WELCOME

N - 100

MS. EDERLIE E. PITIQUEN

NURSING as a PROFESSION 
Nursing is often identified as an emerging profession .It is striving to attain professionalism to meet certain criteria. 
It has evolved over centuries
.

TRADITIONAL NURSING ROLE humanistic caring supporting nurturing comforting .

Vocation is the work that a person regularly performs or the work that especially suits him or her. . law or theology. one¶s time. engineering. business and employment.WEBSTER¶S DEFINES: Occupation as ³what occupies or engages. especially medicine. Profession is a vocation requiring advanced training usually involving mental rather manual work. as teaching.

PROFESSION: ‡ An occupation that requires advanced know ledged and skills and that is an outgrowth of society¶s needs for special services .

. ‡ Transmission of values. ‡ Attendance to the social and general welfare of their members. ‡ Communication and advocacy of the values and contributions of the field to several publics and constituencies. knowledge and skill to neophytes ands members of the profession for application in practice. ‡ Development of the knowledge base for practice in its broadest and narrowest components. norms.Five Function for the Preservation and Development of a Profession :( STYLES 1983 ‡ Professional definition and regulation through the setting and enforcing of standards of education and practice for the generalist and the specialist.

Six Elements of a Profession: (Moore and Rosenblum 1970) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Have a systematic theory Exert authority Command prestige Have a code of ethics Have a professional culture Be the major source of income of those who practice it. .

‡ Delineating and specifying the skills and competencies that are the boundaries of expertise. .Critical attributes of professionalism in nursing (Miller) ‡ Gaining a body of knowledge in a university setting and a science orientation at the graduate level in nursing ‡ Attaining competencies derived from the theoretical base.

Criteria of a Profession ‡ Specialized education ‡ Body of knowledge ‡ Service orientation ‡ Ongoing research .

Growth of Professionalism: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Specialized education Knowledge based Ethics Autonomy Code of Ethics Caring .

Education ‡ A profession requires an extended education of its members as well as basic liberal foundation. .

abilities and norms.Theory ‡ A profession has a theoretical body of knowledge leading to defined skills. .

.Service ‡A profession provides basic services.

A profession has sufficient self-impelling power to retain its members throughout life. It must not be a mere stepping stone to other occupations.Code of Ethics ‡ The profession as a whole has a code of ethics for practice. .

.Autonomy ‡Members of a profession have autonomy in decision making and in practice.

Caring ‡ The most unique characteristic .

significant others and other members of the health team. and through relationship with client/patient.Professional Nursing ‡ Is an art and a science dominated by an ideal of service in which certain principles are applied in the skillful care of the well and the ill. .

Professional Nurse ‡ Is one who has acquired the art and science of nursing through her basic education who interprets her role in nursing in terms of the social ends for which it exists ± the health and welfare of society and who continues to add to her knowledge. . skills and attitudes through continuing education and scientific inquiry (research) or the use of the results of such inquiry.

Has faith in the fundamental values that underlie the democratic way of life. Ex.Qualification and abilities of a Professional Nurse: 1. ‡ A) respect for human dignity ‡ B) self sacrifice for the common good ‡ C) strong sense of responsibility for sharing in the solution of the problems of the society .

‡ . Has faith in the reality of spiritual and aesthetic value and awareness of the value and the pleasure of selfdevelopment through the pursuit of some aesthetic interests .2.utilizing relevant basic concept of psychology ‡ .working effectively through therapeutic relationship 3. Has a sense of responsibility for understanding those with whom he/she works or associates with through the use of the following skills.

Has skill in using written and spoken language. and organizing evidence. realistic.4. 5. incisive (direct) and well organized thoughts through the use of critical thinking. appraising. Critical thinking is securing. . both to develop own thoughts and communicate them to others. skills and attitudes necessary to address present-day social problems. Has the basic knowledge.

6. Appreciates and understand the importance of good health. 7. Has emotional balance. Is able to maintain poise and composure in trying situation. 8. Take hard work and possesses a capacity for it. 9. Appreciates high standards of workmanship.

