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Diffraction
Monday Nov. 18, 2002
2
Diffraction theory (10.4 Hecht)
We will first develop a formalism that will
describe the propagation of a wave ± that
is develop a mathematical description of
Huygen¶s principle
We
know
this
Wavefront U U
What is U U here?
3
Diffraction theory
Consider two well behaved functions U
1
¶, U
2
¶ that
are solutions of the wave equation.
Let U
1
¶ = U
1
e
-iæt
; U
2
¶ = U
2
e
-iæt
Thus U
1
, U
2
are the spatial part of the functions
and since,
we have,
¸ )
0
1 0
' 1
'
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + \ = + \
=
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ \ =
¯
¯
\

U k U U k U
e U
v
U
t
U
v
U
t i
-
æ
æ
4
Green¶s theorem
Consider the product U
1
2
= U
1
\U
2
Using Gauss¶ Theorem
Where S = surface enclosing V
Thus,
¸ ) ¸ )
¦ ¦
\ = \ \
S V
S d U U dV U U
T
2 1 2 1
dS
n
U
S d U
¯
¯
= \
2
2
T
normal outward n dS n S d = =
Ö Ö
T
5
Green¶s Theorem
Now expand left hand side,
Do the same for U
2
\U
1
and subtract from (2),
gives Green¶s theorem
. J ¸ )
¦ ¦
¯
¯
= \ + \ \
V S
dS
n
U
U dV U U U U 2
2
1 2
2
1 2 1
-
. J ¸ )
¦ ¦
¯
¯

¯
¯
= \ \
V S
dS
n
U
U
n
U
U dV U U U U 3
1
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
-
6
Green¶s theorem
Now for functions satisfying the wave equation
(1), i.e.
Consequently,
since the LHS of (3) = 0
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
U k U U k U = \ = \
¸ ) 4 0
1
2
2
1
- =
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¯
¯
¦
dS
n
U
U
n
U
U
S
7
Green¶s theorem applied to
spherical wave propagation
Let the disturbance at t=0 be,
where r is measured from point P in V and U
1
=
³Green¶s function´
Since there is a singularity at the point P, draw a
small sphere 7
P
, of radius V, around P (with P at
centre)
Then integrate over 7+7
P
, and take limit as V p
0
r
e
U U
ikr
o 1 1
=
8
Spherical Wave propagation
¸ ) 5
2
2
2
2
2
- ;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¦
¦
7
=
7
d
r
e
r
U
r
U
r
e
dS
r
e
n
U
n
U
r
e
P r
ikr ikr
ikr ikr
V
V

V
7
P
7

Thus (4) can be written, Thus (4) can be written,
9
Spherical Wave propagation
In (5), an element of area on 7
P
is defined in
terms of solid angle
and we have used
Now consider first term on RHS of (5)
J U U
V
d d
dS
d sin
2
= = ;
r n ¯
¯
=
¯
¯
. J
1 0
2
2
0
lim lim I d
r
U e
r
ik
p
=
p
=
¦
¦
|
¦

¸

;
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¦
V
V
V
V
V
V
10
Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem
Now U
2
= continuous function and thus the
derivative is bounded (assume)
Its maximum value in V = C
Then since e
ikV
p1 as Vp0 we have,
The second term on the RHS of (5)
r
U
¯
¯
2
. J
¦
= ; =
p p
0 lim lim
0 1 0
Cd I V
V V
. J ;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
=
p p
d
r
e
r
U I
r
ikr
2
2 0 2 0
lim lim V
V
V V
11
Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem
. J
. J ; =
;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

=
;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
¦
¦
p
p
=
p p
d U ik U
d e
ik
U
d
r
e
r
U I
ik
r
ikr
2 2 0
2
2
2 0
2
2 0 2 0
lim
1
lim
lim lim
V
V
V V
V
V
V
V
V
V V
Now as Vp0 U
2
(r) pU
P
(its value at P)
and,
¦ ¦
= ; = ;
P P P
U d U d U T 4
Now designate the disturbance U as an electric field E
12
Kirchoff integral theorem
¸ ) 6 4 - dS
n
E
r
e
r
e
n
E E
ikr ikr
P
¦
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¯
¯

¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
= T
This gives the value of disturbance at P in terms of values
on surface 7 enclosing P.
It represents the basic equation of It represents the basic equation of scalar diffraction scalar diffraction
theory theory
13
Geometry of single slit

n
Ö
R
S
P
U¶ U
7
7
Have infinite screen
with aperture A
source, S, arrives
at aperture with
amplitude
'
'
r
e
E E
ikr
o
=
Let the hemisphere
with aperture comprise
the surface (7)
enclosing P.
Since R pg
E=0 on 7.
Also, E = 0 on
side of screen
facing V.

