January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology
IEEE P802.22 Wireless RANs Authors: Name Company
Eli Sofer Runcom Technologies Yossi Segal Runcom Technologies

Date: 2005-01-04 Phone email
elisofer@runcom.co.il yossis@runcom.co.il

Address

2 Hachoma St., 75655 +972 3 9528440 Rishon Lezion, Israel 2, achoma St. 75655 +972 3 952 8440 Rishon Lezion, Israel

Notice: This document has been prepared to assist IEEE 802.22. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor grants a free, irrevocable license to the IEEE to incorporate material contained in this contribution, and any modifications thereof, in the creation of an IEEE Standards publication; to copyright in the IEEE¶s name any IEEE Standards publication even though it may include portions of this contribution; and at the IEEE¶s sole discretion to permit others to reproduce in whole or in part the resulting IEEE Standards publication. The contributor also acknowledges and accepts that this contribution may be made public by IEEE 802.22. Patent Policy and Procedures: The contributor is familiar with the IEEE 802 Patent Policy and Procedures http://standards.ieee.org/guides/bylaws/sb-bylaws.pdf including the statement "IEEE standards may include the known use of patent(s), including patent applications, provided the IEEE receives assurance from the patent holder or applicant with respect to patents essential for compliance with both mandatory and optional portions of the standard." Early disclosure to the Working Group of patent information that might be relevant to the standard is essential to reduce the possibility for delays in the development process and increase the likelihood that the draft publication will be approved for publication. Please notify the Chair Carl R. Stevenson as early as possible, in written or electronic form, if patented technology (or technology under patent application) might be incorporated into a draft standard being developed within the IEEE 802.22 Working Group. If you have questions, contact the IEEE Patent Committee Administrator at patcom@iee.org. >

Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Slide 1 1

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Abstract
The contribution presents a tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) technology which has been endorsed in leading standards such as- ETSI DVB-RCT and IEEE802.16a,d and 16e. Essential parameters of UpLink and DownLink and simulation results are presented. System capabilities and advantages are also discussed. The tutorial could offer an insight and understanding of OFDMA technology to be considered as a candidate for WRAN system

Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Slide 2 2

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology
Eli Sofer Runcom Technologies Ltd

Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Slide 3 3

Eli Sofer, Runcom

January 2005

Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0

Contents
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ OFDMA System Architecture Illustrated Example OFDMA System Properties Coverage and Capacity

Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Slide 4 4

Eli Sofer, Runcom

22-05-0005r0 OFDMA System Architecture Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc. Runcom . Slide 5 5 Eli Sofer.

Antenna Array Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Runcom . Slide 6 6 Eli Sofer. Time.22-05-0005r0 ‡ Duplexing Technique FDD/TDD ‡ Multiple Access Method TDMA/OFDMA OFDM Symbols allocated by TDMA Sub-Carriers within an OFDM Symbol allocated by OFDMA ‡ Diversity Frequency. Space Time Coding. Code (CPE and BS).January 2005 Doc.: IEEE802.

Runcom .January 2005 Doc. TDD (time Division Duplexing) Uses the same frequency for the Downlink and the Uplink.Frequency band Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802.Frequency band F1 . DownLink UpLink FDD F1 . Slide 7 7 Eli Sofer. and a Second Frequency for the UpLink.Frequency band DownLink UpLink TDD F1 .Principles FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing ) Uses One Frequency for the DownLink. In any configuration the access method is OFDMA/TDMA .22-05-0005r0 Duplexing .Frequency band F2 .

January 2005 Doc.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 OFDMA-TDMA Principles Using OFDMA/TDMA. Slide 8 8 Eli Sofer. Runcom . and OFDM Symbols allocated in the Time Domain. Sub Channels are allocated in the Frequency Domain. t TDMA m TDMA\OFDMA N Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 DownLink OFDMA Symbol Symbol Pilots Sub-Channel Data Carriers Total Frequency Band Guard Band Guard Band Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Slide 9 9 Eli Sofer.January 2005 Doc. Runcom .

