ECE 424 Design of Microprocessor-Based Systems

Intel 8088 (8086) Microprocessor Structure

Dr. Esam Al_Qaralleh CE Department Princess Sumaya University for Technology

Microprocessor System Design

3-1

Overview
Textbook:
J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999

Objectives:
The course will provide knowledge to build and program microprocessor-based systems.  Microprocessor architecture  Architecture of microprocessor-based systems  Programming microprocessor-based systems  Future trends

Grading:
Two midterms, one final exam, and homeworks
Microprocessor System Design 3-2

What are microprocessor-based systems?
Microprocessor-based systems are electrical systems consisting of microprocessors, memories, I/O units, and other peripherals.
€ Microprocessors are the brains of the systems € Microprocessors access memories and other units through buses € The operations of microprocessors are controlled by instructions stored in memories Microprocessor
Control unit Datapath ALU Reg.

Bus

Memory

Output units

Input units
3-3

Microprocessor System Design

What are microprocessors? A microprocessor is a processor (or Central Processing Unit. CPU) fabricated on a single integrated circuit. Address bus MAR PC IR Control bus Control unit X Y ALU ACC Data bus A simple microprocessor architecture Microprocessor System Design 3-4 .

microprocessor Microprocessor System Design 3-5 .IC Fourth generation (1971-present) .transistor Third generation (1959-1971) .Evolution of Computers First generation (1939-1954) .vacuum tube Second generation (1954-1959) .

edu/brochure/museum.acusd.virginia.html http://www.Evolution of Computers First generation (1939-1954) .html 3-6 Microprocessor System Design .edu/gen/recording/computer1.vacuum tube IBM 650.html http://www.edu/acis/history/650. 1954 Http://history.cs.columbia.

Evolution of Computers Second generation (1954-1959) .org/kgill/transistor/trans.transistor Manchester University Experimental Transistor Computer Http://history.computer50.html http://www.edu/gen/recording/computer1.acusd.html Microprocessor System Design 3-7 .

Digital Equipment Corporation € Thanks to the use of ICs.com/collect/pdp8.IC PDP-8.Evolution of Computers Third generation (1959-1971) . the DEC PDP-8 is the least expensive general purpose small computer in 1960s Http://history.html http://www.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html Microprocessor System Design 3-8 .piercefuller.acusd.

Autumn. Bell Labs Technical Journal. Intel developed 4-bit 4004 chip for calculator applications.intel.com 4004 chip layout Block diagram of Intel 4004 A good review article: The History of The Microprocessor.Evolution of Computers Fourth generation (1971-present) . Microprocessor System Design 1997 3-9 . ROM/RAM buffer Timing Reset Control logic Instruction decoder ALU I/O Reg. Program counter Refresh logic System bus http://www.microprocessor € In 1971.

000 10.000.000 100 10 1 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 7 Minimum transistor sizes (µm) 8080 Pentium 80386 8088 8080 80286 P II 80486 P III P4 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8088 80386 80286 1974 1979 1982 1985 Pentium P II P III P 4 80486 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 Clock frequencies (MHz) 10000 MIPS 10000 P4 1000 1000 P III Pentium P II 80386 80486 80286 P4 P II 100 Pentium 80386 8088 8080 80286 80486 P III 100 10 1 8080 8088 0.000.000 1.000 10.000 1.000.000 100.1 10 1 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 Microprocessor System Design 3-10 .Evolution of Intel Microprocessors Number of transistors 100.

UltraSPARC (Sun Microsystems) TI¶s TMS DSP chips (Texas Instruments) StarCore (Motorola. Dulon. Agere) ARM cores (Advanced RISC Machines) MIPS cores (MIPS Technologies) yyyyyy Microprocessor System Design 3-11 .Other Commercial Microprocessors PowerPC (IBM. Hammer (AMD) Crusoe (Transmeta) SPARC. Motorola) Athlon.

Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems Computers € System performance is normally the most important design concern .. Keyboard Monitor Bus Disk Other peripherals . 3-12 Microprocessor Memory Timing & control Interrupt control Block diagram of a computer Microprocessor System Design ....

fast. ‡Printer (low resolution) ‡Modem ‡Operator¶s console ‡Mainframe ‡Personal computer Interrupt circuitry At external unexpected events.1.low ‡Coprocessor circuitry: power. .3 System block diagram ‡Crystal oscillator ‡Timing circuitry (counters dividing to lower frequencies) ‡ROM (Read Only Memory) (start-up program) ‡RAM (Random Access Memory) ‡Bus controller QP + ‡DRAM (Dynamic RAM) associated ‡Bus drivers high capacity. fast. ‡Printer (high resolution) ‡External memory ‡Floppy Disk ‡Hard Disk ‡Compact Disk ‡Other high speed devices Serial I/O Simple (only two wires + ground) but slow. refresh needed logic ‡SRAM (Static RAM) . service the interrupt request (obviously a short subroutine) and retake the main program from the point where it was interrupt. QP has to interrupt the main program execution. address & control signals) Parallel I/O Many wires. easy to interface Timing CPU Memory System bus (data.

. Extension slots Expansion logic Interrupt logic (8259) Keyboard .. address & control signals) Keyboard logic (8253) DMA Controller (8237) Video card Disk controller Serial port .The Personal Computer Speaker Timer logic (8253) Processor (8086 trough Pentium Coprocessor (8087 trough 80387 System ROM 640KB DRAM System bus (data.

€ In general. automobile and home applications OSC.Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems Microcontrollers € A microcontroller is a simple computer implemented in a single VLSI chip. CPU RAM ROM I/O port Timer Interrupt USART A/D. D/A Block diagram of a microcontroller Microprocessor System Design 3-15 . microcontrollers are cheap and have low performance € Microcontrollers are widely used in industrial control.

it requires that the microprocessors have low power consumption and take small silicon area http://www.com A TI baseband chip for cellular phone applications Microprocessor System Design 3-16 .ti.Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems ASICs € Microprocessors are embedded into ASIC chips to implement complex functions € In general.

Class Objectives Hardware architecture of microprocessor-based systems € Microprocessor architecture € Memory organization € I/O units of microprocessor-based systems € How to put them together Programming of microprocessor-based systems € Intel 80x86 instruction set € Microprocessor Interrupt services € Assembly language programming Microprocessor System Design 3-17 .

Overview & Review Microprocessor System Design 3-18 .

it need two read (or write) operations to read (or write) a 16-bit datum 8-bit data control signals To 8088 CLK 18001 18000 5A 2F High byte of word Low byte of word GND 20-bit address 8088  Byte addressable and byte-swapping Word: 5A2F control signals from 8088 8088 signal classification Memory locations Microprocessor System Design 3-19 yy yyy .Overview Intel 8088 facts  20 bit address bus allow accessing 1 M memory locations VDD (5V)  16-bit internal data bus and 8-bit external data bus. Thus.

Organization of 8088 Address bus (20 bits) AH BH CH AL BL CL DL SP BP SI DI ALU Data bus (16 bits) Segment register CS DS SS ES IP Data bus (16 bits) General purpose register 7 Execution Unit (EU) DH Bus control ALU EU control Flag register Instruction Queue External bus Bus Interface Unit (BIU) Microprocessor System Design 3-20 .

General Purpose Registers 15 8 7 0 AX BX AH BH CH DH AL BL CL DL Accumulator Base Counter Data Data Group CX DX SP Stack Pointer Base Pointer Source Index Destination Index 3-21 Pointer and Index Group BP SI DI Microprocessor System Design .

xor.  Basic arithmetic operations: addition. subtraction. yyyyy  Basic logic operations: and.  Signal F is generated according to the current instruction.yyyyy Microprocessor System Design 3-22 . shifting.Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) A n bits B n bits F 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Y 0 A+ B 1 A -B 0 A -1 1 A and B 0 A or B 1 not A y y y Carry Y= 0 ? A> B ? F y y y Y  Signal F control which function will be conducted by ALU. or.

Flag Register Flag register contains information reflecting the current status of a microprocessor. It also contains information which controls the operation of the microprocessor. 15 € 0 € € OF DF IF TF SF ZF € AF € PF € CF  Control Flags IF: DF: TF: Interrupt enable flag Direction flag Trap flag  Status Flags CF: PF: AF: ZF: SF: OF: Carry flag Parity flag Auxiliary carry flag Zero flag Sign flag Overflow flag Microprocessor System Design 3-23 .

Instruction Machine Codes Instruction machine codes are binary numbers  For Example: 1000100011000011 MOV Register mode MOV AL. (EU control logic generates ALU control signals according to Opcode)  Mode indicates the type of a instruction: Register type. Operands can be addresses telling where to get data (or where to store results) Microprocessor System Design 3-24 . or have only one operand  Opcode tells what operation is to be performed. or Memory type  Operands tell what data should be used in the operation. BL Machine code structure Opcode Mode Operand1 Operand2  Some instructions do not have operands.

