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About Cement

Cement Chemistry  Cement is hydraulic material which develops strength when it reacts with water.  It is inorganic material which consists of oxides of calcium,silicon,iron,aluminum.  Phases in Cement
   

C3 S (Alite) C2 S (Belite) C3 A C4 AF

C - CaO , S - SiO2 , A - Al2O3 , F - Fe2O3

About Cement


Cement Reaction With Water




Portland cement when mixed with water undergoes the process of Setting & Hardening The initial stiffening or setting of PC pastes appears to be the result of the rapid hydration taking place on the surface of the cement particles. This rapid initial setting is controlled by the presence of calcium sulfate and for this reason a small proportion of gypsum is interground with cement clinker to control the rate of initial setting. Following this the principal reaction is the formation of single calcium silicate hydrate(C-S-H) from the various anhydrous calcium silicates present in the cement particles.

About Cement



Cement Reaction With Water


C3S + 3H --> C-S-H + 2C-H rigid gel C2S + 2H --> C-S-H + C-H rigid gel C3A , C4AF have less hydraulic properties but useful for liquid formation in kiln.

C - CaO , H - H2O

About Cement


Types of Cement  OPC - Ordinary Portland Cement


  

Clinker + Gypsum 33 grade , 44 grade ,53 grade 33 grade :- develop strength upto 330kg/cm2 after 28 days

PPC - Pozzolona Portland Cement




Clinker + Flyash + Gypsum

PSC - Slag Cement




Clinker + Slag + Gypsum

Process Overview
Additives i.e. Iron ore or Clay

Mining & Crushing Crushed Limestone

Raw Mill Grinding

Fine Raw Meal (120)Res. < 3%

Raw Meal Homogenization

Packaging

Blaine 300-350 m2/kg OR (45) Res. <16% Cement 1) OPC 2) PPC 3) Slag Cement

Final Grinding

Lt. wt 1200-1350 Clinker

Pyro Processing Clinkerization

1) Gypsum 2) Flyash 3) Pozzolona 4) Slag

Coal Ash From Coal Fired

Process Overview

Limestone + Additives ------------> Clinker o


Heating 1500 C in Kiln

Grinding

Clinker + Gypsum + Additives ------------> Cement

Grinding

Process Overview


Mining  First step in Cement Production  Drilling is used to drill deep holes in the soil  Blasting is done with the help of drilled holes & explosives  Blasted Limestone is excavated with excavator  Unearthed Limestone is transported to Crusher

Process Overview


Raw Meal Preparation  Crushing Limestone from Mines




Limestone from Quarry requires coarse size reduction as it is in the form of big boulders. Crushers are used in two or three steps for coarse size reduction. Types :Jaw Crusher , Hammer Crusher , Impact crusher. Limestone ,excavated from different benches, has different chemical composition.Hence homogenization is needed. In this Crushed limestone is stacked onto stock pile in such a way that inherent CaCO3 Inconsistency is evened out.

Pre-homogenization of Limestone


Process Overview


Raw Meal Grinding  Pre-homogenized Raw Meal in addition with with additives ,e.g. sandstone, iron oxide,clay etc., is ground in Raw Mill.
 

Types : VRM , Closed Circuit Ball Mill Hot air from Preheater is used for removing moisture in Raw Meal.

Homogenization of powdered Raw Meal is done in blending silo so that Chemical properties of Raw Meal gets equalized w.r.t. time.

Process Overview


Pyroprocessing  The homogenous raw meal is preheated in Preheater.  The material is then calcined upto 90% in Calciner.  The Calicined raw meal is sintered into clinker in a rotary Kiln.  Fuel (Coal , Oil) is fired into Kiln to sinter the raw meal.  Red hot Clinker is cooled in cooler.  The cooled clinker is crushed in Clinker breaker & stored in silo or Gantry for finished grinding.

Process Overview


Finished Grinding


Crushed Clinker is mixed with gypsum & fed into Cement Mill for fine size reduction.
 

Gypsum is added to control setting time of cement. Circuit Types : Open circuit Ball Mill , Closed circuit Ball Mill , Roller Press with Ball Mill,VRM with Ball Mill

Depending on final Cement requirements Flyash or Slag is added along with Crushed Clinker.

