TEACHER INNOVATION PROJECT

Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

PRE-LESSON DISCUSSION Discuss these questions with your classmates: 
 

What species are called invasive? Do you know any examples of invasive species? What else do you know about invasive species?

INVASIVE SPECIES
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Any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem; and whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Well-known invasive species include the Northern Snakehead fish (Channa argus), the Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), the Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) and the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) They are the second-most important threat to native species, behind habitat destruction, having contributed to the decline of 42% of U.S. endangered and threatened species.

Northern Snakehead fish

http://rjd.miami.edu/learning-tools/high-school/ http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/council/isacdef.pdf

NATIVE VS. NON-NATIVE
White-tailed deer

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Nutria

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Increased populations of whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern U.S. cause problems in farms, yards, and natural areas because they consume plants valued by humans. Whitetail deer are not invasive because they are native. Nutria (Myocastor coypus), South America native, were introduced into North America. Nutria compete directly with native muskrats, beavers, and other similar native species for habitat; often causing the displacement of these native species.

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/council/isacdef.pdf

ROUT TO INVASION
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50,000 nonindigenous species have been introduced into the United States alone. Based on historic data the probability of an introduced specie to become a harmful invader is 1 in 1000. Several barrier needs to be overcome « Large-scale geographic barrier « Survival barrier « Establishment barrier « Dispersal and spread barrier « Harm and impact
Cynthia S. Kolar and David M. Lodge Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution Vol.16 No.4 April 2001 http://www.esa.org/education/edupdfs/invasion.pdf Bottrell D. 2011. Module 7: Exotic Species. Biodiversity and Conservational Biology. [Online course notes]. Accessed 2012 January 14.

ROUTES OF INTRODUCTION: DELIBERATE
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Ornamental

Kudzu

Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), was introduced in 1800s as ornamental and deer browse. Now found in all of Eastern and Southwestern U.S. It inhibits growth of native plants, supports larvae of agricultural pests (cornworm and tobacco budworm). Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata), native of Japan and China, was promoted in 1920s and 30s as soil stabilizer, ornamental vine and animal fodder. The plant grows up to 1 foot per day, overgrows and shades out trees, covers houses, barns, road sings and potentially increases fire hazard during winter, denies access to lands for hunting, hiking, and bird watching.
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Economically useful

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L), native of Europe, Asia and North Africa, was introduced as medicinal herb for treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding, wounds, ulcers and sores (also entered as a ship ballast). The plant displaces native wetland plants, has less food and habitat value for birds, bog turtles, mink and other wildlife. Purple loosestrife Nile perch (Lates niloticus), was introduced as a valuable food fish (up to 200kg and 2 m in length). It contributed to the extinction of more than 200 Nile perch endemic fish species through predation and competition for food in Lake Victoria;
http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/index.php

ROUTES OF INTRODUCTION: DELIBERATE
Starling

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Entertainment
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Feral pig (Sus scrofa), native to Eurasia, was introduced by sport hunters. Now the feral swine population is a combination of domestic swine and feral pigs. Some experts estimate the numbers of feral pigs at over 4 million, with the largest populations located in California, Florida, Hawaii, and Texas. Feral pigs damage crops, stock and property and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), native to Europe, was introduced in the 1890s by one member of The American Acclimatization Society who reputedly attempting to establish in Central Park all the birds mentioned by Shakespeare. They are now established across the entire North American continent, and outcompete bluebirds, woodpeckers and other birds that nest in cavities and cause damage to agricultural crops, public nuisance and can damage infrastructures, roof linings, etc. and negatively effect aesthetics.

http://www.defenders.org/resources/publications/invasives/invasive_species_gallery.pdf http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/wildlife_damage/content/printable_version/feral%20pigs.pdf

Feral pig

ROUTES OF INTRODUCTION: UNINTENTIONAL
Transportation related
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Ballast water
Ship ballast water may transport up to 3,000 species around the world every day; White-spotted Jellyfish (Phyllorhiza punctata) has been introduced to North America from the Western Pacific Ocean and is threatening large commercial fisheries by feeding on the eggs and larvae of fish, crab and shrimp; clogging fishing nets; damaging boat intakes and fishing gear; and causing the closure of productive areas to fishing activities.
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Lumber products and wood packing material
Dutch Elm Disease (Ophiostoma ulmi ) and Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), both native of Asia, entered the U.S. in the early 20th century in shipments of lumber and live trees. Elm and chestnut trees were predominant species in eastern forests until the fungus arrival. By the 1950s, virtually all mature American chestnuts had succumbed to the Chestnut blight disease. It is estimated that Dutch elm disease has killed over 100 million trees.

