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Motivation Experimental Set-Up SetTheory behind the set-up setResults Acknowledgements

Motivation

Attosecond pulses could be used to study timetime-dependence of atomic dynamics. Greater control of pulse duration gives a better control of the power produced from each pulse as well.

**The Set-Up Set1000 nm
**

Diffraction Grating

Direction of grating (235 grooves/mm)

Diffraction Grating

Concave Mirror

SLM 500 nm

Spectrometer

SHG Prism

BBO Crystal

Concave mirror F=500mm

Incoming Pulse

Concave Mirror

Alignment

Grating

second order diffraction(1064nm) first order diffraction(532nm)

64mm

Green laser 532nm

Make 1 order and 2 order spots overlap on the output grating

Spots overlap Use CCD cameras to detect the overlap

Adjust the location of this reflecting mirror to overlap spots horizontally.

Change the inclination of input grating to adjust vertical position of two spots on the output grating.

TrialsTrials-green laser and spectrometer

For SHG

Two photons enter the BBO. Each has a frequency . One photon leaves the BBO with frequency (2 ). The contribution of each initial photon 1, 2 is as follows + ; 2= ;2 = 1+ 2 1 = Where is just a way of expressing the energy difference between the contributions of each photon The spectrum of a beam is given by

( S ([ ) )|

(2)

F {E (t )}

2

MIIPS (Multiphoton Intrapulse Interference Phase Scan) Let frequency= ; difference= phase correction = f ; parameters= , ; phase= ;

S (2 ( ) w!

(2)

´ E ( ( ;)

E ( ( ;) v exp{i[N ( ( ;) N ( ( ;)]}d ;

2

N ( ( ;) N ( ( ;) Take a Taylor approximation 3 d d d Nd 2 Nd ! N (( ) N d ; ; ; And 2 6 d d d You get Nd 2 Nd 3 N (( ) N d ; ; ; 2 6 d ! 2N (( ) N d 2 ;

Let frequency= ; difference= frequency= difference= phase correction = f

; parameters= , ; phase= parameters= phase=

;

A maximum SHG signal corresponds to flat phase. If we can modulate some phase make set , , and scan

f ( ( ) ! E cos(K( H )

d d f d Nd 0 !

d d Nd ) ! f d ) (( ((

d f d ) ! EK 2 cos(K( H ) ((

Nd 0 ) ! 0 ((

N ((0 ) ! 0

N (()

Data obtained using the 10% beam

Amplitude

Fourier Transform

By performing an inverse Fourier transform we can 1 f (t ) ! change the 2T information from a graph showing frequency to a graph showing time t.

g

g

´

F ([ ) exp(i[ t ) d[

Intensity (counts)

f ( x) ! W

1 T 2

[2(

x x0 2 ) ] W2

Original Phase Flat Phase

FWHM ! 2 ln(2)W } 1.17741W ! 1.17741v 32.24545 ! 37.9661 fs

**The Full-WidthFull-WidthHalfHalf-Maximum
**

Full-width-halfFull-width-halfmaximum is the distance between the half-maximum halfpoints.

1

(tFWHM

0.5

t

Also: we can define these widths in terms of f(t) or of its intensity, |f(t)|2. Define spectral widths (([) similarly in the frequency domain (t p[).

With some small phase corrections The last week s work

MIIPS after 9 phase correction attempts

Comparison

**Acknowledgements and Citations
**

Professor Zenghu Chang He Wang, Yi Wu Dr. Larry Weaver Dr. Kristan Corwin Kansas State University Trebino, Rick. "FROG:Lecture Files." Georgia Institute of Technology School of Physics. Georgia Tech Phys Dept. Physics. 29 Jul 2007 <http://www.physics.gatech.edu/gcuo/lectures/>. Lozovoy, Vadim. "Multiphoton Intrapulse Interference." 775Optics Letters 29.7(2004): 775-777.

**Supplementary and extended material Grating Grating
**

64mmX5mm

SLM

D

X

Concave Mirror

**E ! 13.59Q 6.748Q! 6.842Q F ! 3.421 6.748 ! 9.169
**

Q Q Q

sin[arctan( x / f ) F ] ! P / a K ! (90Q F ) / 2 } 49.45Q

Concave Mirror

f=500mm

**BBO ( - Barium Borate) Crystal
**

Why is the BBO crystal used??

Used to separate the beam into it s fundamental and second harmonic frequencies

For SHG

Two photons enter the BBO. Each has a frequency . One photon leaves the BBO with frequency (2 ). The contribution of each initial photon 1, 2 is as follows + ; 2= ;2 = 1+ 2 1 = Where is just a way of expressing the difference between the contributions of each photon The spectrum of a beam is given by

( S ([ ))| F {E (t )}

(2)

2

The spectrum of the beam is given by S2 of 2

is

2

S (2( ) w!

(2)

´ E ( ( ;) E (( ;) v exp{i[N (( ;) N (( ;)]}d ;

We used MIIPS (Multiphoton Intrapulse Interference Phase Scan) to get a picture of the phase of each wavelength contained in the pulse Let frequency= difference= parameters= , phase= phase correction =f

S (2 ( ) w!

(2)

´ E ( ( ;)

E ( ( ;) v exp{i[N ( ( ;) N ( ( ;)]}d ;

2

N ( ( ;) N ( ( ;) d d d Nd 2 Nd 3 ! N (( ) N d ; ; ; 2 6 d d d Nd 2 Nd 3 N (( ) N d ; ; ; 2 6 d ! 2N (( ) N d 2 ;

Maximum SHG signal correspond to flat phase. If we can modulate some phase make f d N d 0 set , , and scan d d !

d d Nd ) ! f d ) (( (( f ( ( ) ! E cos(K( H ) Nd 0) ! 0 (( d f d ) ! EK 2 cos(K( H ) (( N ((0 ) ! 0

N (()

Project Goals weeks studying and During the summer of 2007, I spent approximately ten

researching at Kansas State University Physics Department. My project during this time was to work with two graduate students to shape laser pulses. Specifically, we designed and set up a system that (hopefully) allows us to adjust the phase of each separate frequency of a laser light pulse. Using a device called an SLM, Spatial Light Modifier, we were able to apply different voltages to each pixel on a liquid crystal screen. Each pixel corresponds to a different frequency of light. When we apply the different voltages, we change the phase of each frequency, our goal is to make the phase of each frequency the same. Then applying a Fourier Transform we were able to see how this phase shift changed the time-dependence of the timepulse. Our goal is to be able to control the pulse as we choose, thus making it possible to control the duration of each pulse. We are hoping to attain attosecond pulses through this method.

As a part of this research, I was also given the opportunity to learn many different styles of programming, including, C, C++ ,and LabView. To many, these programs might seem basic, but I had not yet encountered them in my normal studies, so this presented a new and interesting challenge for me. LabView especially proved to be quite the ordeal and I spent a good deal of time learning this program and attempting to write a program that would be useful to our experiment with it.

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