Process Overview


Different Type of Process  Wet Process




Raw feed fed to kiln contains 30-40% water by weight Raw feed, prepared by either the wet or dry methods according to the nature of the raw materials is formed into pellets or modules, which are fed into the kiln by way of a grate preheater in which the moving bed of nodulized material is dried and brought upto calcining temperature by heat from kiln. Raw Material fed to kiln contains 2-4% water by weight

Semi Wet Process / Semi Dry Process




Dry Process


Size Reduction in Cement Industry




Raw Meal Crushing  Jaw,Impact,Hammer,Gyratory Crusher Raw Meal Grinding  Ball Mill , Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) Clinker Crushing  Hammer Crusher Final Grinding  Ball Mill , VRM , Roller Press, Hybrid

Grinding in Cement Industry




Objectives  Size Reduction


 

Reduces feed size increases reactivity Grinding Efficiency improves due to moisture removal Better thermal efficiency in kiln Raw material with different property get mixed Achieves better homogeneity

Drying
 

Blending
 

Grinding in Cement Industry




Locations in Cement process




Size reduction and drying of Raw meal.




VRM , Ball Mill VRM , Ball Mill , E-Mill VRM , Ball Mill , Roller Press

Size reduction and drying of Coal.




Size reduction of cement clinker.




Grinding in Cement Industry




Different Type of Grinding Equipment




Ball Mill Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) Roller Press

Ball Mill


Dry Grinding  Open Circuit




Mill Product is Final Product Mill Product is Fed to Air Separator & Coarse Material is fed back to mill Material from Mill to Separator is conveyed by Elevator Material from Mill to Separator is conveyed by Air

Closed Circuit


Air-Swept Operation


Wet Grinding  Open Circuit  Closed Circuit

Ball Mill


Operational philosophy


Grinding By Impact
 

Primary size reduction process in first chamber of mill. Large diameter grinding media climbs along the mill lining due to centrifugal force. At the point when the weight of ball exceeds centrifugal force the ball falls down. The impact of the falling grinding charge with Mill lining causes particles entrapped between the charge & lining to fracture and undergo size reduction

Ball Mill


Operational philosophy


Grinding By Attrition


Grinding action in the Fine grinding compartment is generally by abrasion & shearing action Small particles , which are in an agglomerated form before grinding, are sheared off from the surface due to rubbing between multiple large sized aggregates and/or the grinding media.

Air Separator


Operational philosophy The performance of closed circuit mill very much depends upon performance of separator that is used. There are two broad categories of separator. These are


Conventional Type Of separator (mechanical air separator) High Efficiency Separator (static separator)

Both types use Air for separation in which centrifugal force of circulating air separates fines from coarse.

Mechanical Air Separator




Separation In this type of Separator Due to drag force of air separation of fines from coarse takes place. Fresh feed is fed to distributing plate, which disperse feed into air stream flowing up. Fines get entrained in air stream & coarse hits the wall of separator. After hitting the wall coarse gets collected into cone.

Mechanical Air Separator




Fineness Control
Circulating Air Volume in Separator is only MV that can control Fineness. The less is the volume more is Fineness. Auxiliary fan in separator can very the circulating air volume. As Auxiliary fan rpm increases circulating air volume decreases which intern decrease material dragged by air to fines of separator. Thus Fineness can be increased. Sp. Power requirement for such separator is around 6 kWh/ton.

Mechanical Air Separator




Limitations
High Fineness of product is difficult or can be achieved with high circulating load. Mismatches between sizes of mill & separator It is not possible to have selective size gradation (3-30 micron for cement.) In case of conventional separator 50% of fine (below 30 micron) if returned to mill.

High efficiency Static Air Separator




Separation
The Mill discharge material is fed on dispersion plate. The material then cascade down to separating (classifying zone) where tangential inlet air suspends feed particles against the opposing centrifugal force of the rotor. Intense shearing force breaks apart the particle agglomerates for highly efficient classification. Product size particles, controlled by rotor speed, pass through the rotor blades to the cyclone. Rejects fall down to the collection hopper & fed back to mill. An externally located fan sucks the fine. Air is again recirculated to the separator. Small amount of recirculated air is vented off.