r
14
Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula
Thus E=0 everywhere on surface except the
portion that is the aperture. Thus from (6)
dS
r
e
n r
e
r
e
n r
e
E
ikr ikr ikr ikr
P
¦
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
' '
4
' '
T
¸ ) ¸ )
¸ )
¸ ) ) 7 (
1
Ö Ö
Ö Ö
. .
,
'
' Ö Ö ' Ö Ö Ö Ö
2
-
ikr
ikr ikr
e
r r
ik
r n
r
e
r
r n
r
e
n
g e
Thus
r
r n n
n
and
r
r n n
n
¦
|
¦

¸

=
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¯
¯
= \ =
¯
¯
¯
¯
= \ =
¯
¯
15
Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula
Now assume r, r¶ >> P ; then k/r >> 1/r
2
Then the second term in (7) drops out and we
are left with,
¸ )
¸ ). J
¸ )
¸ )
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) . J . J ' cos cos
2
1
' Ö Ö Ö Ö
2
1
'
,
'
Ö Ö Ö Ö
'
4
'
'
U U U
U
P
T
= =
=
=
¦
¦
+
+
r n r n F
dS F
rr
e iE
E
or
dS r n r n ik
rr
e
E E
aperture
r r ik
o
P
aperture
r r ik
o P
Fresnel Kirchoff Fresnel Kirchoff
diffraction formula diffraction formula
16
Obliquity factor
Since we usually have U¶ = -T or n
.
r¶=-1,
the obliquity factor
F(U) = ½ [1+cos U]
Also in most applications we will also
assume that cos U } 1 ; and F(U) = 1
For now however, keep F(U)
17
Huygen¶s principle
Amplitude at aperture due to source S is,
Now suppose each element of area dA gives rise to a
spherical wavelet with amplitude dE = E
A
dA
Then at P,
Then equation (6) says that the total disturbance at P is
just proportional to the sum of all the wavelets weighted
by the obliquity factor F(U)
This is just a mathematical statement of Huygen¶s
principle.
'
'
r
e
E E
ikr
o A
=
r
e
dA E dE
ikr
A P
=
¸ )
¦
· U F dE
P
18
Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel diffraction
In Fraunhofer diffraction,
both incident and
diffracted waves may be
considered to be plane
(i.e. both S and P are a
large distance away)
If either S or P are close
enough that wavefront
curvature is not
negligible, then we have
Fresnel diffraction
P
S
Hecht 10.2 Hecht 10.2 Hecht 10.3 Hecht 10.3
19
Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel Diffraction
S
P

d
H
U¶ U
h

r
20
Fraunhofer Vs. Fresnel Diffraction
¸ ) ¸ )
. +
¦
'
+

'

+ +
¦
'
+

'

+ = A
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
+ +
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
+ = A
+ + + + + + + = A
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
'
1 1
2
1
'
'
2
1
1
'
'
2
1
1 '
2
1
1
'
'
2
1
1 '
' ' '
H H
H H
H H
d d d
h
d
h
d
h
d
d
h
d
d
h
d
d
h
d
h d h d h d h d
Now calculate variation in (r+r¶) in going from one side of aperture
to the other. Call it A
21
Fraunhofer diffraction limit
Now, first term = path
difference for plane
waves
U¶ U
HsinU HsinU¶
sinU¶§ h¶/d¶
sinU § h/d
HsinU¶ + HsinU = H ( h¶/d + h/d )
Second term = measure of curvature of wavefront
Fraunhofer Diffraction
P H ££
¦
'
+

'

+
2
1
'
1
2
1
d d
22
Fraunhofer diffraction limit
If aperture is a square - H X H
The same relation holds in azimuthal plane and
H
2
~ measure of the area of the aperture
Then we have the Fraunhofer diffraction if,
P
P
H
aperture of area
d
or
d
"
"
,
2
Fraunhofer or far field limit
23
Fraunhofer, Fresnel limits
The near field, or Fresnel, limit is
See 10.1.2 of text
P
H
2
e d
24
Fraunhofer diffraction
Typical arrangement (or use laser as a
source of plane waves)
Plane waves in, plane waves out
S
f
1
f
2
U
screen
25
Fraunhofer diffraction
1. Obliquity factor
Assume S on axis, so
Assume U small ( < 30
o
), so
2. Assume uniform illumination over aperture
r¶ >> H so is constant over the aperture
3. Dimensions of aperture << r
r will not vary much in denominator for calculation of
amplitude at any point P
consider r = constant in denominator
1 ' Ö Ö = r n
1 Ö Ö } r n
'
'
r
e
ikr
26
Fraunhofer diffraction
Then the magnitude of the electric field at P is,
¦
=
aperture
ikr
ikr
o
P
dS e
rr
e ikE
E
' 2
'
T
27
Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
y = b
y
dy
P
U
r
o
r
r = r
o
- ysinU
dA = L dy
where L p g ( very long slit)
28
Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
' 2
sin
2
,
sin
_____ __________
'
sin
rr
e ikE
C
kb
where
e bCe E
dy e e C E
dA e C E
ikr
o
i ikr
P
iky
b
o
ikr
P
ikr
P
o
o
T
U F
F
F
F
U
= =
=
=
=