10.Accept and tries to understand people of all sorts, regardless of race, religion, color and economic status. 11.Knows nursing so thoroughly that every client will receive excellent care

Personal qualification of a Nurse:
‡ Philosophy of life ‡ Good personality

Philosophy of life ‡ It is concerned with those basic truths that contribute to personal growth in a systematic fashion and with those principles that relate to the moral values that shape the facets of the character ‡ Every person must develop a personal philosophy of life and plan for expanding his personal life .

.‡ Theories of nursing can be taught. but not a philosophy of life or a philosophy of service.

. ‡ It refers to the impression one makes on others which will include more than that which meets the eye.Good Personality ‡ Personality consists of distinctive individual qualities that differentiates one person from another.

‡ It consists of deeper traits which come from the heart and which infiltrate the real person if one wishes to exert a magnetic influence on others. . desires. habits and physical characteristic into a harmonious whole. ‡ It is a result of integrating one¶s abilities. impulses.

a ready smile. sincere laugh. sufficient make-up and expressive hands. . appropriate dress. genuine interest in others. being ever mindful of the people who see you. ‡ Complete sincerity ‡ Sympathetic grooming: Neat hair style.How to develop one¶s personality: ‡ Warmth of manner.

Components of Good Personality: ‡ Personal appearance ‡ Character ‡ Attitude ‡ Charm .

. It includes a healthy body motivated by unselfishness and expressing graciousness.Personal appearance ‡ Your appearance often reveals more about the real you than any words you may say. Self-respect is the basis upon which personal appearance is established.

Components of personal appearance: ‡ Posture ‡ Grooming ‡ Dress and uniform .

‡ As a nurse. . ‡ Posture presents some clues to your personality. you must be responsible for practicing a physical regimen that helps to develop and maintain good posture and physical fitness. sitting or moving about.Posture ‡ It refers to the habitual or assumed positions of your body in standing.

‡ Your hair should be neat. clean and well arranged ‡ It also includes personal hygiene and cleanliness .Grooming ‡ Your hair should truly crown the features of your face in an attractive manner.

.Dress and Uniform ‡ Just as self-respect is evident in good posture and personal hygiene. so as it is reflected in the care you exercise with regards to dressing.

Basic guides for Personal Dress: ‡ Undergarments must be clean and properly fitted for body support. ‡ All articles of clothing should be neat. ‡ Street attire is expected to be appropriate and to give you a sense of security in official and social situation . the slip. the heels of the shoes. personable and trim especially the ³give away´ article such as the bra straps.

. ‡ Current fads and style may have to be disregarded to accommodate your budget on your body structure. ‡ Accessories should match the attire and should be suitable to the occasion and to your personality.‡ Your wardrobe may be limited but planning it in basic colors and using contrasting or blending hues can add greatly to its extensiveness.

‡ Wear the uniform only during working hours. . ‡ It should not be worn with jewelry except a school pin or name plate. It is part of the nurse¶s public image. the nurse distinctive uniform identifies you as a nurse to your patient and his family as well as to your coworkers. but irrespective of color. ‡ You must respect the uniform.The Nursing Uniform ‡ They come in different colors.

‡ Like the uniform wear it with respect and dignity .The Nurse¶s Cap ‡ The style of the cap remains usually the same for a particular school.

Points to remember in wearing the nurse¶s uniform: ‡ Every item comprising the uniform must be spotlessly clean. well fitting and in good repair. . ‡ Uniform designated for use in a given hospital area is worn only in the line of duty and not to be worn outside the specified department. ‡ Shoes and hosiery worn with the uniform should provide for maximum comfort.

.‡ Modification of any authorized uniform to suit your individual preference is not permitted by the dictates of both good taste and integrity.

‡ It is a part of a pattern of personal behavior . thinking or feeling that is indicated by one¶s response toward another person situation or experience. ‡ Personality is shaped by one¶s attitude.Attitude ‡ A manner of acting.

. direct and channel your feelings.Character ‡ Refers to the moral values and beliefs that are used as guide to personal behavior and actions. ‡ It is what a person is inside. ‡ It is the development in proportion to emotional and intellectual growth and involves the degree to which you understand.