High efficiency Static Air Separator




Fineness Control
Fineness can be controlled by rotor speed & air volume in separator. By increasing rotor speed feed material requires more turn & energy against centrifugal force to get through rotor blades. Due to this fineness of product increases. Also by decreasing air volume in separator increases fineness of product.

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Process  Fresh feed is fed to ball mill with Separator rejects.  Ball mill product goes to Separator for separation  Rejects is fed back to mill
Rejects
Recirculating Load

Fresh Feed
TPH

Ball Mill
Accum Mill kW

Separator
Mill Product
TPH RPM Damper

Final Product
TPH Blaine/Residue

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit


MV-CV relation

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Abnormal Conditions & there control




Sudden increase in Mill accumulation




Cause : Feed Size increase Moisture increase in feed Hardness of Feed increase Control: Cut the fresh Feed

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Abnormal Conditions & there control




Separator Resonance


Cause : Mechanical structure natural frequency matches with Separator at certain RPM Control: Prohibit RPM for resonance range

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Malfunctions


Decrease in Mill Output




Cause : Feed hardness & size Worn out Mill charge Blocked diaphragm High moisture content Fractured diaphragm

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Malfunctions


Product too coarse




Cause : Increased feed hardness Grinding media too large Too few grinding media Diaphragm slots worn out Mill feed overloading Malfunction of separator Mill fan damper jammed

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit




Malfunctions


Mill inlet pressure low




Cause : Low mill draught Excessive wet feed

Ball Mill v/s VRM/Roller press


Ball Mill
Grinding-Impact/Attrition Lower fines Higher kWh/ton Non flexible Easy to maintain

VRM/Roller Press
Grinding-Compressive stress Greater Fines Lower kWh/ton Flexible for different products Requires High skills

Vertical Roller Mill




Operational philosophy


Grinding by Compressive force


Feed is ground between horizontal grinding table & two or more rollers , which are pressed against the grinding table under high pressure

VRM - Typical Raw Mill




Process  VRM is widely used for Raw Meal Grinding.  Raw Material is fed to table . Raw Material get grounded between table & roller.  Hot air with re-circulation air enters from bottom of the mill through perforated plates.  Air carries ground material to separator inlet which is integral part of Mill.  Separator reject falls back to grinding table & fines are carried by air to cyclone.

Vertical Roller Mill




Major Operating Parameters


     

Mill Vibration Bed Layer Thickness Mill DP Fan Power Mill Outlet Temp. Residue/Blaine

: : : : : :

Health of Mill Stability Stability Air Volume Feed Moisture Drying Quality

Vertical Roller Mill




MV - CV relation

Vertical Roller Mill




Abnormal Conditions & there control




Vibration High


Cause : Imbalance between Material DP & Air DP Control: Cut/Increase Feed Increase Water Spray

Vertical Roller Mill




Abnormal Conditions & there control




High increase rate in DP or High DP




Cause : Inlet Material Property changes e.g. Moisture , Grindability High Feed rate Control: Cut Feed

Roller Press


Operational philosophy

Grinding by Compressive force


Feed is ground between horizontal grinding roll , one of which is pressed against the another immovable roll under high pressure

Roller Press


Process  Roller Press is widely used for Finished Grinding in hybrid mode of operation.  Raw Material is fed to overhead silo . Material bed is always maintained above roller press.  Ground material is fed to separator by elevator.  Separator reject is fed to roller press & fines are carried by air to cyclone.  Sometime ground material doesn t goto Separator. Only divider divides ground product ,one part of which goes back to Roller Press.

