Session 4

Completeness Coherence Non-Verbal Communication


Definition of completeness 


the Latin completus, past participle of complere (to fill up); com- + plere (to fill).

How to ensure completeness in communication 

before writing.  Remember your purpose for writing.  Check for details.  Put yourself in the reader¶s shoes.  Review for the five W¶s.

Completeness in Facts and Figures 

need to provide supporting evidence whenever you write 
Who  What  Where  When  Why

 If you want your reader to act promptly. accurate information. your letter must encourage him or her to do so. and  Provide complete.Tips for Writing Letters  All requests should: Be specific and brief.  Make your inquiry easy to answer.  Be reasonable.  .

Yours truly. Fred Chan .Request Letter Dear Sir or Madam: Please send us information about your office copiers so that we will know whether one would be suited to our type of business.

Sample Good Letter .

Coherence .

Definition of Coherence From the Latin cohaer re. refers to how well a paragraph's ideas or sentences stick together.+ haer re (to stick. cling)  Refers to how something sticks together  In writing. and how well the language fits together  . equivalent to co.

Coherence  Coherence in communication is being organized in ideas.  Ideas should be well-defined and arranged according to a definite plan to achieve unity of purpose. .

 Focus on the READERS¶ interests.Rules for Coherence  Stay focused Refrain from mentioning facts and trivia that are not necessary.  Don¶t elaborate on facts YOU find interesting.  .

 .Rules for Coherence Keep your message simple (KISS) and straightforward to ensure that the person receiving it understands exactly why you¶ve written it. and end.  Tell a story ± have a beginning. middle.

Analyzing the Audience Know your audience. .  To get your point across effectively. Your readers¶ background will affect how they interpret and reacts to your document. consider the following:  ‡ ‡ ‡ Your audience¶s level of responsibility. and Your audience¶s attitudes toward and familiarity with the subject you address. Your audience¶s membership in your organization.

‡ ‡ Please respond before Labor important when choosing your words.Analyzing the Audience  Where your document will be read -inside the company or outside. in the Philippines or abroad -. Call me during office hours. .

remind readers why you¶re writing to them now. Has something significant happened that might affect their situation?  .Analyzing the Audience When your audience reads your document can impact the response you get from it.  As you write.

Organization Patterns  Inductive  Deductive  Introduction  Body  Summary  Summary Conclusions  Recommendations  Conclusions  Recommendations  Introduction  Body  .

Organizing Ideas Chronological  Geographical/space  Cause-to-effect  Classification  Problem-solution  Comparison or contrast  General to specific/Specific to general  .

examples  Data ²> conclusions  Problem. question ²> solution. answer  Most important ²> least important  .Organizational Patterns Direct ²> indirect  Concept ²> application of the concept.

Direct vs. displeased or perhaps even hostile  Indirect . unwilling. neutral  Direct  When you expect the audience to be uninterested. Indirect Pattern  When you expect the audience to be pleased. mildly interested or at worst.

Advantages of the Direct Method Saves the readers¶ time  Sets a proper frame of mind  Prevents frustration  .

Typical business messages that follow the direct pattern Routine requests and responses  Orders and acknowledgements  Non-sensitive memos  E-mail messages  Informal reports  Informal oral presentations  .

Advantages of the Indirect Method Respects the feelings of the audience  Encourages a fair hearing  Minimizes negative reactions  .

Typical business messages that follow the indirect pattern Letters and memos that refuse requests. and disapprove credit  Persuasive requests  Sales letters  Sensitive messages  Some reports and oral presentations  . deny claims.

Coherence in a Paragraph  Stick to the point  The ideas have a clear and logical relation to each other. examples or incidents in logical order 4 3 2 1 .  Put details.

Use the inverted pyramid technique General Broad. General Statements More Specific Statements Examples and Quotes Specific .

 If a paragraph is coherent. each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea.Coherent Paragraph In a coherent paragraph.  . each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps.

________________ Good pay A. ________________ II. Short shifts B. Pleasant environment A. I.Coherent Paragraph Thesis: Working at the local coffee shop was my favorite job. ________________ Good schedule A. Friendly customers B. III. Generous tips B. .

Coherent Paragraph  A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. .

. This is called the topic sentence.The Topic Sentence  The topic of a paragraph is stated in one sentence. but not necessarily.  The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph.  The key issue is developed throughout the remainder of the paragraph.

.Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main idea expressed in the topic sentence.

