Date: February 14, 2012.

Clockless Chips
Presented by: KONIJETI NARASIMHA RAO (11C104216) Vardhaman College of Engineering.

Presentation flow: 
      

Introduction. Problems with synchronous circuits. Clockless / Asynchronous circuits. How clockless chips work? Simplicity in design. Applications. Applications (technical perspective). Challenges.
Presentation on Clockless Chips 2

February 14, 2012

 Struggle for the improvement in the microprocessor¶s performance/functioning. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 3 . ± Pipelining ± (Simultaneous) Multi-threading ± Clockless / Asynchronous logic } Synchronous February 14.Introduction.

February 14. Order of arrival of the signals is unimportant. Wastage of energy. Clocks themselves consume lot of energy (~30%).Problems with Synchronous Approach      Distributing the clock globally. Traverse the chip¶s longest wires in one clock cycle. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 4 .

2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 5 . February 14.  EMI is more in synchronous elements.  Dissipation of energy for each clock cycle.Synchronous circuit  Longest path determines the minimum clock period.

Functions away from the clock. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 6 .Clockless chips (Asynchronous logic circuits)     Colckless chips/Asynchronous/self-timed circuits. February 14. Different parts work at different speeds. Hand-off the result immediately.

2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 7 . February 14. clockless time cycle Courtesy: Fulcrum Microsystems.Clock time cycle vs.

Courtesy: Computers without clocks ± Ivan E Sutherland and Jo Ebergen February 14. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 8 .

± Stream data applications. not always. ± Less EMI   less noise   more applications. Uses handshake signals for the data exchange.How do they work?    No pure asynchronous chips are available. Data moves only when required. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 9 . February 14. ± Minimizes power consumption.

Standardized components can be used. February 14. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 10 .Simple and efficient design   No centralized clock required.

± Bundled data. February 14.Some features  Integrated pipelining mode. ± Delay ± insensitive.  Two different implementation details ± Dual rail. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 11 . ± Domino logic.

  Twice life-time.Advantages      Works at its average speed.   Good to mobile devices. February 14. Smart cards (due to asynchronous nature). Low power consumption. Less heat generated. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 12 . Less EMI   less noise   more applications.

February 14.Advantages (technical look)  Asynchronous for higher performance: ± Data-dependent delays. ± All carry bits need to be computed. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 13 .

2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 14 .Advantages (technical look)«  Asynchronous for low power: ± Consumes power only when and where active. ± Rest of the time returns to a non-dissipating state. ± Illustrated through frequency divider February 14. until next activation.

± Many applications such as: ‡ Infrared communication receiver.Advantages (technical look)«  Asynchronous for low power: ± Almost fixed power dissipation is achieved. ‡ Filter bank for digital hearing. ‡ In pagers. ‡ Double battery life. February 14. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 15 .

Advantages (technical look)«  Asynchronous for low noise and low emission: ± Digital sub-circuits ‡ Generates voltage noise (on power lines) ‡ Induces current on silicon substrate. February 14. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 16 . ‡ Emits electromagnetic radiation at its clock frequency or its harmonics.

± Heterogeneous systems would increase the delays in the circuits. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 17 . February 14.Advantages (technical look)«  Heterogeneous Timing: ± Gate delays. ± Interconnection delays.

    Lack of expertise. Academically. no courses available. Lack of tools. Engineers are not trained in these fields. Presentation on Clockless Chips 18 February 14.Challenges  Interfacing between synchronous and asynchronous ± Many devices available now are synchronous in nature. 2012 . ± Special circuits are needed to align them.

Mark B.technologyreview.edu/async/misc/economist/Economist_c om.cs. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/comp/mags/dt/2003/06/d6005.cs. 2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 19       . and Steven M.References  Scanning the Technology: Applications of Asynchronous Circuits ± C.edu/async/misc/technologyreview_oct_0 1_2001.org/iel5/2/30617/01413111.htm February 14.asp http://www1. Nowick Computers without clocks ± Ivan E Sutherland and Jo Ebergen.pdf (October 2001) http://csdl2.columbia. (Kees) van Berkel.com/articles/01/10/tristram1001. H.columbia. Josephs.pdf http://www1.computer.html http://www.

2012 Presentation on Clockless Chips 20 .Thank you February 14.