EU performs one of the following operations:  An arithmetic operation  A logic operation  Storing a datum into a register  Moving a datum from a register  Changing flag register ALU ALU Data bus (16 bits) EU control Flag register instruction 1011000101001010 Microprocessor System Design 3-25 . According to the instruction. Depending on the control signal. Fetch an instruction from instruction queue 2. EU control logic generates control signals. (This process is also referred to as instruction decoding) AH BH CH DH SP BP SI DI AL BL CL DL General purpose register 3.EU Operation 1.

Generating Memory Addresses How can a 16-bit microprocessor generate 20-bit memory addresses? Left shift 4 bits 16-bit register 0000 Offset FFFFF Addr1 + 0FFFF Offset Segment address 00000 Intel 80x86 memory address generation 1M memory space Segment (64K) + 16-bit register Addr1 20-bit memory address Microprocessor System Design 3-26 .

00020. 8CE90.Memory Segmentation A segment is a 64KB block of memory starting from any 16-byte boundary  For example: 00000. and E0840 are all valid segment addresses  The requirement of starting from 16-byte boundary is due to the 4-bit left shifting Segment registers in BIU 15 0 CS DS SS ES Code Segment Data Segment Stack Segment Extra Segment 3-27 Microprocessor System Design . 20000. 00010.

the Instruction Pointer (IP).Memory Address Calculation Segment addresses must be stored in segment registers Offset is derived from the combination of pointer registers. and immediate values Examples CS 3 IP + Instruction address 3 DS 1 4 8 4 2 A 0 1 4 SS 5 SP + Stack address 5 0 0 0 0 F F E 0 F F E 0 Segment address 0000 + Offset Memory address 8 A B 4 4 2 6 0 2 2 2 3 0 0 DI + Data address 1 2 3 Microprocessor System Design 3-28 .

0 is 2 bytes.Fetching Instructions Where to fetch the next instruction? 8088 CS IP 1234 0012 12352 Memory 12352 MOV AL. 0 Update IP ² After an instruction is fetched. After fetching this instruction. Register IP is updated as follows: IP = IP + Length of the fetched instruction ² For Example: the length of MOV AL. the IP is updated to 0014 Microprocessor System Design 3-29 .

These methods are referred to as Addressing Modes Examples: ² Direct addressing: MOV AL.Accessing Data Memory There is a number of methods to generate the memory address when accessing data memory. [SI] DS Memory address 1 1 2 3 4 0 0 3 1 0 2 6 5 0 (assume DS=1234H) (assume SI=0310H) Microprocessor System Design 3-30 . [0300H] DS Memory address 1 1 2 3 0 3 2 6 4 0 4 0 0 0 (assume DS=1234H) ² Register indirect addressing: MOV AL.

Programs should not be loaded in these areas FFFFF  Locations from FFFF0H to FFFFFH are used for system reset code Reset instruction area Interrupt pointer table FFFF0  Locations from 00000H to 003FFH are used for the interrupt pointer table € It has 256 table entries € Each table entry is 4 bytes 256 v 4 = 1024 = memory addressing space From 00000H to 003FFH 003FF 00000 Microprocessor System Design 3-31 .Reserved Memory Locations Some memory locations are reserved for special purposes.

such as division by zero 8088 can have 256 interrupts Microprocessor System Design 3-32 . INTR) Software Interrupts € Caused by the execution of an INT instruction € Caused by an event which is generated by the execution of a program.Interrupts An interrupt is an event that occurs while the processor is executing a program The interrupt temporarily suspends execution of the program and switch the processor to executing a special routine (interrupt service routine) When the execution of interrupt service routine is complete. the processor resumes the execution of the original program Interrupt classification Hardware Interrupts € Caused by activating the processor¶s interrupt control signals (NMI.

Minimum and Maximum Operation modes Intel 8088 (8086) has two operation modes: Minimum Mode € 8088 generates control signals for memory and I/O operations € Some functions are not available in minimum mode € Compatible with 8085-based systems Maximum Mode € It needs 8288 bus controller to generate control signals for memory and I/O operations € It allows the use of 8087 coprocessor. it also provides other functions Microprocessor System Design 3-33 .

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