‡ The practice of nursing utilizes one¶s love for fellowman. Charity is the greatest virtue and serves as the foundation for a sense of values and the development of human character. ‡ The nurse is basically a good person. .

Attributes of Character ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Honesty Loyalty Tolerance Judgment Reliability Motivation Resourcefulness Moderation .

cheating and stealing. .Honesty ‡ Being truthful. trustworthy and upright in one¶s dealing with others as well as refraining from lying.

It is demonstrated in terms of: ‡Truthfulness ‡Honor ‡Integrity .

reality and experience .Truthfulness ‡The quality of being in agreement with facts.

.Honor ‡Making good on commitment.

Integrity ‡Adhering to one¶s set of moral values .

Evidences of Honesty can be observed in the following: ‡ Care of materials ‡ Recognition of authority ‡ Obedience to rules. regulations and authority ‡ Use of time in terms of punctuality in performing activities .

Speaking well about co-workers and the institution where you work. .Loyalty ‡ The feeling of confidence. guided and stood by you as you proceeded towards your goals. Ex. trust and affection you have towards your family and friends and towards those who have helped.

. ‡ It manifest itself in your recognition of the rights of others.Tolerance ‡ It allows you to respect and accept others as fellow human beings entitled to enjoy the same basic rights and privileges that you claim for yourself.

Ex. and unselfishness.‡ It is demonstrated in the practice of patience. a sense of humor. Allowing an angry relative to verbalize his/her feelings. understanding. sympathy. .

Questioning an unclear doctor¶s order before acting. . Ex. it indicates one¶s ability to use one¶s intellectual capacity to form sound opinions.Judgment ‡ Sometimes referred to as ³good sense´. discretion and tact. ‡ Qualities involved in the use of judgment are wisdom.

typhoon and etc. reporting on duty even during holidays. floods. Performing one¶s responsibilities thoroughly even beyond time of duty as necessary. . ‡ Ex.Reliability ‡ It is dependability and involves one¶s use of sound judgment based upon careful observation and an understanding of any given situation in which one is required to act.

Motivation ‡ Something that moves one to plan and accomplish specific things. ‡ Ex. . Aiming to give the best quality of patient care at all times. it is a positive force that directs one¶s personal actions to the fulfillment of desires or drives that are referred to as basic human needs.

Resourcefulness ‡ Involves a person¶s ability to recognize and deal promptly and effectively with difficulties or problems that arise. sensibly and constructively in dealing with situation. It requires the utilization of information available about a given situation and using it courageously. .

material goods and other factors that provides pleasure or enjoyment to the senses in controlled manner. .Moderation ‡ Allows one to maintain harmony and balance among all the elements of one¶s character and in one¶s relationships with others by encouraging one to develop perspective and a sense of objectivity. ‡ Ex. Indulging in food.

viewpoints of feelings. .‡ It is based on opinions. ‡ It is a result of responses to specific experiences. ‡ It changes from time to time as additional knowledge is gained and one¶s understanding is broadened.

‡ A change in attitude results to a change in behavior. . ‡ It develops from awareness of oneself in relation to individuals and situations.

Eight Be-Attitudes of a Nurse: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Acceptance Helpfulness Friendliness Firmness Permissiveness Limit setting Sincerity Competence .

. The nurse accepts the client as an individual and respecting his/her culture. ‡ Facing known and meeting the unknown of life with maximum comfort.Acceptance ‡ Acceptance of others is indicative of self maturity. ‡ Changing what can be changed within one¶s self. ‡ Ex.

giving others attention. .Helpfulness ‡ Strong feelings towards helping others. reassurance and a protective security in the storms of daily living. A nurse assist a weak client in feeding and performing hygienic measures. Ex.

pleasant interaction with others. warmth of manner.Friendliness ‡ May be active or passive. . The nurse establishes rapport with the client and his/her family. Ex.

number of visitors at a time. kind and immediate methods of approach. uses firm. confident way. ‡ Ex. .Firmness ‡ Being alert to the actions of others in a positive. use of telephone. The nurse implements hospital rules and policies regarding visiting hours.