January 2005 Doc. Runcom . Slide 10 10 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802. ‡ Adaptive Modulation and Coding per Sub-Channel in the Down-Link ‡ Forward APC controlling (+6dB) ± (-6dB) digital gain on the transmitted Sub-Channel ‡ Supporting optional Space Time Coding employing Alamouti STC. Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. each burst consists of N data modulated carriers. ‡ Supporting optional Adaptive Array.22-05-0005r0 DownLink Specification ‡ Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the Frequency domain and n OFDMA time symbols in the time domain.

DownLink Specification ‡ FFT size : 2048 ‡ Guard Intervals : ¼. keeping overall coding rate to = ½. Runcom . ‡ 32 Sub-Channels of 48 data carriers each Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.G1=171. Slide 11 11 Eli Sofer. 1/16. 1/8. ¾ ‡ QPSK.22-05-0005r0 Example.G2=133. 64QAM modulation ‡ Modulo 4. 16QAM. ¾ ‡ Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC).: IEEE802. 1/32 ‡ Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and Convolutional coding (k=7. Pilot based Symbol Structure.January 2005 Doc. Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to = ½.

Runcom .22-05-0005r0 Downlink Pilot and Data Carriers Allocation Scheme carrier index symbol index n L=0 0 12 24 N used -1 n+1 L=2 0 6 18 30 N used -1 n+2 L=1 0 3 15 27 N used -1 n+3 L=3 0 9 21 N used -1 n+4 time L=0 0 12 Variable Location Pilot 24 N used -1 Fixed-location Pilot Data Allocation Key: Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Slide 12 12 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc.

22-05-0005r0 Space Time Coding IFFT Subcarrier modulation IFFT input packing Tx diversity encoder IFFT Filter DAC RF Filter DAC RF Tx Rx RF DAC Filter FFT Diversity Combiner Subchannel demod. Slide 13 13 Eli Sofer.January 2005 Doc. Runcom .: IEEE802. LogLikelihood ratios Decoder Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

January 2005 Doc. Runcom .22-05-0005r0 UpLink OFDMA Symbol Pilots Carriers Sub-Channel #1 Data Carriers Sub-Channel #1 Pilots Carriers Sub-Channel #1 Data Carriers Sub-Channel #x Total Frequency Band Guard Band Guard Band Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802. Slide 14 14 Eli Sofer.

: IEEE802. Runcom . Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. ‡ Adaptive Modulation and Coding per User in the UpLink ‡ User Can be allocated 1 up to 32 Sub-Channels ‡ 2 Sub-Channels are used as the Ranging Sub-Channels for User Ranging and fast Band-Width Request.22-05-0005r0 Example of UpLink Specification ‡ Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the Frequency domain and 3 OFDMA time symbols in the time domain. Slide 15 15 Eli Sofer. each burst consists of 144 data modulated carriers.January 2005 Doc.

16QAM. 64QAM modulation ‡ Modulo 13. 48 carriers used for data Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. 1/16. 5 carriers used as pilots. 1/8.: IEEE802. ‡ 32 Sub-Channels of 53 carriers each. Slide 16 16 Eli Sofer.22-05-0005r0 Example of UpLink Specification ‡ FFT size : 2048 ‡ Guard Intervals : ¼.G1=171. keeping overall coding rate to = ½. 1/32 ‡ Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and Convolutional coding (k=7. ¾ ‡ Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC). Runcom .G2=133. Pilot based Sub-Channel Structure. Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to = ½. ¾ ‡ QPSK.January 2005 Doc.