The Topic Sentence   Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused. to stay focused and to keep paragraphs manageable. and. . unified paragraphs. perhaps more importantly. Topic sentences help writers to develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs.

The Topic Sentence  If the topic sentence is too long or wordy. it may be more efficient to use lists or bulleted points. .

Through the centuries. . We have fumigated. flooded. and burned them.The rest of the paragraph consists of sentences that develop or explain the main idea. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the Pacific after World War II. these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests. In spite of all our efforts. rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have tried germ warfare.

 Be consistent in point of view.  Create parallel structures.Techniques to Establish Coherence Repeat key words or phrases.  Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs. and number. verb tense.  .

.Repeated Keywords or Phrases  A keyword or phrase in one paragraph or the last sentence of the paragraph is picked up in the first sentence of the following paragraph.

. be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.Consistency and Repetition  Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi. I have a dream today."I Have a Dream" I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. a state sweltering with the heat of injustice.´ I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. . sweltering with the heat of oppression. that all men are created equal.

whether from sentence to sentence or from paragraph to paragraph.Transitional Words Using transitional words and phrases helps papers read more smoothly.  .  Transitions indicate relations.

thereupon after all. furthermore. on the whole. by and large. in the long run. hence. briefly. all in all. on balance. besides. in addition. all things considered. in brief. moreover. thus. to sum up. again accordingly. in short. consequently.Examples of Transitional Words  Addition:  also. so then. finally  Consequence:   Summarizing:  . therefore. as a result. in any case. in the final analysis. in summary. to summarize. in conclusion. in any event. otherwise.

generally speaking. in other words. as usual. that is to say. on one hand. to put it differently contrast. similarly. by the same token. but. for the most part. namely. in short. that is. usually in essence. on the contrary. in contrast  Restatement:   Contrast and Comparison:  . ordinarily. generally. rather.Examples of Transitional Words  Generalizing:  as a rule. nevertheless. on the other hand. in brief. yet. conversely. however. still. likewise. instead.

Examples of Transitional Words  Sequence:  at first. for the time being. to begin with. the meantime. earlier. later on. in time. for now. afterward. in the first place. in conclusion by the way. meanwhile. incidentally for example. first of all. later. simultaneously. soon. the next step. at the same time. for instance. then. in turn. for one thing   Diversion:  Illustration:  . next. while.

under. over there. in the distance Direction:  . to the left. similarly. above. moreover here. beyond. nearly.Examples of Transitional Words   Similarity:  likewise. opposite. to the right. there.

Oral Communication Self-confidence Stage fright .

"Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings. Samuel Johnson." Dr. 18th century writer .

you feel confident enough to do and say the things that are consistent with your highest values. .  When you feel in control of yourself and your life. Lasting self-confidence comes from a sense of control.

The many ways most of us are called on to perform regularly       Passing an exam Making a sale Interviewing for a job Making a presentation at work Performing in a recital or competition Attending a social event .

financial problems. and even death! .Fear of Public Speaking  Public speaking is said to be the NUMBER ONE fear reported in surveys of American adults. topping such fears as the fear of flying.

Public speaking produces anxiety in most people. .

twitching. vomiting or diarrhea Watery eyes           Red face Quivering lips Dizziness or lightheadedness Difficulty breathing Trouble swallowing Flushes or chills Ringing in the ears Distorted vision Voice distortion Uncontrolled movements .Physical Symptoms of Stage Fright        Trembling. feeling shaky Pounding heart Muscle tension or soreness Sweating Clammy hands or feet Nausea.

Be aware of stage fright¶s psychological aspects  Fear is normal  A degree of nervousness helps to pump up necessary adrenaline. and not a life-or-death situation. A presentation is short. Look at the nervousness as a challenge.  Be rational  .

Dealing with Stage Fright Prepare.  Interact with the audience.  .  Concentrate on the message.  Communicate confidence.  Channel your nervous energy.  Pace yourself and breathe normally.  Don¶t memorize your speech.

.Tips on controlling nervous jitters    Realize that people want you to succeed. Take a deep breath. you¶ll get enough air to speak and ease your panic. When you get nervous. you breathe shallowly. Relax. If you concentrate on breathing deeply.

.Tips on controlling nervous jitters  Use good posture.  We have more power and energy when we stand erect with weight balanced equally on our feet. not on how you are coming across.  Concentrate on the message.

Tips on controlling nervous jitters Use eye contact. This will help your audience know that you are speaking to them. not at them.  Forget perfection.  .  Do not apologize.

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