The nurse allows the adolescent to wear his own clothing as he/she requests instead of hospital gown. flexibility in responses. . loosening or tightening the reign of authority in the interaction.Permissiveness ‡ Understanding of motives and the feelings expressed in behavior whether they are or not capable. ‡ Ex.

‡ Ex. The nurse tells the client who keeps on throwing things that this behavior is unacceptable. limiting what others may say or do. offering of praise or blame. .Limit setting ‡ Knowing the value of her influence.

The nurse tells the client who is crying because she lost her baby that she understands how she feels at this time. ‡ Ex. And the nurse holds the client¶s hand and stay with her.Sincerity ‡ Acting naturally. recognizing one¶s anger. fears and other feelings. .

Competence ‡ Approaching problems intellectually rather than emotionally. ‡ Ex. The nurse stays with the client whose wound on the abdomen has disrupted and reassures the client that help from a physician is being sought for. . displaying knowledge and ability to deal with situations.

‡ Maybe cultivated by a desire to serve and a deep love for fellow human beings. ‡ Innate in one who has a depth of feeling and an outgoing manner. .Charm ‡ To influence the senses or the mind by some quality or attraction delight.

. ‡ Heart ± attempt never to show indifference or a calloused manner. attentive.To acquire charm. one needs to cultivate the following: ‡ Voice ± modulated with clear enunciation. ‡ Manner ± courteous. Be empathetic. receptive. Remember to say ³Thank you´ as this works miracles in social harmony. understanding and tolerant. patient.

‡ ‡ 2. Calmness and composure -face reality -avoid emotional flare-ups Control of temper Think before acting Avoid verbal and physical aggressiveness .Requirements for development of poise are as follows: 1.

self-control. . evenness of temper.‡ Intelligence ± keeps an active mind. ‡ Poise ± equanimity. read and exchange opinions with others. composure. calmness. accept new ideas from others. recognize beauty.

.NURSING ‡the word ³NURSE´ originated from word NUTRIX meaning to nourish.

Harmer  It is rooted in the needs of humanity. Shaw  Nursing is an art.Definition of Nursing Florence Nightingale  the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery. . Harmer & Henderson  Service to an individual that helps him to attain or maintain a healthy state of mind or body.

. Virginia Henderson  The unique function of the nurse is t assist the individual. sick or well.therapeutic.Definition of Nursing Mother Olivia Gowan  It is both a science and art involving the total patient. Hildagard E. Paplau  It is a significant. Faye Glen Abdellah  It is a helping Profession.int erpersonal process.

Lydia Hall  Nursing can and should be professional.Definition of Nursing Dorothea Orem  It is the giving of direct assistance to a person. . Ida Jean Orlando  Is to conceptualized that finding out and meeting the patients immediate need for help. Myra Estrin Levine  It is a human interaction.

reaction. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse  It is a human science Betty Neumen  It is a unique profession. .interaction and transaction. Helen C. Erickson  It is a holistic helping of a person with their self care activities in relation to their health.Definition of Nursing Imogene King  It is an interpersonal process of action.

helping relationship which the nurse assists the client to achieve. obtained optimal health.1987 ± Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) ‡ Described nursing practice as a dynamic. caring. .

the environment and the intended client outcome. . nursing the client.‡ They describe what nursing is and the interrelationship among nurses.

‡ Nursing is a helping profession . Nursing is client centered. Nursing is concerned with health promotion. and health restoration. Nursing is a science. health maintenance. Nursing is holistic.Characteristics of Nursing: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Nursing is caring. Nursing is adaptive. Nursing is an art.

.1973-ANA (American Nurses Association) ‡ described nursing practice as ³direct goal oriented and adaptable to the needs of the individual. the family and the community during health and illness.

´ ‡ 1995-ANA-recognized the influence and contribution of the science of caring to nursing.‡ 1980 ± ANA changed the definition into ³nursing diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. . philosophy and practice.

.American Nurses Association ‡ It is a helping profession and as such provides services which contributes to the health and well being of a person. ‡ In 1980. The congress of Nursing Practice defined Nursing as the" the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.