Runcom .January 2005 Doc. Slide 17 17 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 Example for UpLink Sub-Channel Pilot and Data Carriers Allocation Scheme frequency symbol index n L=0 0 n+1 L=2 0 2 n+2 L=4 0 4 17 26 30 44 52 15 26 28 42 52 13 26 27 40 52 n+11 L=9 0 9 22 26 36 49 52 n+12 L=11 0 11 24 26 38 51 52 n+13 time L=0 0 13 26 27 40 52 Allocation Key: Variable Location Pilot Fixed-location Pilot Data Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

block 1 1 2 3 30 31 32 Frequency band 1 each group contains 53 carriers 2 3 Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.22-05-0005r0 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation ‡ All usable carriers are divided into 32 carrier groups named basic group. each main group contains 53 basic groups. Slide 18 18 Eli Sofer. Runcom .: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc.

5 User #1 User #2 0 2 5 10 21 22 1 5 Total Frequency band Guard Band User 1 = 0.18.0.10.22.9.17.9.10.13.19.12.19.17.21.9.3.13.22.1 ‡ After two cyclic permutations we get: 2.4.3.12.7.8.22-05-0005r0 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation ‡ Carriers are allocated by a basic series and it¶s cyclic permutations for example: ‡ Basic Series: 0.5.19.5 Guard Band Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.8.4.3. Slide 19 19 Eli Sofer.11.17.January 2005 Doc.13.16.11.14. Runcom .5.19.15.22.13.14.21.22.1 User 2 = 2.21.20.14.0.6.11.17.7.2.10.12.2.16.3.20.15.15.16.1.: IEEE802.18.6.18.10.4.4.15.8.1.20.6.20.18.11.14.6.21.8.12.9.7.7.16.

January 2005 Doc. ‡ The allocation by permutation give an excellent interference spreading and averaging.almost 1. Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Slide 20 20 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation ‡ The Carriers of each Sub-Channel are spread all over the usable frequency for best frequency diversity ‡ The allocation by permutation gives an excellent Reuse factor . Runcom .

‡ Onto the Ranging Sub-Channel users modulate a Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence using BPSK modulation ‡ The Base Station detects the different sequences and uses the CIR that he derives from the sequences for: ± Time and power synchronization ± Decide on the user modulation and coding Eli Sofer. Slide 21 21 . Runcom Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. the logic unit they consist is called a Ranging Sub-Channel.22-05-0005r0 Using CDMA like modulation for Ranging ‡ The CDMA like synchronization is achieved by allocating several of the usable Sub-Channels for the Ranging process.: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc.

5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Collision expectation value 7 8 9 10 ‡ Aloha vs.22-05-0005r0 DVB-RCT MAC Performance 2.January 2005 Doc. Runcom . CDMA BW request (32 codes) ± CDMA efficiency is better by a factor of six ± CDMA latency is better by a factor of four Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.5 1 0. Slide 22 22 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.5 2 Sucessful BWrequests per slot 1.

Runcom .: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc. Slide 23 23 Eli Sofer.22-05-0005r0 Illustrated Example Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

: IEEE802. Slide 24 24 Eli Sofer.January 2005 Doc.22-05-0005r0 Example ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Subscriber Units at the Current OFDMA Symbol = 3 Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #1 = 12 Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #2 = 9 Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #3 = 6 Number Of New Subscriber-Units Requesting Services = 3 All Subscriber-Units Suffer Different Multi-Paths and different Attenuation's Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Runcom .

Runcom .: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 Example ‡ Constellation at the Base Station Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc. Slide 25 25 Eli Sofer.

January 2005 Doc.22-05-0005r0 Example ‡ Users Separation Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Runcom .: IEEE802. Slide 26 26 Eli Sofer.

5 0 0 -0.5 1.5 -1 -0.5 1 1.5 0 0.Results ‡ User Estimation Cons tellation to E s tiam te E s tim ated vec 2 2 1.January 2005 Doc.5 -1.5 2 -2 -2 -1.5 1 1 0.5 -1 -1 -1.5 -0.5 -2 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 2 Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. Runcom .5 0.22-05-0005r0 Example .5 1 1.: IEEE802. Slide 27 27 Eli Sofer.

