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- Ahmed 2016
- CHAPTER 3 Velocity Disns in Turbulent Flow
- 6%2E2003-4162.pdf
- II Numerical Model
- Quick Start — FLOW-3D v11.1
- Cfd Modeling of Corrugated Flexible Pipe
- A refinement of previous hypotheses concerning the local structure of turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid at high Reynolds number
- On Effect of Lift Forces in Bubble Plumes
- 481AB
- Fluent-Adv Turbulence 15.0 L04 Les and Utmm
- Cement Displacement Theory
- CFD Modified Robin-Type Wall Functions for Turbulence Industries
- Turbulence generated by fractal grids.PDF
- Pressure Loss Calculation - Santelli Unprotected
- DK2135_ch03
- Simulation and Experimental Validation of Two-Phase Flow in an Aerosol-Counter Flow Reactor using Computational Fluid Dynamics939_ftp
- vol1no4-9_deBortoliAL
- Fluid Mixing Exp
- Computational Analysis of Vortex Tube with Different Inlet Shapes
- Numerical Simulation of Minimum Distance Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
- 10.1017@jfm.2016.532
- The Future Prospects of Turbulence Modeling
- Introduction to CFD Basics
- B.tech. Civil Engineering Full Syllabus India
- scm
- 1-s2.0-S0010218004001397-main.pdf
- [Vincent_Mannings,_Alan_Boss,_Sara_S._Russell]_Pro(BookFi).pdf
- ENME.3400.31553.SYLLABUS.SUM17.r1
- Bio‐Inspired Passive Drag Reduction Techniques: A Review
- Takeru Suzuki- A Solution to the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration in the Coronal Holes : Non-linear Alfven Waves
- Sami K. Solanki- Structure of the solar chromosphere
- D. V. Reames- Solar Energetic Particle Variations
- Alphonse C. Sterling- Solar Spicules: A Review of Recent Models and Targets for Future Observations
- P. Venkatakrishnan- Inhibition of convective collapse of solar magnetic flux tubes by radiative diffusion
- R. Erdelyi- Heating of the Solar Corona: Review
- D. Lario, B. Sanahuja and A.M. Heras- A Tool to Model Solar Energetic Particle Events
- T. Magara- 3-dimensional Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Tube Emerging into the Solar Atmosphere
- Galen Gisler- Particle Energization
- Akitsugu Takeuchi and Kazunari Shibata- Solar photospheric magnetic reconnection
- J.O. Stenflo and R. Holzreuter- Flux tubes or fractal distributions – on the nature of photospheric magnetic fields
- C.-Y. Tu et al- Pressure enhancement associated with meridional flow in high-speed solar wind: possible evidence for an interplanetary magnetic flux rope
- D. Fujimura and S. Tsuneta- Properties of Magneto- Hydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Photosphere with Hinode
- R.M. Close et al- Statistical Flux Tube Properties of 3D Magnetic Carpet Fields
- R. Vainio et al- Simulations of coronal shock acceleration in self-generated waves
- Jens Kleimann and Gunnar Hornig- Non-ideal MHD Properties of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Photosphere
- V. Holzwarth- Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes III: Toroidal flux tubes
- M. Battarbee et al- Acceleration of Energetic Particles Through Self-Generated Waves in a Decelerating Coronal Shock
- S. P. Gerhardt et al- Equilibrium and stability studies of oblate field-reversed configurations in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment
- Patrick Hartigan et al- Magnetic Fields in Stellar Jets
- P. M. Bellan- Miniconference on astrophysical jets
- R. Erdélyi and R. J. Morton- Magnetohydrodynamic waves in a compressible magnetic flux tube with elliptical cross-section
- Oskar Steiner- Photospheric processes and magnetic flux tubes
- C. Gontikakis et al- A solar active region loop compared with a 2D MHD model
- P. Venkatakrishnan and S. S. Hasan- Time-Dependent Interaction of Granules with Magnetic Flux Tubes
- Go Murakami et al- An isolated magnetic flux tube filled with dense plasma in the plasmasphere observed by KAGUYA
- S. C. Hsu and P.M. Bellan- Experimental Identification of the Kink Instability as a Poloidal Flux Amplification Mechanism for Coaxial Gun Spheromak Formation
- G. J. D. Petrie et al- 2D MHD modelling of compressible and heated coronal loops obtained via nonlinear separation of variables and compared to TRACE and SoHO observations
- Peter Foukal and Pietro N. Bernasconi- Do Photospheric Brightness Structures Outside Magnetic Flux Tubes Contribute to Solar Luminosity Variation?
- G. J. J. Botha, A. M. Rucklidge and N. E. Hurlburt- Nonaxisymmetric instabilities of convection around magnetic flux tubes