Characteristics of Nursing:
related to Nursing Process)

Phenomena ± they are the human responses to actual or potential health problems. Theory application ± the nurse applies nursing theory to understanding theses human responses. Nursing action ± the nurse takes action to resolve actual or potential health problems. Evaluation ± the nurse evaluates the effects of the actions on the clients responses.

Three Essential Components of a Professional Nursing 
Care Cure Coordination

Goals of Nursing:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Maintenance of health Promotion of wellness/health Restoration of health Prevention of illness Facilitate coping Care of dying

‡ Integration of objective data with knowledge gained from an understanding of the client or group¶s subjective experience .Their most recent definition of nursing acknowledges 4 essential features of contemporary nursing practice: ‡ Attention to the full range of human experiences and responses to health and illness without restrictions to a problem focused orientation.

‡ Provision of a caring relationship that facilitates health and healing. .‡ Application of scientific knowledge to the process of diagnosis and treatment.

.Historical Development of Nursing ‡ Nursing has undergone dramatic changes in response to societal needs and influences.

daughter and sister. From the beginning of time. mother. women have cared for infants and children thus nursing could be said to have its roots in the home.Women·s role ‡ Traditional female roles of wife. .

Religion ‡ had a significant impact on the development of Western nursing .

. the sick and the homeless.During the 3rd and 4th centuries ‡ Several wealthy matrons of the Roman empire such as FABIOLA converted to Christianity and used their wealth to provide houses of care and healing (the forerunner of hospitals) for the poor.

including the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem. the Teutonic Knights and the Knights of Saint Lazarus (dedicated themselves in the care of people with leprosy. syphilis and skin chronic skin diseases.) .The Crusades ‡ Saw the formation of several orders of knights.

‡ However. most notably in 1836. these group of nursing providers resurfaced occasionally throughout the centuries.‡ The Western churches suppressed the deaconess group which had their origins in the Roman Empire of the 3rd and 4th centuries. during the Middle Ages. .

Germany.Theodore Fliedner ‡ Reinstituted the Order of Deaconess' and open a small hospital and training school in Kaiserwerth. .

‡ During the Crimean war (18541856) the inadequacy of care give to soldiers led to a public outcry in Great Britain. . wars have accentuated the need for nurses.War ‡ Throughout the century.

Historical Development of Nursing: .

‡Nursing was ´untaughtµ and instinctive .Period of Intuitive Nursing ‡ It was practiced since prehistoric times among primitive tribes lasted through the early Christian era.

Beliefs and practices of Prehistoric Man ‡ Nomad. ruled by law of self preservation ‡ Nursing function belonged to women ‡ Believed illness was caused by invasion of victim·s body & evil spirit through the use of black magic or voodoo . philosophy in life ´the best for the mostµ.A.

‡ ³shamanµ-medicine man or witch doctor heals by using white magic ‡ ´trephiningµ-drilling a hole in the skull with a rock or stone to drive away evil spirit from the body. .

superstition and magic .Nursing in Near East ‡ Nomadic style to urban community life ‡ Beginning of a body of scientific knowledge ‡ Care of sick was closely related to religion.

No mention of nurses. surgical procedure to cure disease. recommends patient to choose between the use of charms. medications. . discouraged experimentation.Contributions to Medicine and Nursing Babylonia ‡ Code of Hammurabi ± law that covers medical practice regulation fees.

Egypt ‡ Introduce art of embalming ‡ Recorded 250 recognized diseases through observation .

Israel ‡ Moses ² father of sanitation wrote 5 books of old testaments Promulgated law of control on the spread of CD and actual circumcision Referred nurses as midwives. wet nurses or child nurses .

Nursing in Far East China ‡ Materia medica. prescribed methods of treating wounds and infection .pharmacology.

. proficient in practice of medicine and surgery. ‡ ´Sushurutuµ-made a list of function and qualifications of nurses. practice intuitive form of asepsis. there was reference to the nurse·s taking care of patients. these nurses were described as combination of physical therapist and cook.India ‡ Built hospitals. For the 1st time in recorded history.

Nursing in Ancient Greece ‡ Nursing was the task of untrained slaves. ‡ Introduced ´caduceusµ-insignia of the medical profession today ‡ Hippocrates ² father of scientific medicine .