5 1 1.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -0.22-05-0005r0 Results ‡ User Estimation Cons tellation to E stiam te 2 1. Runcom .: IEEE802.5 -2 -2 -1.January 2005 Doc.5 1 0.5 1 0.5 2 E s tim ated vec Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 0 -0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -0.5 -2 -2 -1.5 2 2 1. Slide 28 28 Eli Sofer.

5 0 -0 . Runcom . 5 0 -0 .January 2005 Doc. 5 1 0.: IEEE802. 5 2 E s t im a ted vec Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.22-05-0005r0 Results ‡ User Estimation C on s t ellat ion to E s tiam te 2 1. Slide 29 29 Eli Sofer.5 0 0. 5 2 2 1. 5 1 1.5 -1 -1 .5 -1 -0 . 5 1 0.5 -1 -1 . 5 1 1.5 -2 -2 -1 .5 0 0.5 -1 -0 .5 -2 -2 -1 .

January 2005 Doc. Runcom . Using the Ranging Pilots (CDMA/OFDM Techniques) D es preading on A ll U s ers 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802. Slide 30 30 Eli Sofer.22-05-0005r0 Results ‡ Finding New Subscriber-Units Requesting Services.

Runcom . Slide 31 31 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 OFDMA System Properties Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc.

± Less Interfered Part of the Carrier Can Still Be Used . Runcom .22-05-0005r0 Interference Rejection/Avoidance ‡ Narrowband Interference Rejection ± Easy to Avoid/Reject Narrowband Dominant Interference . User SubCarriers Allocation Interference SubCarriers Interference Nulled SubCarriers SubCarriers Total Frequency band Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc. Slide 32 32 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.

Runcom .: IEEE802. Slide 33 33 Eli Sofer.January 2005 Doc.22-05-0005r0 PAPR Reduction ‡ Using shaping on the signal peaks ‡ Limiting the PAPR to a constant value by vector reduction Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

January 2005 Doc. Slide 34 34 Eli Sofer.22-05-0005r0 Spectrum Properties ‡ Rectangular Spectrum Shape (Brick Wall) ‡ Small Frequency Guard band dB OFDM Single Carrier Scheme -80 Frequency (MHz) 4 MHz Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802. Runcom .

: IEEE802. Runcom . Slide 35 35 Eli Sofer.January 2005 Doc.22-05-0005r0 Spectrum Properties Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

22-05-0005r0 Group Delay In OFDM. Slide 36 36 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc. Runcom . by Channel estimation Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. channel impairment are solved in the same way Group Delays are solved.

Runcom .January 2005 Doc. Slide 37 37 Phase Noise Effect on S.22-05-0005r0 Phase Noise Effects Phase Noise Effect on OFDM Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802.C Eli Sofer.

January 2005 Doc. and simple phase and channel estimators solve timing problems. Slide 38 38 Eli Sofer. channel impairment and timing problems are both solved with simple phase and channel estimators Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 ‡ Timing Sensitivity Low timing sensitivity is needed. ‡ Frequency Sensitivity solved by locking onto the Base-Station transmission and deriving the Subscriber Unit¶s clocks from it. Runcom . ‡ Equalization No Equalizers are needed.

22-05-0005r0 System Coverage and Capacity Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc. Runcom .: IEEE802. Slide 39 39 Eli Sofer.

January 2005 Doc.22-05-0005r0 Using Reuse Factor of 1 By allocating different Sub-Channels to different sectors we can reach reuse factor of 1 with up to 12 sectors (changing the polarity enhances the performance) Horizontal Sub-hannel s Set 2 F1 Vertical Sub-hannel s Set 1 F1 Horizontal Sub-hannel s Set 1 F1 Vertical Sub-hannel s Set 2 F1 Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.: IEEE802. Slide 40 40 Eli Sofer. Runcom .

y Adaptive Carrier Allocations. y Maximum sectors allocation.: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc. y The use of statistical Multiplexing and concentration. y Adaptive Power Control Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.22-05-0005r0 Capacity y Use modulations with various Bit/Hz capabilities as Adaptive N-QAM. y Use Adaptive FEC (Convolutional & Reed-Solomon or Turbo code) y Maximal frequency reuse between cells/sectors (close to 1). Slide 41 41 Eli Sofer. Runcom .

