the BCCH TRX of its adjacent cells .the MS will move from the current cell into another one .  When given conditions are met .

Adjacent Site Signal is Stronger than our current site signal . eg.Pilot Pollution in Network The number of strong cells Exide more than then number of active cells called Pilot Pollution . Overshooting in Network The another site signal strength is strong than the active cell site is called Overshooting .