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Tutorial and Workshop © Constantin von Altrock Inform Software Corporation 2001 Midwest Rd. Oak Brook, IL 60521, U.S.A. German Version Available! Phone 630-268-7550 Fax 630-268-7554 Email: fuzzy@informusa.com Internet: www.fuzzytech.com

© INFORM 1990-1998

Fuzzy Logic Primer History, Current Level and Further Development of Fuzzy Logic Technologies in the U.S., Japan, and Europe Types of Uncertainty and the Modeling of Uncertainty The Basic Elements of a Fuzzy Logic System Types of Fuzzy Logic Controllers

Slide 1

**History, State of the Art, and Future Development
**

1965 Seminal Paper ³Fuzzy Logic´ by Prof. Lotfi Zadeh, Faculty in Electrical Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, Sets the Foundation of the ³Fuzzy Set Theory´ First Application of Fuzzy Logic in Control Engineering (Europe) Introduction of Fuzzy Logic in Japan Empirical Verification of Fuzzy Logic in Europe Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in Japan Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in Europe Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in the U.S. Fuzzy Logic Becomes a Standard Technology and Is Also Applied in Data and Sensor Signal Analysis. Application of Fuzzy Logic in Business and Finance.

Slide 2

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Today, Fuzzy Logic Has Already Become the Standard Technique for MultiMulti-Variable Control !

© INFORM 1990-1998

1995 2000

**Applications Study of the IEEE in 1996
**

About 1100 Successful Fuzzy Logic Applications Have Been Published (an estimated 5% of those in existence) Almost All Applications Have Not Involved the Replacement of a Standard Type Controller (PID,..), But Rather Multi-Variable Supervisory Control Applications Range from Embedded Control (28%), Industrial Automation (62%) to Process Control (10%) Of 311 Authors That Answered a Questionnaire, About 90% State That Fuzzy Logic Has Slashed Design Time By More Than Half In This Questionnaire, 97.5% of the Designers Stated That They Will Use Fuzzy Logic Again in Future Applications, If Fuzzy Logic Is Applicable Fuzzy Logic Will Play a Major Role in Control Engineering !

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 3

**Types of Uncertainty and the Modeling of Uncertainty
**

Stochastic Uncertainty: The Probability of Hitting the Target Is 0.8

Lexical Uncertainty: "Tall Men", "Hot Days", or "Stable Currencies" We Will Probably Have a Successful Business Year. The Experience of Expert A Shows That B Is Likely to Occur. However, Expert C Is Convinced This Is Not True.

Most Words and Evaluations We Use in Our Daily Reasoning Are Not Clearly Defined in a Mathematical Manner. This Allows Humans to Reason on an Abstract Level!

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 4

Probability and Uncertainty

³... a person suffering from hepatitis shows in 60% of all cases a strong fever, in 45% of all cases yellowish colored skin, and in 30% of all cases suffers from nausea ...´

Stochastics and Fuzzy Logic Complement Each Other !

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 5

**Fuzzy Set Theory
**

Conventional (Boolean) Set Theory:

**38° 38°C 40.1°C 42°C
**

³Strong Fever´

**38.7° 38.7°C 41.4°C
**

Fuzzy Set Theory:

39.3°C 37.2° 37.2°C

**38°C 40.1°C 42°C
**

³Strong Fever´

38.7°C 41.4°C

39.3°C

³More-or³More-or-Less´ Rather Than ³Either-Or´ ! ³Either© INFORM 1990-1998

37.2°C

Slide 6

**Fuzzy Set Definitions
**

Discrete Definition: µSF(35°C) = 0 µSF(36°C) = 0 µSF(37°C) = 0 µSF(38°C) = 0.1 µSF(39°C) = 0.35 µSF(40°C) = 0.65 µSF(41°C) = 0.9 µSF(42°C) = 1 µSF(43°C) = 1 No More Artificial Thresholds!

Continuous Definition: µ(x)

1

0

36°C 37°C 38°C 39°C 40°C 41°C 42°C

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 7

Linguistic Variable

...Terms, Degree of Membership, Membership Function, Base Variable...

µ(x)

1

low temp normal raised temperature

« pretty much raised «

strong fever

... but just slightly strong «

A Linguistic Variable Defines a Concept of Our Everyday Language!

0

36°C

© INFORM 1990-1998

37°C

38°C

39°C

40°C

41°C

42°C

Slide 8

**Basic Elements of a Fuzzy Logic System
**

Fuzzification, Fuzzy Inference, Defuzzification: Fuzzy Logic Defines the Control Strategy on a Linguistic Level!