http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/about_invasives/why_do_some_s pecies_become_problems.php

White-spotted Jellyfish

ROUTES OF INTRODUCTION: UNINTENTIONAL
Transportation related
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Shipments of grain, vegetables and live plants
Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. Micranthos), native to Europe and western Asia, was accidentally introduced into North America in contaminated alfalfa and clover seed in the late 1800s. The plant is widely distributed in the U.S. and is reported to occur in every state in the Lower 48 except Texas, Oklahoma and Georgia. Infestations in North Dakota have been found primarily along highways, waterways, railroad tracks, pipelines and recently installed utility lines in the western part of the state. The plant is consumed by livestock only when other vegetation is unavailable. It is also releases a toxin that reduces growth of forage species.
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Spotted knapweed
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Travelers
seeds, eggs, bacteria and fungi attached to their clothing or shoes

Other:
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Dumping of bait buckets: Rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) Release of exotic pets

Rusty crayfish

Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans), native of the South Pacific and Indian Ocean. The initial introduction is thought to have occurred during Hurricane Andrew in 1992 when at least six lionfish escaped from a broken beachside aquarium near Biscayne Bay. In addition, release of unwanted lionfish by hobbyists is thought to be a cause of additional introductions and the range expansion of the lionfish. The fish preys on native species and has venomous spines. A tenfold increase over 4 year period was observed in parts of the Atlantic and Caribbean.
http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/weeds/w842w.htm http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=3013 http://www.anstaskforce.gov/spoc/lionfish.php

Red Lionfish

CHARACTERISTIC OF SUCCESSFUL INVADER
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The ability to reproduce both asexually and sexually Fast growth Rapid reproduction Japanese Honeysuckle High dispersal ability Phenotypic plasticity(the ability to alter one s growth form to suit current conditions) Tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions (generalist) Ability to live off of a wide range of food types (generalist) Association with humans Other successful invasions

Asian Long-Horned Beetle
http://rjd.miami.edu/learning-tools/high-school/MODULE%204%20Marine%20Issues%20-%20SECTION%205%20Invasive%20Species.pdf

SUCCESSFUL INVADERS?
Giant hogweed

Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), Native to the Caucasus Mountain ´ introduced as ornamental; ´ its sap can cause severe dermatitis; ´ produces tens of thousands of seeds viable for several years ´ tolerant to various environments (water saturated and well-drained sites), ´ tall plant with wide leaves; forms dense canopies; ´ hybridizes with eltrot (Heracleum sphondylium); ´ resembles cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)

Cane Toad (Rhinella marina), Native to South America; ´ released as biocontrol of sugar cane pests in Hawaii; accidental release by a pet dealer in Florida; ´ feeds on other native toads and frogs (and even dog food!); ´ poisonous sacs protects toad from predators; Cane Toad ´ lays about 20,000 eggs each mating season; ´ breeds in canals, flooded ditches, shallow pools and fish ponds; ´ hides beneath ground debris in dry and cold weather;

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/hogweed.shtml http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/herps/Frogs_and_Toads/B_marinus/b_marinus.html

WHY ARE INVASIVE SPECIES A PROBLEM? 
 

Can you think of example of ecological impact? Economical impact? Which one is easier to estimate: economical or ecological?

WHAT THREATS DO INVASIVE SPECIES IMPOSE?
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Agriculture
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Idaho State Tree: White pine (Pinus monticolae)

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) decrease the forage value of rangelands. Cattle refuse to eat leafy spurge, and cheatgrass invasion results in more frequent, widespread, and more destructive fires White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) reduced inland Northwest white pine stands by 90-95% European green crab feeds on clams, oysters, mussels and crabs, including young Dungeness crabs West Nile Virus, which also causes encephalitis and can be fatal to the elderly, first was reported in 1999; in 2003, 4200 people were infected, resulting in 284 deaths
Cheatgrass Scotch broom

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Forestry
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Recreational and commercial fisheries
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Health
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Genetic pollution
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DNA of GMOs becomes part of the gene pool of natural populations due to interbreeding; long-term effect is unknown.

http://www.esa.org/education/edupdfs/invasion.pdf http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/about_invasives/impacts.php

ECOLOGICAL IMPACT
Saltcedar Invasive species impact biodiversity, habitat quality, and ecosystem functioning and represent threat to 42% of the endangered species in the United States. ´ Damage to ecosystem services: tamarisk invasion

