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The Concept of Measurement and Attitude Scales

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Measurement Process Measurement:


The Process of assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities or qualities or attributes.

Rule:
The guide, method, or command that tells a researcher what to do.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Data Levels
Scale
Least Sophisticated

Description

Order

Distance

Origin

Nominal
uses labels categorizes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No

No

No No

Ordinal
ranks responses determines order not distance

Yes No Yes Yes

Interval
Most Sophisticated

No

distance between descriptors is known

Ratio

Yes Yes Yes

has zero as reference point numeric

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Nominal Data
Scales that partition data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories.
Classification Type Data. Examples: Yes or no questions; Nouns in general Gender; Race / Ethnicity; Occupation; Text open-ended questions. Analysis Approach: Cross tabulations / Percentages; Sums and frequency counts; Cant tell the relative value of responses.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Ordinal Data
Scales that maintain the labeling characteristics of nominal scales and have the ability to order data.
Ranking Type Data Examples: Best liked, worst liked; Win, place, or show; First, second, third; Small, medium, and large; Comparisons rankings rank these movies from best to worst Analysis Approach: Cross tabulations, sums and frequency counts; Percentages, mode, mean for some types; Can tell the relative order of responses but not the distance between responses
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Interval Data
Scales that have the characteristics of ordinal scales, plus equal intervals between points.
Comparison Type Data Examples: One a 1 to 10 scale; Age, income, etc. as ranges Red, blue, green - if each rated from 1 to X for example. Analysis Approach: Standard deviation, variance, kurtosis; Descriptive statistics - mean, median, mode; Sums and ranged frequency counts; Correlation; Can tell the relative value of responses and can tell the distance between responses.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Ratio Data
Scales that have the characteristics of interval, plus a meaningful zero point.
Flat Numeric Type Data Examples: Age = 50 (not an age range) Income = $25,000 (not an income range) Number of children: ________ Analysis Approach: Standard deviation, variance, kurtosis Descriptive statistics - mean, median, mode Sums and ranged frequency counts Pearson correlation, regression Can tell the relative value of responses and can tell the distance between responses and how they relate to zero.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Reliability and Validity


Reliability:
Degree to which measures are free from random error and, therefore, provide consistent data. The extent to which the survey responses are internally consistent.

Validity:
Degree to which what the researcher was trying to measure was actually measured.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Reliability
Test and Retest: The ability of the same instrument to produce consistent results when used a second time under conditions as similar as possible to the original conditions. Stability: Lack of change in results from test to test. Equivalent Form: When two very similar forms of an instrument produce closely correlated results.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Reliability
Internal Consistency: The ability of an instrument to produce similar results when used on different samples during the same time period to measure a phenomenon.

Spilt Half: A method of assessing the reliability of a scale by dividing the total set of measurement items in half and correlating the results.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Validity
Face: The degree to which a measurement seems to measure what it is supposed to measure.

Content: The representativeness, or sampling adequacy, of the content of the measurement instrument.

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Validity
Criterion Related: The degree to which a measurement instrument can predict a variable that is designated a criterion.

Construct: The degree to which a measurement instrument represents and logically connects, via the underlying theory, the observed phenomenon to the construct.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Validity
Convergent: The degree of correlation among different measures that purport to measure the same construct.

Discriminate: The measure of the lack of association among constructs that are supposed to be different.

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Testing Validity
Predictive: The degree to which a future level of a criterion can be forecast by a current measurement scale.

Concurrent: The degree to which another variable, measured at the same point in time as the variable of interest, can be predicted by the measurement instrument.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Reliability and Validity

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Measurement Scales
Procedures for assigning numbers or symbols to properties of an object in order to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question.

Unidimensional: Measures only one dimension of a concept, respondent, or object. Multidimensional: Measures several dimensions of a concept, respondent, or object.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Attitude Measurement Scales


Enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of a persons environment.

Prof. Rushen Chahal

Attitude Measurement Scales


Odd Scale Important 1 Important 1 2 3 4 Not Important 5 Not Important 6

Even Scale

Non-comparative Scale: Scales in which judgement is made without reference to another object, concept, or person. Comparative Scale: Scales in which one object, concepts, or person is compared with another on a scale.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Attitude Measurement Scales


Uses Comparative Scaling: Put these fast food chains in order of preference: McDonalds Burger King Taco Bell

Measurement scale employing a sophisticated form of rank ordering using card sorts. Respondents each rank X number of items in order from best to worst by putting the cards representing the idea at hand into ranked piles. Then the piles with the most become the top choices. The procedure can be done many times to winnow down the choice to a top two or three.
Prof. Rushen Chahal

Attitude Measurement Scales


___Coke ___Pepsi

Which drink do you prefer:

___Coke ___Sprite ___Pepsi ___Sprite

What features do you want in a car? Sun roof ______ Leather ______ ABS Breaks ______ CD Player ______ Total
Prof. Rushen Chahal

100 points

Attitude Measurement Scales


How do you like your pizza? Hot - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cold -----------------Bland Spicy Expensive- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Inexpensive Fresh- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Frozen Natural- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Artificial Soggy- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Crisp Moist- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dry

Is soggy prejudicial?

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 High Value +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 Prof. Rushen Chahal

Attitude Measurement Scales


Honda is a good car brand:
1 Agree 2 Somewhat Agree 3 Somewhat Disagree 4.Disagree

Multiple response Single response Controlled response

Check all that apply Check only one Check the top three

Prof. Rushen Chahal