Roller Press


Major Operating Parameters


     

Roller Gap - Health of mill Back Pressure - Good grinding Over head Silo level - Choke feed Residue/Blaine Returns Mill Power

Modes of Operation


Roller press & Ball mill for finished grinding can work in following modes
  

One Pass Mode Pre-grinding Mode Hybrid Mode

Clinkerization Overview


Main Aim of this section is to produce Clinker from Raw meal in energy efficient manner Kiln Operation can be in following mode
  

Wet Process : Kiln Feed Water 30 - 40% Semi Dry/Wet process Dry Process : Kiln Feed Water 2 - 3%

Clinkerization Overview


The choice of the process to be used depends upon a complex combination of different factors This includes:
 

The nature of the raw materials. The thermal efficiency of the different processes and their variations fuel and other energy prices

Clinkerization Overview


Three sections in Dry Process  Preheater :


 

Preheat the Kiln feed Using Waste Heat Gas Calcination Using Waste heat gas & Coal in Calciner Clinker Formation from Calcined Kiln feed using Coal fuel. Heat Recovery from Hot Clinker Cooling Clinker rapidly to form reactive clinker

Kiln :


Cooler :
 

Clinkerization Overview


Reactions - Heating  30 - 300




Evaporation of Water Removal of structural water and OH group from clay minerals Clacination Formation of C2S , intermediate product , aluminate , ferrite Formation of liquid phase (aluminate & Ferrite melt) Crystalization of Alite ,Belite I.e Completion of phase formation

400 - 900
 

above 800


above 1250
 

Clinkerization Overview


Reactions - Cooling  1300 - 1240




Crystalization of liquid phase into mainly aluminate & ferrite

Clinkerization Overview
Raw Meal

Preheater
Raw Meal Preheating 30oC to 100oC Removal of Water 100oC to 300oC

30oC to 900oC

Calcination Oxide Formation CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2

CaO SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3

(CaO)2.SiO2 + CaO -> (CaO)3.SiO2 Cooling Crystalization 1350oC to 1250oC Liquid & Phase formation

above 800oC

Belite formation Above 1200oC CaO + SiO2 -> CaO.SiO2 CaO.SiO2 + CaO -> (CaO)2.SiO2

Kiln
Clinker

(CaO)3.(Al2O3) ----- C3A (CaO)4.(Al2O3).Fe2O3--- C4AF

Different Type of Preheater System  4 , 5 , 6 stage ,One string - With or Without Calciner  4 , 5 stage ,Two String - Calciner String , Kiln String  4, 5 stage ,Two string - Both Calciner String Typical : 5 stage , Two String - Calciner & Kiln String

Preheater

More Stages gets added in Preheater String  More Heat Recovery from Waste Heat Gas  More Capital Cost  Less Temperature For Raw Mill Grinding

Preheater


Aim  Maximum Heat Recovery from waste heat gas  Maximum Calcination without melting raw meal perational Philosophy  Heat exchange between Waste Heat Gas & Raw Meal takes place through Direct Heat Exchange in Riser Duct  Separation of Raw Meal Solid from Gas is carried out in Cyclone at each stage.  Maximum Calcination is carried out in Pre-Calciner by burning Coal.

Preheater


Process  Gas enters from bottom cyclone  Raw meal enters from top cyclone  Gas is sucked by induced draft fan from kiln  Fan is placed at Preheater Outlet  From Last but One cyclone raw meal goes to PreCalciner where coal is fired  Tertiary air is sucked in Calciner from cooler  After Pre-Calciner Raw meal is carried to last cyclone by air & Separated raw meal from this cyclone goes to Kiln

Major Operating Parameter  PHOutlet Temp  PHOutlet CO




Preheater
: Heat Recovery : ESP security, Oxygen Shortage : Completion of Calcination : Material Fusion Temp : Excess Air , Leakage : Cyclone Jamming

Calciner Outlet Temp  Kiln inlet Material Temp  PHOutlet Draft / O2  Cyclone Cone Draft Handles  PHOutlet Fan Damper /RPM : Air Quantity  Calciner Coal : Heat Quantity

Preheater


MV-CV Relation

Preheater


Abnormal Conditions & control  High PHOutlet CO




Cause: Less Oxygen for Coal Combustion High Calciner Coal Feed rate Control: Cut Calciner Coal Increase PHFan RPM or Damper

Preheater


Abnormal Conditions & control




High Kiln inlet material temp




Cause : High Calciner Coal Feed rate Less Raw Meal Rate Secondary Burning of Coal in preheater Control: Cut Calciner Coal