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(Theory)

Wolfram Schmidt

Institut für theoretische Physik und Astrophysik Universität Würzburg

Stirring of Fluid

Mechanical force stirring fluid into rotational motion Turn-over time T, wavelength L What happens in the limit t ? It depends on the Reynolds number!

LV 1 L Re ! ! R R T

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence

2

2

**Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow
**

Reynolds, 1883

If Re is relatively small, only eddies of size L are produced For Re ~ 1000, the motion of adjacent fluid layers becomes unstable

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

3

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Astrophysical Turbulence

4

Fluid motion forces vortices to stretch, and a stretching vortex must fold to accomodate an increasing length in a fixed volume. To the extent that the flow is scaling, I conjecture the vortex tends toward a fractal.

Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

5

Vortices

**Turbulent fluid motion is inherently rotational
**

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 6

**Strain and Vorticity
**

Symmetric derivative Antisymmetric derivative

Sik !

1 2

x i vk x k vi

Wik !

1 2

x i vk x k vi

Rate of strain

S ! 2 Sik Sik

Dilatation

Vorticity

! 2WikWik ! v v

Astrophysical Turbulence 7

d ! Sii ! v

21 September 2004

Vortex Formation

**Vortices are streched and folded in three dimensions
**

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 8

Porter et al. ASCI, 1997

**The Turbulence Cascade
**

Richardson, 1922; Onsager, 1945

Breaking up of laminar flow structure due to large |S| produces high vorticity Force of wavelength L produces structure on scales much smaller than L for high Re Small vortices are quasi random Turbulence is a non-linear multi-scale phenomenon

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 9

Isotropic Turbulence

Taylor, 1935

Statistically, there is no prefered direction (random orientation of vortices) In nature, turbulence is never exactly isotropic on large scales (forcing, BCs) However, turbulent flows tend to become asymptotically isotropic towards small scales (randomisation by non-linear energy transfer)

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 10

**The Kolmogorov Theory
**

Hypothesis of local isotropy: At sufficiently high

Re, the dynamics on small scales tends to become

statistically isotropic

** First similarity hypothesis: The statistics of
**

isotropic velocity fluctuations on sufficiently small scales are universal und uniquely determined by the viscosity and the rate of kintetic energy dissipation Second similarity hypothesis: There is a subrange of scales for which the statistics of turbulent fluid motions are independent of the mechanism and the length scale of dissipation

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 11

**The 5/3 Power Law (K41)
**

log E

E (k ) ! C

2/3

k

5 / 3

k -5/3

**Rate of dissipation Wave number k = 2 /l Length scale of viscous dissipation
**

K

L

-1

-1 K

log k

L

K

} Re

3/ 4

!

3 / 4 1 / 4

Astrophysical Turbulence

21 September 2004

12

But the hope that Ähomogeneous turbulence³ would be a sensible model was dashed by Landau & Lifschitz 195319531959, which notes that some regions are marked by very high dissipation, while other regions seem by contrast nearly free of dissipation.

Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

13

Realistic Turbulence

Convective boundary layers: Anisotropy in

stratified medium (convection zones, atmospheres)

** Turbulent combustion: Anisotropy across flame
**

surface, transient flow (thermonuclear supernovae)

** Gravoturbulence: Inhomogeneous and supersonic
**

turbulence in self-gravitating fluids (star formation)

** MHD turbulence: Instability of fluid motion due to
**

interaction with magnetic field, multi-scale anisotropy (ionized gas in ISM, jets, accretion disks)

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 14

The Navier-Stokes Equation NavierConservation of momentum

D v ! P f Dt

Lagrangian time derivative Mechanical, magnetic, gravitational forces Viscous dissipation tensor

ik

D x ! v Dt xt

21 September 2004

!2

Sik

!2

Sik 1 ik
3

15

**Non-linear advection
**

Astrophysical Turbulence

Further Equations

Conservation of energy

D e Pv v c P T
! f v Dt

Mass conservation Poisson equation

D Dt

v ! 0

(J ! 4TG

Maxwell equations in the case of MHD

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

16

Statistical Theories

Mixing length theory: one characteristic length -peak) scale lM = HP (Kolmogorv spectrum ODT models: one-dimensional stochastic process

for eddy size (reproduces Kolmogorv spectrum)

** PDF models: determine probability distributions
**

for velocity fluctuations etc.

** Reynolds stress models: dynamical equations
**

for moments of fluctuating fields

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 17

Stellar Convection

Full Reynolds stress model for compressible turbulence (Canuto, 1997): multitude of coupled, non-linear PDEs hopeless Feasible model: reduced set of eqns. for mean K , Fc , and average squared fluctuations of temperature and horizontal velocity (Kupka, 1999)

Closure relations for higher order moments Non-local & anisotropic

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 18

Stellar Convection: Convective Flux

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

**Kupka MPA, 2004
**

19

Stellar Convection: Vertical RMS Velocity

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

**Kupka MPA, 2004
**

20

Numerical Simulations

Direct numerical simulation (DNS): Static grid, NSE or numerical viscosity Large Eddy Simulation (LES): Subgrid scale model for unresolved turbulence Smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH): Particle ensemble represents the flow Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR): Hierarchy of dynamically generated grid patches

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 21

Thermonuclear Supernovae

Runaway turbulent deflagration of C+O in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf PPM for hydrodynamics (Fryxell et al., 1989) Subgrid scale model for turbulent flame speed (Niemeyer & Hillebrandt, 1995) Level set method for flame surface tracking (Reinecke et al., 1999 ) Homologous grid expansion to follow the explosion (Röpke, 2004)

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 22

t=0s

History of a SN Ia Explosion

t = 0.3 s

t = 0.6 s

**Röpke et al. MPA, 2004
**

t=2s

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 23

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

24

**Turbulence in the ISM
**

Supersonic turbulence in self-gravitating gas Thermal processes, magnetic fields Paradigm of turbulent star formation: Turbulence can induce local gravitational collapse, albeit it provides global support SPH treatment: e.g. Klessen, 2001 AMR treatment with PPM/ZEUS: e.g. Kritsuk & Norman, 2002; Abel et al., 2002

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 25

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

26

21 September 2004

Astrophysical Turbulence

27

Résumé

Significant developments in the treatment of turbulent convection via statistical models Three-dimensional simulations with sophisticated codes running on extremely powerful computers offer exciting insights However, most simulations are ignorant of small-scale turbulence (SGS models!) AMR is excellent for inhomogeneous and transient and astrophysical flows, but is it appropriate for turbulence?