‡ FABIOLA ² she made her home the first hospital in Christian world. . ‡ Care of the ill was left to slaves or Greek physicians.Rome ‡ Maintain vigorous health because illness was a sign of weakness.

. which began in the 11th century and ended in 1836.Period of Apprentice Nursing ‡ This period extends from the founding of religious nursing orders in the crusades. ‡ It is called the period of ´on the jobµ training.

‡ Religious orders of the Christian Church were responsible for the development of this kind of nursing. .

Knights of St.Military Religious Orders and their works ‡ Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem Established an organization of ranks and advocated principles of complete and unquestioned devotion to duty and traditional obedience to superiors. ‡ ‡ . Lazarus ² Was founded primarily for the nursing care of lepers in Jerusalem after the Christians had conquered the city. Teutonic Knights Established tent hospitals for the wounded.

St.Important Nursing Personages ‡ ‡ ‡ St. Catherine of Sienna ² the first ´Lady with a Lampµ. Elizabeth of Hungary ² known as the ´Patroness of Nursesµ. St. . Clare ² founder of the second order of St Francis of Assisi.

Pastor Theodor Fliedner and Frederika Munster Fliedner .The Dark Period of Nursing ‡ Period of reformation from 17th to 19th century until the U.S.Mother Mary Aikenhand .Civil War ‡ Several Leaders sought to bring about reforms: .John Howard .

‡ Nursing in America . American Reforms in Nursing 3. new quests and new trade routes 1. Nursing during the Civil War . Pre-Civil War Nursing 2. to seek for adventure.people began to settle in North American continent.

‡ Important Personages at this time: Dorothea Lynde Dix Clara Barton .

Period of Educated Nursing
‡ This period began on June 15, 1860 when the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing opened at St. Thomas Hospital in London

Facts about Florence Nightingale
² Recognized as the: Mother of Modern Nursingµ, she was also known as the ´Lady with a Lampµ. ² Born on May 12, 1820 in Florence Italy. ‡ Self appointed goal: ´To change the profile of nursing

² Upgraded the practice of Nursing and made an honorable profession. ² Led the nurses that took care of the wounded during Crimean War. ‡Put down her ideas in the two published books: Notes on Nursing and Notes on Hospitals.

contributed to the uplift of the nursing profession . William Halsted ² design the first rubber gloves Caroline Hampton Robb ² the first nurse to wear rubber gloves while working as an operating room nurse Establishments of Nursing Organizations. the American Nurse·s Association and the National League for Nursing Education.Other important Persons/Groups/Events during Period of Educated Nursing: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Linda Richards ² first graduate nurse Dr.

settlement house nursing. Preparation of a standard curriculum based on educational objectives for schools of nursing (1913-1937). . government service of nurses and prenatal and maternal health nursing (1900-1912). Age of specialization began in the first decade of the 20th century. served the wounded soldiers during World War I. Edith Cavell ² known as ´Mata Hariµ.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Isabel Hampton Robb ² the first principal of the John Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing Clara Louise Maas ² engaged in medical research on yellow fever during the SpanishAmerican War. Development of private duty nursing. school nursing.

Period of Contemporary Nursing ‡ This covers of the World War II to the present. . Scientific and technological developments as well as social changes mark this period.

maintaining inventory. ‡ Use of atomic/nuclear energy for medical diagnosis and treatment. . record keeping and billing. establishing diagnosis. ‡ Utilization of computers for collecting data. teaching. making payrolls.Events and Trends ‡ Establishment of the World Health Organization by the United Nations to assist in fighting disease.

‡ Development of the expanded role of the nurse. ‡ Colonel Pearl Tucker ² developed a comprehensive one-year course to prepare nurses for aerospace nursing at Cape Kennedy.‡ Use of sophisticated equipment for diagnosis and therapy. ‡ Technological advances relieved the nurse from numerous tasks. . ‡ Nursing involvement in community health is greatly intensified. ‡ Health is perceived as fundamental human right.

History of Nursing in the Philippines: .

.Early Beliefs and Practices ‡ Diseases and their causes and treatment were shrouded with mysticism and superstitions.

