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Mass property calculation was one of the first features implemented in CAD/CAM systems.

Curve length Cross-sectional area Centroid of a cross-sectional area Surface area Centroid of a surface area Volume Centroid of a volume

Mass Center of mass First moment of inertia Second moment of inertia Products of inertia

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Revolve. P* = P + d x* = x + dx y* = y + dy z* = z + dz 2 .« are all based on geometric transformations.Translation Geometric transformations are used in modeling and viewing models. Translation ± all points move an equal distance in a given direction. Extrude.Transformations . zoom. Typical CAD operations such as Rotate. Mirror. Offset. Pattern.

Rotation Rotation ± This operation requires an entity. a center of rotation.Transformations . and axis of rotation Rewriting in a matrix form x* y* = z* cos( ) -sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) 0 0 1 x y z 0 0 P* = [ Rz] P [ Rx] = 1 0 0 Point P rotates about the z axis x* = x cos( ) ± y sin( ) y* = x sin( ) + y scos( ) z* = z [ Ry] = 0 0 cos( ) -sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) 0 1 -sin( ) 0 0 0 cos( ) P* = [ R] P 3 .

Curve Length Consider the curve connecting two points P1 and P2 in space. it applies to open and closed curves. The exact length of a curve bounded by the parametric values u1 and u2. 4 .

.Cn. consider the area of element dA of sides dxL and dyL. The length of the contour is given by the sum of the lengths of C1. Integrate over the region. The boundary is piecewise continuous To calculate the area A of the region R. The centroid of the region is located by vector rc.Cross-Sectional Area A cross-sectional area is a planar region bounded by a closed boundary. C2.«. 5 .

For objects with multiple surfaces.Surface Area The surface area As of a bounded surface is formulated the same as the crosssectional area. The major difference is that As is not planar in general as in the case of B-spline or Bezier surfaces. the total surface area is equal to the sum of its individual surfaces. 6 .

The volume Vm of a multiply connected object with holes is given by. 7 .Volume The volume can be expressed as a triple integral by integrating the volume element dV The centroid of the object is located by the vector rc.

rc = r dm m m 8 . m dV remains constant through out the object m= Centroid dV = V V Same formulation as for volume. m= Assuming the density we have.Mass Mass & Centroid The mass of an object can be formulated the same as its volume by introducing the density. dm = dV Integrating over the distributed mass of the object. replace volume by mass.

and YZ planes are given. or volume is a mathematical property that is useful in various calculations. For a lumped mass. we obtain. mass. 9 . XZ.First Moment of Inertia First moment of an area. So the first moment of a distributed mass of an object with respect to the XY. the first moment of the mass about a given plane is equal to the product of the mass and its perpendicular distance from the plane. Substituting the centroid equation.

The second moment of inertia about a given axis is the product of the mass and the square of the perpendicular distance between the mass and the axis. about the axis.Second Moments of Inertia The physical interpretation of a second mass moment of inertia of an object about an axis is that it represents the resistance of the object to any rotation. 10 . or angular acceleration. The area moment of inertia represents the ability of the object to resist deformation.

and z axes. y. To determine that.Products of Inertia In some applications of mechanical or structural design it is necessary to know the orientation of those axis that give the maximum and minimum moments of inertia for the area. we need to find the product of inertia for the area as well as its moments of inertia about x. 11 .

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