Saltcedar (Tamarix ) was deliberately introduced 100 years ago to control erosion and provide
windbreaks in the southwest. Now it infests 1.2 million acres of streamside habitat. The plant accumulates salt in its tissues, which is later released into the soil, making it unsuitable for many native species. It does not provide food or cover for wildlife and increases the instances of wild fires. The losses to water provision, flood control and wildlife habitat in the southwest estimated of $3.8 to $11.2 trillion dollars over a 55-year period). ´

Reduction in Native Biodiversity
Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) has become a serious pest in Guam where it caused the
local extinction of most of the island s native bird and lizard species. It also caused "cascading" ecological effects by removing native pollinators, causing the subsequent decline of native plant species. The ecosystem fragility of other Pacific islands to which cargo flows from Guam has made the potential spread of the brown tree snake from Guam a major concern.

http://www.defenders.org/resources/publications/invasives/invasive_species_gallery.pdf http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=54

Brown tree snake

ECONOMICAL IMPACT
The annual US cost to control invasive species is estimated at $137 billion, with over 100 million acres being affected (i.e. the size of California)
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It is estimated that 8 million acres of Idaho (15% of state s land) are infested with invasive weed. Noxious weeds in Idaho cause direct losses of $300 million annually. Leafy spurge has been documented to decrease ranchland value by up to 83% in Oregon. Zebra mussels and Asian clams clog utility pipes, irrigation pipes and boat engines. A recent calculation estimated zebra mussel damage at $5 billion annually. Florida has spent over $300 million to control a single invasive species, the citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis). The annual cost of invasive plants, animals and diseases in losses to Florida s agriculture is estimated at $179 million. Approximately every third day there is a brown tree snakecaused power outage somewhere on Guam. The costs due to direct damages and lost productivity are conservatively estimated at $1-4 million dollars each year.

Leafy spurge

http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/about_invasives/impacts.php http://www.defenders.org/resources/publications/invasives/oregon.pdf http://www.fort.usgs.gov/resources/education/bts/impacts/economic.asp

Zebra mussel-encrusted Vector Averaging Current Meter from Lake Michigan

HOW CAN WE CONTROL INVASIVE SPECIES?
Can you name at least 3 possible methods of control and prevention? ´ Which one could you be a part of? ´ Are there any potential difficulties with any of the methods of control and prevention? Why?
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WHAT CAN BE DONE?
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Prevention
Decontamination of freight, packaging material and transportation equipment that could contain unknown biotic hitchhikers, and restricting deliberate imports of potentially harmful species; educating communities about invasive species; organizing amnesty days; legislation.

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Eradication
Early detection and rapid response while unwanted species live within a restricted area; Eradication campaigns in Key West, Florida against the Asian citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi) during 1934-1937cost $ 200,000. As result the last blackfly was seen in 1937. However, the same species was discovered in 1976 in a much larger area centered on Fort Lauderdale, FL. The eradication was attempted but failed due to the larger spread area. Since 1979 the eradication was substituted by modest control (containment).
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Containment
Preventing further transport of existing exotics within the US; includes methods used in prevention and eradication;

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Control
Chemical (using pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides) Mechanical (physically removing the invasive species or changing habitat conditions) Biological (introducing a natural enemy predator or parasite generally from the invader s native range)

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Restoration
An important step to minimize the chances that an area will be reinvaded. Many control techniques inherently create disturbance, which may increase the vulnerability of an area to subsequent invaders

http://www.esa.org/education/edupdfs/invasion.pdf http://www.gcrio.org/CONSEQUENCES/vol2no2/article2.html

WHAT CAN YOU DO?
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Fishing and boating
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don t dump unused live bait into waterways; scrub and dry your boat and motor apparatus before moving between different waterways; do not transport fresh fruits, vegetables, grains or meats across state or country lines; don t release exotic pets or dump out aquarium contents, don t buy exotic pets; choose native plants over exotic varieties that might be invasive; wash boots, clothing and vehicles before and after hiking in different community types, to remove seeds and other pests that might have attached themselves; many local parks, watersheds, wildlife refuges and other natural areas are fighting invasive species that degrade local habitats and limit recreational opportunities; share your knowledge about invasive species and their threat with your friends and family member.

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Food
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Pets
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Gardening:
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Recreation
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Volunteering
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Education
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http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/what_you_can_do.php

RESOURCES
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Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health
http://www.invasive.org/

Defenders of Wildlife
http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/invasives/invasives _by_state/index.php

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Global Invasive Species Database
http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?st=100ss

National Invasive Species Information Center
http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/ Google images