21 September 2004 Astrophysical Turbulence 28

- Ahmed 2016Uploaded byAnkush
- CHAPTER 3 Velocity Disns in Turbulent FlowUploaded byEarl Hernan
- 6%2E2003-4162.pdfUploaded byhenk
- II Numerical ModelUploaded byronywerner
- Quick Start — FLOW-3D v11.1Uploaded byXinwei Li
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- CFD Modified Robin-Type Wall Functions for Turbulence IndustriesUploaded byiGedeAS
- Turbulence generated by fractal grids.PDFUploaded byDeepThinking
- Pressure Loss Calculation - Santelli UnprotectedUploaded byGabor Daniel
- DK2135_ch03Uploaded byandriaerospace
- Simulation and Experimental Validation of Two-Phase Flow in an Aerosol-Counter Flow Reactor using Computational Fluid Dynamics939_ftpUploaded byLi Ch
- vol1no4-9_deBortoliALUploaded bySandra Powers
- Fluid Mixing ExpUploaded byNawal DaBomb
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- Numerical Simulation of Minimum Distance Jet Impingement Heat TransferUploaded byPrashant
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- Takeru Suzuki- A Solution to the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration in the Coronal Holes : Non-linear Alfven WavesUploaded byOlmnop
- Sami K. Solanki- Structure of the solar chromosphereUploaded byOlmnop
- D. V. Reames- Solar Energetic Particle VariationsUploaded byOlmnop
- Alphonse C. Sterling- Solar Spicules: A Review of Recent Models and Targets for Future ObservationsUploaded byOlmnop
- P. Venkatakrishnan- Inhibition of convective collapse of solar magnetic flux tubes by radiative diffusionUploaded byOlmnop
- R. Erdelyi- Heating of the Solar Corona: ReviewUploaded byOlmnop
- D. Lario, B. Sanahuja and A.M. Heras- A Tool to Model Solar Energetic Particle EventsUploaded byOlmnop
- T. Magara- 3-dimensional Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Tube Emerging into the Solar AtmosphereUploaded byOlmnop
- Galen Gisler- Particle EnergizationUploaded byOlmnop
- Akitsugu Takeuchi and Kazunari Shibata- Solar photospheric magnetic reconnectionUploaded byOlmnop
- J.O. Stenflo and R. Holzreuter- Flux tubes or fractal distributions – on the nature of photospheric magnetic fieldsUploaded byOlmnop
- C.-Y. Tu et al- Pressure enhancement associated with meridional flow in high-speed solar wind: possible evidence for an interplanetary magnetic flux ropeUploaded byOlmnop
- D. Fujimura and S. Tsuneta- Properties of Magneto- Hydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Photosphere with HinodeUploaded byOlmnop
- R.M. Close et al- Statistical Flux Tube Properties of 3D Magnetic Carpet FieldsUploaded byOlmnop
- R. Vainio et al- Simulations of coronal shock acceleration in self-generated wavesUploaded byOlmnop
- Jens Kleimann and Gunnar Hornig- Non-ideal MHD Properties of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar PhotosphereUploaded byOlmnop
- V. Holzwarth- Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes III: Toroidal flux tubesUploaded byOlmnop
- M. Battarbee et al- Acceleration of Energetic Particles Through Self-Generated Waves in a Decelerating Coronal ShockUploaded byOlmnop
- S. P. Gerhardt et al- Equilibrium and stability studies of oblate field-reversed configurations in the Magnetic Reconnection ExperimentUploaded byOlmnop
- Patrick Hartigan et al- Magnetic Fields in Stellar JetsUploaded byOlmnop
- P. M. Bellan- Miniconference on astrophysical jetsUploaded byOlmnop
- R. Erdélyi and R. J. Morton- Magnetohydrodynamic waves in a compressible magnetic flux tube with elliptical cross-sectionUploaded byOlmnop
- Oskar Steiner- Photospheric processes and magnetic flux tubesUploaded byOlmnop
- C. Gontikakis et al- A solar active region loop compared with a 2D MHD modelUploaded byOlmnop
- P. Venkatakrishnan and S. S. Hasan- Time-Dependent Interaction of Granules with Magnetic Flux TubesUploaded byOlmnop
- Go Murakami et al- An isolated magnetic flux tube filled with dense plasma in the plasmasphere observed by KAGUYAUploaded byOlmnop
- S. C. Hsu and P.M. Bellan- Experimental Identification of the Kink Instability as a Poloidal Flux Amplification Mechanism for Coaxial Gun Spheromak FormationUploaded byOlmnop
- G. J. D. Petrie et al- 2D MHD modelling of compressible and heated coronal loops obtained via nonlinear separation of variables and compared to TRACE and SoHO observationsUploaded byOlmnop
- Peter Foukal and Pietro N. Bernasconi- Do Photospheric Brightness Structures Outside Magnetic Flux Tubes Contribute to Solar Luminosity Variation?Uploaded byOlmnop
- G. J. J. Botha, A. M. Rucklidge and N. E. Hurlburt- Nonaxisymmetric instabilities of convection around magnetic flux tubesUploaded byOlmnop