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Defect Attribution Guidelines

- Shankar KN

Contents 1 2 3 4 Causal Analysis and its purpose List of Causes present in IPMS Definition for Causes References 9 February 2012 .

Causal Analysis and its purpose Causal Analysis Causal analysis is a method to find the root causes of a defect or problem Purpose  To analyze defects and problems relating to quality in a systematic manner and to initiate corrective as well as preventive measures with a view to avoid/minimize recurrence of the same in future phases/projects 9 February 2012 .

List of Causes present in IPMS IPMS Causes Inadequate Input Inadequate Standards Inadequate Skill Inadequate Training/Induction Inadequate Documentation Inadequate Communication Inapplicable/Inappropriate Method/Process Inadequacy of Tool Inherited Defects Reviewer's Misunderstanding/Misconception Inadequate Environment/Infrastructure Inadequate Planning Inappropriate use of DP checklist Inappropriate use of Standards Lack of Business/Application Knowledge Inadequate test plan or cases Inadequate Checklist Inadequate Self Reviews Inadequate V&V of CSP or Reusable Components Suggestions 9 February 2012 .

Definition for Causes ‡ Ambiguous/ Incorrect/ Erroneous Inputs from Client ‡ Incomplete Inputs for the activity from the project team ‡ Inadequate test data or test specifications ‡ Incomplete/ Inadequate Inputs from Clients ‡ Test Specifications do not exist ‡ The input required to complete review was not sufficient Inadequate Input Inadequate Skill ‡ The person is not technically skilled ‡ Lack of technical knowledge ‡ Skill does not meet the requirement ‡ Not skilled in analysis / design techniques 9 February 2012 .

Definition for Causes contd« Inadequate Documentation ‡ Adequate documentation not available for the process/work ‡ Implicit requirements not being documented ‡ Defects were introduced because impact analysis of change was not documented properly ‡ Templates do not specify what needs to be documented ‡ Insufficient comments are used to describe the purpose ‡ Insufficient discrimination between defined items ‡ Item definition inconsistent and distributed. ‡ Incomplete/Incorrect Traceability Document ‡ Explanation not proper/incomplete in the work item which is used as input to the subsequent phases 9 February 2012 .

Definition for Causes contd« Inadequate Training/Induction ‡ Ineffective training ‡ Untrained Resources ‡ Ineffective project induction ‡ Training not imparted at the right time Inadequacy of Tool ‡ Problem with the tool used ‡ Limitation of the tool ‡ Defect was introduced due to a change made in a reusable component ‡ Incompatibility of a tool being used in the project with other tools being used 9 February 2012 .

Inadequate Standards ‡ Standards document is not complete and there are missing coding or documentation standards ‡ Project Standards for the phase are incorrect or incomplete ‡ Project standards are so generic. ‡ Tendency to give too many features.Definition for Causes contd« Inadequate Planning ‡ Not Enough time allocated to complete the activity and hence error occurred ‡ Inadequate Testing by the programmer ‡ Inability to identify functional experts in team. ‡ Inadequacy of tool used for planning. that it is difficult to follow them ‡ Non-existent project standards 9 February 2012 . ‡ Improper selection/omission of optional processes. ‡ Improper handling of changes.

(For example: Change in Standards not being communicated within the team) ‡ Obsolete standards or input document used ‡ No minutes of meeting prepared ‡ Misinterpretation of information ‡ Issues not tracked / resolved ‡ Inadequate Communication Skills ‡ No proper communication between developer and end user ‡ Different perspective of the situation / problem / requirement ‡ Lack of feedback mechanism ‡ Inadequate coordination among the team ‡ Improper coordination between relevant groups 9 February 2012 .Definition for Causes contd« Inadequate Communication ‡ Lack of effective communication within the offshore team or between onsite-offshore team.

which are caused due to oversight. will be attributed to this cause ‡ No self reviews 9 February 2012 .Definition for Causes contd« Lack of Business/ Application Knowledge Inadequate V&V of CSP or Reusable Components ‡ The person is inexperienced in the Business Application ‡ A defect has occurred because the review of other items was not complete Inadequate Self Reviews ‡ All the defects.

Definition for Causes contd« Inapplicable/ inappropriate methodology or process ‡ A defect occurred because the project followed a process not defined in iQMS or OSSP Inadequate Checklist ‡ Checklist is incorrect/incomplete ‡ Non-existent Checklist ‡ Checklist is not used OR not followed in appropriate places ‡ Schedule pressure leads to bypass examining product against checklist Inappropriate use of DP checklist 9 February 2012 .

The existing application has some bugs.Definition for Causes contd« Inappropriate use of Standards ‡ Standards Document is not used OR Standards are not followed in appropriate places Inadequate test plan or case ‡ Test Plan or Test Cases are incomplete in the earlier phases Inherited Defects ‡ Typically used in Maintenance / Conversion / Migration / Reengineering projects where we get the application to be worked upon. which were detected during the code walkthrough or testing. 9 February 2012 .

Reviewer's perception was different from author.Definition for Causes contd« Reviewer's Misunderstanding /Misconception ‡ Reviewer is not aware of the functionality. in case where the defect is a misunderstanding on reviewer's part and it is to be rejected. ‡ Reviewer does not have domain knowledge for the same ‡ Misunderstanding of module function/Program segment function ‡ Misunderstanding concerning the module function and their relationship to system function ‡ Improper co-ordination between reviewer and developer ‡ When the right kind of hardware or software is not available (server issues etc) which has given rise to a defect ‡ Coding / Testing environment incomplete ‡ Testing environment not in sync with production / client Acceptance environment ‡ Inadequate/Incorrect/Incomplete Software Upgrade Inadequate Environment/ Infrastructure 9 February 2012 .

These changes may include change in format of an error message. which cannot be classified under any other defect category. Cause to be used only for severity "Suggestion" 9 February 2012 . colour/size of any UI element etc.Definition for Causes contd« Suggestions ‡ This is to take care of those changes suggested by the reviewer.

net/km/index.ultimatix. Appendix A URL: https://iqmskm.php/PPM_A 9 February 2012 .References TCS-iQMS-052(PPM-Project Procedures Manual) PP3090 : CAUSAL ANALYSIS.

Thank You 9 February 2012 .