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Piezoelectric

UY, JAMIESON CLARK T.

What is PZT (Piezoelectric)
y Ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when

subjected to mechanical stress. y Derived from the Greek piezein, which means to squeeze or press. y The effect is reversible; piezoelectric crystals, subject to an externally applied voltage, can change shape by a small amount.

Piezoelectric Effect
y The piezoelectric effect describes the relation

between a mechanical stress and an electrical voltage in solids. y It is reversbile: an applied mechanical stress will generate a voltage and an applied voltage will change the shape of the solid by a small amount (up to a 4% change in volume).

Piezoelectric Effect

Piezoelectric materials

y Occurs only in non conductive materials.

Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups: crystals and ceramics.

Crystals
y Quartz SiO2

- Quartz shows a strong piezoelectric effect perpendicularly to the prism axis. Applying pressure on a quartz crystal generates an electrical polarization along the pressure direction. Alternatively, applying an electrical tension leads to a mechanical deformation of the crystal. Properties Fe3+, Ti4+

Crystals
y Aluminum orthophosphate - Berlinite -

AlPO4 - Aluminum orthophosphate, AlPO4, is a rhombic crystal made of sodium phosphate and aluminum salt. In this chemical configuration, aluminum is present as three-way positively charged cation (Al3+) reciprocal electrostaticaly to the phosphate anion (PO43).

Crystals
y Gallium orthophosphate GaPO4

- is a colorless crystal crystallizing in a trigonal crystal system. Similar to quartz due to the fact that the silicon atoms are replaced alternating by gallium and phosphor. Therefore this crystal has almost the same characteristics, however it has twice its piezoelectricity, which is an interesting advantage especially in mechanical applications.

Ceramics
y Barium titanate belongs to the group of electrical

ceramics. It is an oxide of barium and titanium. y As a piezoelectric material, it is usually replaced by lead zirconate titanate (PZT). y It is used as a piezoelectric material for microphones and transducers.

Ceramics
y Lead zirconate titanate PZT y At temperatures below the Curie temperature the

titanium atom moves from its central position and the electrically neutral lattice becomes a dipole. y By doping the PZT material, its piezoelectric characteristics can be modified: especially the hardness or softness of the material.

Advantages
y High electromechanical transformation efficiency y High machinability y High stability y Suitable for mass production, and economical

Process
[1] Raw Materials [2] Mixing [3] Calcining

[4] Milling

[5] Spray Drying [6] Pressing

[7] Binder Burnout

[8] Sintering

Process
[9] Grinding/ Polishing [10] Electroding

[11] Poling

[12] Final Inspection

Applications
Sensors Devices using the piezoelectric effect to measure acceleration, pressure, strain or force and converting them to an electrical signal. Piezoelements are suitable for the detection of dynamic processes. In static applications the piezoelectric charges are too small, in order to be detected. An amplifier is used to convert the piezoelectric charges into a measurable electrical tension.

y

y y y

Applications
y Ultrasonic transducers y Ultrasonic transducers (10kHz to 70kHz) are used in

imaging and high power applications. y The transducer can act as a sensor and an actuator in imaging applications in high power applications such as sonochemistry or medical treatment, the transducer sends ultrasound waves in the body and detect the returning echo.

Applications
y Piezoelectric motors y A piezo motor is based on the change in mechanical

shape of a piezoelectric material when an tension is applied. y The material produces ultrasonic or acoustic vibrations and produces a linear or rotary motion. y Locking mechanisms Stepping Actions Single Action With a fast response of the material (up to 5Mhz), it is possible to obtain a linear speed of 800mm/second.

Gas Igniters
When a voltage is applied across a poled electroded piezoelectric device the material expands in the direction of the field and contracts perpendicular to the field. When a force is applied to the piezoelectric, an electric field is generated.

Piezo-Sounders in Smoke Alarms
A piezoelectric material stuck to a metal disc. If the piezoelectric layer attemptsto contract or expand under the electric field, the disc flexes, producing movement of the centre of the disc relative to the edge.

Applications
y Other Piezoelectric applications y High-voltage sources y Frequency standard y Reduction of vibrations y Piezoelements are used in music for acoustic

instruments.