Runcom .January 2005 Doc. Slide 42 42 Eli Sofer.: IEEE802.22-05-0005r0 Coverage OFDM Cells (64 mode) OFDMA Cell (2k mode) 64QAM users 16QAM users QPSK users Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Runcom . Slide 43 43 Eli Sofer.22-05-0005r0 Coverage .Simulations Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc.: IEEE802.

22-05-0005r0 Coverage . 22. achieves 2. 3 Frequencies.Simulations y Multi Sector Coverage. Runcom .: IEEE802.January 2005 Doc. 3 Sectors. Slide 44 44 Eli Sofer.8Bits/s/Hz/Cell.5Mbps/Sector Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.

Runcom .Simulations y Multi Sector Coverage.: IEEE802.8Bits/s/Hz/Cell. 22.5Mbps/Sector Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.January 2005 Doc. achieves 2. 6 Sectors. Slide 45 45 Eli Sofer. 6 Frequencies.22-05-0005r0 Coverage .

‡ Enables Multipath mitigation without using Equalizers and training sequences.: IEEE802. by using different basic carrier permutations between users in different cells. ‡ Enables orthogonality in the uplink by synchronizing users in time and frequency. ‡ Interference¶s within the cell are averaged by using allocation with cyclic permutations.January 2005 Doc. Runcom .22-05-0005r0 OFDMA Advantages. ‡ Enables Single Frequency Network coverage. where coverage problem exists and gives excellent coverage. Slide 46 46 Eli Sofer. Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.Summary (1) ‡ Averaging interference's from neighboring cells.

Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.Summary (2) ‡ Enables spatial diversity by using antenna diversity at the Base Station and possible at the Subscriber Unit. ‡ Offers Time diversity by optional interleaving of carrier groups in time.22-05-0005r0 OFDMA Advantages . Runcom . 64QAM and 256QAM. ‡ Offers Frequency diversity by spreading the carriers all over the used spectrum.January 2005 Doc. ‡ Enables adaptive carrier allocation in multiplication of 23 carriers = nX23 carriers up to 1587 carriers (all data carriers). 16QAM. ‡ Enables adaptive modulation for every user QPSK.: IEEE802. Slide 47 47 Eli Sofer.

Runcom Slide 48 48 .22-05-0005r0 OFDMA Advantages . Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd. therefore gaining in overall cell capacity. this is allowed by the gain added when less carriers are allocated (up to 18dB gain for 23 carrier allocation instead of 1587 carriers).January 2005 Doc.3 times the distance for R4 and 8 time for R2 for LOS conditions.: IEEE802. Eli Sofer. ‡ The power gain can be translated to distance . ‡ Enabling the usage of Indoor Omni Directional antennas for the users. ‡ MAC complexity is the same as for TDMA systems.Summary (3) ‡ Using the cell capacity to the utmost by adaptively using the highest modulation a user can use.

Runcom . Submission Runcom Technologies Ltd.22-05-0005r0 OFDMA Advantages .January 2005 Doc.: IEEE802. ‡ Minimal delay per OFDMA symbol of 300Qsec. ‡ User symbol is several times longer then for TDMA systems. ‡ Using the FEC to the outmost by error detection of disturbed frequencies. ‡ Using Small burst per user of about 100 symbols for better statistical multiplexing and smaller jitter. Slide 49 49 Eli Sofer.Summary (4) ‡ Allocating carrier by OFDMA/TDMA strategy.

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