Preheater


Abnormal Conditions & control




High Calciner Outlet temp




Cause : High Calciner Coal Feed rate Less Raw Meal Rate Control: Cut Calciner Coal

Preheater


Abnormal Conditions & control




Low Cyclone cone draft




Cause : Less Air Coating in cyclone Brick lining failure , Flap damper Malfunction Control: Cut Raw Meal Feed Rate

Kiln


Aim  Maintain Clinker Quality  Minimize Heat Consumption Operational Philosophy  Heat is generated by Coal combustion  High residence time i.e. 20 min  High Temp 1500oC  Maximum Contact area of Hot air & Material by circulatory motion (4 rpm)

Process  Kiln is cylindrical rotating furnace (60 m length) & installed slightly slant (3-4degree) to carry the material to lower end when rotating.  At Lower end is the burner where coal is fired through using primary air for conveying.  Cooler Secondary air is sucked into Kiln which is at high temp ( Due to heat recuperation from hot clinker ).  Secondary Air from Cooler & Primary Air gets heated by combustion of coal.  This air travels opposite to material flow & Heat Exchange between air & material takes place

Kiln

Kiln


Major Operating Parameter  Kiln Torque  Burning Zone Temp.  Clinker Lt..wt. & Free Lime  Kiln Hood Draft  Kiln inlet CO or O2 Handles  Kiln Feed  Kiln RPM  Kiln Coal

: : : : :

Clinker Quality Good Heat Content Clinker Quality Safety & Maintenance Oxygen Availability

Clinker Quality  Clinker Phase Requirement


C3 S (Alite) C2 S (Belite) C3 A C4 AF


Kiln

- 40 to 60% - 20 to 30% - 5 to 12% - 5 to 12%

:Rapid Contribution to strength : Slow Contribution to strength : Rapid Contribution to strength : V. Slow Contribution to strnth

Indirect/Direct Measurement of Good Clinker


 

Litre Weight (density) Free Lime (CaO)

- Represent phase% - Should be minimized

Clinker Quality


Kiln

Affecting Parameters
     

Degree of Kiln feed mixing Kiln Feed Granulometry Burnability of kiln feed Degree of heating Retention time Clinker Cooling Rate

Kiln


MV-CV Relation

Kiln


Abnormal Conditions & control




High Kiln inlet CO




Cause : Less Air More Kiln Coal Control: Cut Kiln Coal Increase PH fan RPM / Open Damper

Kiln


Abnormal Conditions & control




LOW kiln Torque/ Dusty Kiln




Cause : Less Heat Content in Kiln High Kiln filling Control: Reduce Kiln RPM & Increase Kiln Coal Decrease Kiln Feed

Kiln


Abnormal Conditions & there control




Red Spot


Cause : Coating Deformation Brick dislodging Control: Reduce Kiln RPM Stop Kiln

Cooler


Aim  Recuperate Maximum Heat from Clinker  Maintain Clinker Quality  Minimize Clinker Temperature Operational Philosophy  Maximum Heat Recuperation in first few compartments is achieved by keeping high bed height of Clinker  Lower Clinker temperature is achieved in last few compartments by Low Clinker bed height & High Air volume

Process  Types Of Cooler




Cooler

Reciprocating Grate Cooler Perforated Grates moving one over other creating forward motion for clinker. Air with high velocity flows vertically up 90 degree to Clinker flow. IKN Cooler Grates Doesnt move. Forward motion for clinker is created by Horizontal Air Jet with very high velocity. Air with very high velocity flows parallel to Clinker flow & then moves vertically up.

Major Operating Parameter  Under-Grate Pressure  Grate Drive Amps  Clinker Temperature  Secondary Air Temp.  Hood Draft  Cooler Vent Temperature Handles  Air Volume / Fan Damper /  Grate Drive Speed  Vent fan Damper / RPM

Cooler
: : : : : : Clinker Bed Clinker Bed Clinker property , Safety Recuperation Safety Heat Loss

Fan RPM

Cooler


MV-CV Relation

Cooler


Abnormal Conditions & control




Grate Drive Amps High




Cause : High Clinker Bed Height Lumps Control: Increase Grate Speed