Command Variables

(Linguistic Values)

Measured Variables

(Linguistic Values)

2. Fuzzy-Inference

Linguistic Level Numerical Level 1. Fuzzification 3. Defuzzification

Measured Variables

(Numerical Values)

© INFORM 1990-1998

Plant

Command Variables

(Numerical Values)

Slide 9

**Basic Elements of a Fuzzy Logic System
**

Container Crane Case Study:

**Two Measured Variables and One Command Variable !
**

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 10

**Basic Elements of a Fuzzy Logic System
**

Control Loop of the Fuzzy Logic Controlled Container Crane: Closing the Loop With Words !

Angle, Distance

(Numerical Values)

2. Fuzzy-Inference

Power

(Linguistic Variable)

Linguistic Level Numerical Level 1. Fuzzification 3. Defuzzification

Angle, Distance

(Numerical Values)

© INFORM 1990-1998

Container Crane

Power

(Numerical Values)

Slide 11

1. Fuzzification: - Linguistic Variables The Linguistic Term Definitions: Variables Are the Distance := {far, medium, close, zero, neg_close} Angle := {pos_big, pos_small, zero, neg_small, neg_big} ³Vocabulary´ of a Fuzzy Logic System ! Power := {pos_high, pos_medium, zero, neg_medium, neg_high} Membership Function Definition: µ neg_close zero close medium µ zero far

neg_big neg_small pos_small pos_big

1

1

0.9

0.8

0.2 0.1

0 -90° -45° 0°

4°

0

45° 90°

-10

0

Angle

12m Distance [yards]

10

20

30

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 12

2. Fuzzy-Inference: - ³IF-THEN´-Rules Computation of the ³IF-THEN´-Rules: #1: IF Distance = medium AND Angle = pos_small THEN Power = pos_medium #2: IF Distance = medium AND Angle = zero THEN Power = zero #3: IF Distance = far AND Angle = zero THEN Power = pos_medium Aggregation: Composition: Computing the ³IF´-Part Computing the ³THEN´-Part

The Rules of the Fuzzy Logic Systems Are the ³Laws´ It Executes !

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 13

2. Fuzzy-Inference: - Aggregation Boolean Logic Only Defines Operators for 0/1: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AvB 0 0 0 1 Fuzzy Logic Delivers a Continuous Extension: AND: µAvB = min{ µA; µB } OR: µA+B = max{ µA; µB } NOT: µ-A = 1 - µA

Aggregation of the ³IF´-Part: #1: min{ 0.9, 0.8 } = 0.8 #2: min{ 0.9, 0.2 } = 0.2 #3: min{ 0.1, 0.2 } = 0.1 Aggregation Computes How ³Appropriate´ Each Rule Is for the Current Situation !

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 14

**2. Fuzzy-Inference: Composition
**

Result for the Linguistic Variable "Power":

pos_high pos_medium zero neg_medium neg_high

with the degree 0.0 with the degree 0.8 with the degree 0.2 with the degree 0.0 with the degree 0.0 ( = max{ 0.8, 0.1 } )

Composition Computes How Each Rule Influences the Output Variables !

© INFORM 1990-1998

Slide 15

3. Defuzzification

Finding a Compromise Using ³Center-of-Maximum´:

µ

1

neg_high

neg_medium zero pos_medium

pos_high

³Balancing´ Out the Result !

0 -30 -15 0 Power [Kilowatts]

© INFORM 1990-1998

15

30

6.4 KW

Slide 16

Types of Fuzzy Controllers: - Direct Controller The Outputs of the Fuzzy Logic System Are the Command Variables of the Plant:

IF temp=low AND P=high THEN A=med IF ...

Command Variables

Plant

Defuzzification

Fuzzification

Inference

Measured Variables

**Fuzzy Rules Output Absolute Values !
**

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 17

Types of Fuzzy Controllers: - Supervisory Control Fuzzy Logic Controller Outputs Set Values for Underlying PID Controllers:

IF temp=low AND P=high THEN A=med IF ...

Set Values

PID PID

Plant

Fuzzification

Inference

Defuzzification

PID

Measured Variables

**Human Operator Type Control !
**

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 18

Types of Fuzzy Controllers: - PID Adaptation Fuzzy Logic Controller Adapts the P, I, and D Parameter of a Conventional PID Controller:

Set Point Variable

IF temp=low AND P=high THEN A=med IF ...

P I D

Defuzzification

Command Variable

PID

Plant

Fuzzification

Inference

Measured Variable

**The Fuzzy Logic System Analyzes the Performance of the PID Controller and Optimizes It !
**

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 19

**Types of Fuzzy Controllers: - Fuzzy Intervention Fuzzy Logic Controller and PID Controller in Parallel:
**

Set Point Variable

IF temp=low AND P=high THEN A=med IF ...

Command Variable

Fuzzification

Inference

Defuzzification

PID

Plant

Measured Variable

**Intervention of the Fuzzy Logic Controller into Large Disturbances !
**

© INFORM 1990-1998 Slide 20

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