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Group Members : Nor Shahidah binti Hudin Intan Shukriah binti Ariffin Siti Munirah binti Muhamad Mustafa

Nur Izzati binti Jeffry Din

WHAT ?
A representation of the spoken word. Remains "fixed´.

English spelling therefore often appears to be totally illogical

Some have exceptions

-ie- /-ei-

-s

/k/

/j/

-ly

English / American English

-ible/ -able

/ch/

S.P
-ing /-ed /kw/ The hiss /sh/

-er / -est /ee/

Odds and Ends

-le

/K/
´

1. The single letter, c , is the most common spelling. It may be used anywhere in a word:
corn actor victim direct mica

cat

scat

bacon

public

cactus

inflict

pecan

Sometimes the letter c must be doubled to cc to protect the sound of a short vowel : baccalaureate hiccups stucco Mecca tobacco buccaneer occupy raccoon succulent .´ 2.

kin make sketch poker kind risky skin token skill keep liking flaky .´ 3. The letter k is substituted for c if /k/ is followed by an e. i. or y.

the spelling ck. or y: lucky picking rocking finicky blackest mackintosh frolicked ducking Kentucky picnicking stocking Quebecker . is substituted for cc if the following letter is an e. i.´ 4. Similarly.

The digraph. The letters. follows any other sound milk soak make bark tank peek bike cork tusk hawk duke perk . k. ALWAYS follows a short vowel: sack duck lick stick wreck clock The letter. k and ck are more than substitutes for c and cc.´ 5. They are used to spell /k/ at the end of a monosyllable. ck.

or u. o. just jam jungle injure major adjacent jog jar Japan jury job Benjamin adjust jacket jolly jaguar jump jalousie ./J/ ´ 1. The letter j is usually used if the sound if followed by an a.

i. If /j/ follows a short vowel sound. it is usually used in this situation: gentle Egyptologist ginger gem aging origin algebra gym 3. Since the letter g has the soft sound of /j/ when it is followed by an e. it is usually spelled with dge. badge ridge dodge partridge gadget judge edge smudge judgement budget . or y.2. This is because the letter j. is never doubled in English.

and ostrich./CH/ The sound /ch/ has two spellings: tch after a short vowel. sandwich. attach. bachelor. touch. ch anywhere else: witch sketch botch satchel catch hatchet kitchen escutcheon Exceptions: Which. such. . much. rich.

never anything else. one consonant is enough. qu. -le : Words ending in -le. such as little./kw/ and -le   /kw/ : This sound is ALWAYS spelled with the letters. If the vowel sound is short. require care. li tt le ha nd le ti ck le a mp le bo tt le pu zz le cru mb le a ng le bugle able poodle dawdle needle idle people . Otherwise. there must be two consonants between the vowel and the -le.

v. j. w. and x are never doubled. No normal English words ends with the letter v. The consonants. A final /v/ is always spelled with ve. k. 2.ODDS AND ENDS ´ 1. no matter what the preceding vowel sound may be: have give sleeve cove receive love connive brave .

those that begin with a vowel and those that begin with a consonant. As usual. the spelling problems occur with the vowels: .ADDING ENDINGS ´There are two kinds of suffixes.

-wise .....-er .-est .-hood .Vowel Suffixes .-ive Consonant Suffixes ..-ing .-o ....-or .......ant .-ist .-ism ..-ward .-ful ..-us ....-ry ..-ar ..age .-es ..al ...-on .-an ---a ......-y ...-ous .-less .cess ..-ance ...-ual .-able ...-ty ....ness .-um ...ish .-ly ..-ment .-unt .-ed .

marriage family .bodily many .puppies vary .companion plenty .plentiful marry .beautiful company .furious merry .familiar puppy . Words that end in the letter y must have the y changed to i before adding any suffix: body .happiness beauty .´ 1.various fury .manifold happy .merriment .

global race .curable use .convincing globe .nosy convince .riding cure . In words that end in a silent e you must drop it before you add a vowel suffix.famous force .racist pole . The silent e is no longer needed to make the preceding vowel long as the incoming vowel will do the trick: ride .purity ice .´ 2.forcing refuse .offensive .usual age .aging fame .icicle nose .refusal slice .slicing pure .polar offense .

conferring refer .referred upset .concurrent . Words that end in an accented short or modified vowel sound must have the final consonant doubled to protect that sound when you add a vowel suffix: Quebec Quebecker remit .occurred concur.´ 3.remittance confer .upsetting shellac shellacking occur .

referee .focused refer .´ Note that this doubling is not done if the accent is not on the last syllable. there is no need to "protect" it.organize focus . If the word ends in a schwa. open .opening organ .

o. or u will not do that.surgeon notice .outrageous Gorgeous George bludgeoned a pigeon noticeably! .´ 4. Thus: manage .manageable courage .peaceable revenge .courageous surge . you cannot cavalierly toss out that silent e.noticeable peace . or u. o.vengeance change . It is not useless: it is keeping its left-hand letter soft. if the word ends in -ce or -ge and the incoming vowel is an a. and your a.changeable outrage . Normally you drop a silent e before adding a vowel suffix. However.

harmless age .) harm .pitiful child .childhood rifle .peaceful pity . Adding consonant suffixes is easy.riflery .ageless peace . (Of course you must change a final y to i before you add any suffix. You just add them.´ 5.

or ci. it is spelled ti./SH/ ´ When this sound occurs before a vowel suffix. si. partial special inertia musician electrician cautious deficient delicious physician nutrition patient suspicion ratio optician statistician vacation suction pension quotient expulsion .