. If they used leaves and roots. with the priest-physician as intermediary. People believed in special gods of healing. they were called herb doctors. People believed that evil spirits could be driven away by persons with powers to expel demons.‡ ‡ ‡ Belief about causation of disease.

Early Care of the sick ‡ Early Filipinos subscribed to superstitious beliefs and practices in relation to health and sickness. .

‡ Herb men were called ³HERBICHEROS´ meaning one who practiced witchcraft. . ‡ During labor. Person suffering from diseases without any identified cause were believed to be bewitched by ³MANGKUKULAM´ or ³MANGAGAWAY´ ‡ Difficult childbirth and some diseases (called ³PAMAO´) were attributed to ³NONOS´. the ³MABUTING HILOT´ was called in. If the birth became difficult ³WITCHES´ were supposed to be the caused.

.Health Care during Spanish Regimen ‡ The religious orders exerted their efforts to care for the sick by building hospitals in the different parts of the Philippines.

Earliest Hospitals established were the following ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hospital Real de Manila (1577) San Lazaro Hospital (1578) Hospital de Indio (1586) Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590) San Juan de Dios Hospital (1596) .

Nursing during the Philippine Revolution .

The prominent people involved in nursing works were ‡ Josephine Bracken ‡ Rosa Sevilla de Alvero ‡ Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo ‡ Dona Maria de Aguinaldo .

‡ Melchora Aquino ‡ Capitan Salome ‡ Agueda Kahabagan ‡ Trinidad Tecson .

Bulacan was the location of the national headquarters .Filipino Red Cross ‡ Malolos.

‡ Provision of nursing care to wounded Filipino soldiers . charity. bazaars and voluntary contributions.Functions of Filipino Red Cross: ‡ Collection of war funds and materials through concerts.

Requirements for membership: ‡ At least 14 years old. . ‡ Of sound reputation. age requirement for officer was 25 years old.

Hospitals and Schools of Nursing ‡ Iloilo Mission Hospital of Nursing (Iloilo City. ‡ St. Luke¶s Hospital School of Nursing (Quezon City. 1907 . Paul¶s Hospital School of Nursing (Manila. 1906). ‡ St. ‡ Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing (1907). 1907).

1907). 1913). ‡ Southern Island School of Nursing (Cebu. ‡ Emmanuel Hospital School of Nursing (Capiz. 1918). ‡ San Juan de Dios Hospital School of Nursing (Manila.‡ Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing (Manila. ‡ Philippine Christian Mission Institute Schools of Nursing. . 1913).

‡ Manila Central University College of Nursing (1947). ‡ University of the Philippines College of Nursing (1948). .The First Colleges of Nursing in the Philippines: ‡ University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing (1946).

‡ Socorro Sirilan ± pioneered in Hospital Social Service in San Lazaro Hospital where she was the Chief Nurse. founder of the Philippine Nurses Association. .Nursing Leaders in the Philippines ‡ Anastacia Giron-Tupas ± first Filipino nurse to hold the position Chief Nurse Superintendent. ‡ Cesaria Tan ± first Filipino to receive a masters degree in Nursing abroad.

‡ Sor Ricarda Mendoza ± a pioneer in nursing education.‡ Rosa Militar ± a pioneer in school health education. ‡ Loreto Tupaz ± ³Dean of the Philippine Nursing´. ‡ Socorro Diaz ± first editor of the PNA magazine called ³The Message´. . ‡ Conchita Ruiz ± first full-time editor of the newly named PNA magazine ³The Filipino Nurse´. Florence Nightingale of Iloilo.

Health and Nursing Organizations .

Early Institutions for Child Welfare ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hospicio de San Jose (Manila 1782) Asylum of San Jose (Cebu) Asylum of Looban (Manila) Colegio de Santa Isabel (Naga City .

‡ Gota de Leche (Manila. . ‡ Public Welfare Board. 1907) ‡ Liga Nacional Filipiniana para la Protection dela Primera Infancia.

Nursing Organizations: ‡ Philippine Nurses Association ‡ National League of Nurses ‡ Catholic Nurses Guild of the Philippines ‡ Others: ORNAP.MCNAP.IRNOP etc. .

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