/EE/ BEFORE A VOWEL SUFFIX ´ When /ee/ precedes a vowel suffix. it is usually spelled with the letter i: obvious medium Indian ingredient zodiac material .

´Spell determined by word meaning .

 The mist drifted into the harbor.1.  I nearly missed my bus. Mist and missed sound alike.  The movie was banned in Boston. as do band and banned. remember that -ed is a pasttense tending.  The band played on. To determine the spelling. .

machinist .´ 2. Deciding which one to use can be tricky.druggist ´ --est is the ending used on superlative adjectives: finest . The endings of dentist and finest sound alike.longest .sweetest . One rule helps but doesn't cover all cases: ´ --ist is a suffix meaning someone who does something: artist .

3.. The sounds at the end of musician and condition sound alike. . tion or sion are never used for people. where.. but. cian always means a person....

suppression If the sound of the last syllable is the "heavy" sound of /zhun/ rather than the light sound. vision. completion If the root word ends in /s/ or /d/. use sion: extend. use s: confusion. /shun/. adhesion .´ 4. use -tion: complete. extension suppress. How do you tell whether to use tion or sion? If the root word ends in /t/.

submission commit .permission omit .omission submit .commission . --mit becomes -mission: permit .´ Exception: The ending.

THE HISS ´ 1. The letter s between vowels sounds like a z: nose result noise present partisan tease preside resound reserve .

ss. The light "hissy" sound is spelled with either ss or ce. or y). (A soft c is one that is followed by e.´ 2. follows accented short vowels. notice reticent massive bicycle recent gossip russet rejoice essence vessel discuss pass . Soft c is used anywhere else. i. Predictably. like any proper doubled consonant.

In that case. The plural ending is always spelled with a single letter s unless you can hear a new syllable on the plural word. twitches tree.´ 3. losses bank. judges . boxes list. use -es: loss. banks twitch. lists judge. trees box.

for example: quick > quicker > quickest great > greater > greatest full > fuller > fullest ´ .ADDING ±ER/EST Just add -er or -est to the end of the adjective.

If the adjective ends in: do this: change the -y to an -i and add: For example: happy > happier > happiest consonant + -y consonant + -e remove the -e -er -est late > later > latest consonant + vowel + consonant double the last letter hot > hotter > hottest Note: adjectives ending in -l are regular. except: cruel > crueller > cruellest .

Adding ±ING/ -ED ´ Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb: ´ Example : work > working > worked play > playing > played open > opening > opened .

If the base verb ends in: do this: and add: For example: stop > stopping > stopped begin > beginning tap > tapping > tapped But. for example: open > opening > opened (because no stress on last syllable of open) phone > phoning > phoned dance > dancing > danced make > making rake > raking > raked dye > dying > dyed lie > lying die > dying lie > lied die > died consonant + vowel + double the final consonant consonant and a stressed syllable -ing -ed consonant + -e remove the -e -ing -ed change the -ie to -y -ie nothing -ing -d .

Adding -ly ´ Just add -ly to the end of the adjective: Example : coy > coyly loud > loudly beautiful > beautifully senseless > senselessly intelligent > intelligently .

except: day > daily gay > gaily .Exceptions If the adjective ends in: -ll do this: nothing and add: -y For example: full > fully consonant + -le remove the final -y e terrible > terribly -y (except 1syllable adjectives) remove the -y -ily happy > happily Note: 1-syllable adjectives ending in -y are regular.

Adding -s Just add -s to the end of the word. for example: Example : dog > dogs play > plays demand > demands ´ .

chiefs. roofs spy > spies baby > babies nothing -es -f -fe remove the -f or -fe -ves consonant + -y remove the -y -ies . dwarfs. griefs.Exceptions If the word ends in: -ch -s -sh -x -z do this: and add: For example: church > churches mass > masses brush > brushes fax > faxes box > boxes chintz > chintzes wife > wives calf > calves except: beliefs. gulfs. proofs.

except: buffalo > buffaloes cargoes (or cargos) domino > dominoes echo > echoes go > goes grotto > grottoes halo > haloes hero > heroes mango > mangoes mosquito > mosquitoes motto > mottoes (or mottos) potato > potatoes tomato > tomatoes tornado > tornadoes torpedo > torpedoes veto > vetoes volcano > volcanoes .´ Note: words that end in -o normally just add s.

Adding ±ible or -able ´ The -ible ending is for words of Latin origin. accessible admissible audible collapsible combustible compatible comprehensible contemptible credible defensible destructible digestible divisible .

flexible and suggestible above are among the exceptions to this rule). It works most (but not all!) of the time. Remember. you are left with a complete word.   . if you are not sure about a word. If you remove -ible from a word. it is probably best to use a dictionary. renewable. Here is the rule: If you remove -able from a word. for example: dependable non-Latin words. contemptible.The -able ending is for:    some Latin words. for example: affordable. digestible. for example: networkable. you are not left with a complete word (note that accessible. windsurfable Rule of thumb This rule can help you decide the correct spelling. washable new (modern) words.

friend. deceive. sleigh. neighbour. chief. weigh. receive beige. believe. thief ceiling. conceive. priest. hygiene.Adding ±ie. conceit. deceit. freight. feint. weight except after C or when sounding like AY . receipt. patience. vein. grief. brief. pierce. perceive. inveigle.or ±ei´ simple rule about this: I before E except after C or when sounding like AY as in neighbour and weigh Rule I before E Examples achieve.