¦
¦
2
2
sin
F
F
o
I I =
Fraunhofer single slit diffraction pattern
¸ )
2
bC I
o
=

Diffraction theory (10.4 Hecht) 

We will first develop a formalism that will describe the propagation of a wave ± that is develop a mathematical description of Huygen¶s principle
Wavefront U What is U here? We know this

2

U2 are the spatial part of the functions and since. we have. Let U1¶ = U1e-i[t . U2¶ = U2e-i[t Thus U1 . ¸  i[ t [2 1 x 2U ' ¨ 2 2 ! 0 U ' 2 ! ©  U  2 U ¹e 2 ¹ © v xt v º ª . U2¶ that are solutions of the wave equation.Diffraction theory    Consider two well behaved functions U1¶.

1   2U 1  k 2U 1 !  2U 2  k 2U 2 ! 0 3 .

Green¶s theorem   Consider the product U1 grad U2 = U1U2 Using Gauss¶ Theorem T ´   .

U1U 2 dV ! ´ .

normal  T xU 2 U 2  dS ! dS xn 4 .U1U 2  dS V S  Where S Tsurface enclosing V = Ö Ö dS ! ndS n ! outward Thus.

´? V xU 2 dS U 1  U 2  U1 U 2 dV ! ´ U 1 xn S 2 A .Green¶s Theorem  Now expand left hand side.

gives Green¶s theorem xU 2 xU1 ´ U1 U 2  U 2 U1 dV ! ´ U1 xn  U 2 xn dS .2  Do the same for U2U1 and subtract from (2).

3 V S ? 2 2 A 5 .

e.Green¶s theorem  Now for functions satisfying the wave equation 2 2 (1).  2U !  k 2U  U ! k U 2 2 1 1  Consequently. xU 2 xU 1 ¸ ¨ © ´ ªU1 xn  U 2 xn ¹dS ! 0º S  . i.

4 since the LHS of (3) = 0 6 .

and take limit as V p 0 7 . U 1 ! U1o eikr r   where r is measured from point P in V and U1 = ³Green¶s function´ Since there is a singularity at the point P. draw a small sphere 7P.Green¶s theorem applied to spherical wave propagation  Let the disturbance at t=0 be. around P (with P at centre) Then integrate over 7+7P. of radius V.

® ikr e ´¯ r 7° x ¨ e ikr xU 2 ¸ ¨ ¹ U2 © © xn © r xn º ª ª ¸¾ ¹¿dS ¹ ºÀ ¸¾ ¹¿ V 2 d. .Spherical Wave propagation Ö n Ö n 7P V 7 Thus (4) can be written.

5 ¹ ºÀ r ! V 8 ® ikr ¨ xU 2 ¸ ¨ eikr x e ! ´¯ © ¹ U2 © xr © r r ª xr º ª 7P ° .

an element of area on 7P is defined in terms of solid angle dS d.Spherical Wave propagation  In (5). ! 2 ! sin UdUdJ V and we have used x x ! xn xr   Now consider first term on RHS of (5) « eikV ¨ xU 2 ¸ » 2 lim V p0 ¬ ´ © ¹ V d. ¼ ! lim V p0 ?I1 A ¬ V ª xr º r ! V ¼ ­ ½ 9 .

2 lim V p0 ?I1 A! lim V p0 ´ VCd. ! 0  The second term on the RHS of (5) ® x ¨ eikr ¸¾ © ¹¿ V 2 d. lim V p0 ?I 2 A! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 © xr ª r ¹À r ! V º ° 10 .Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem    Now U2 = continuous function and thus the xU xr derivative is bounded (assume) Its maximum value in V = C Then since eikV p 1 as Vp0 we have.

©V V ¹ º À ° ª U ! lim V p0 ´ ? 2ikV  U 2 Ad. ¹ ºÀr ! V ® ¨ ik 1 ¸ ikV ¾ 2 ! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 ©  2 ¹e ¿ V d. ´U P d. Now as Vp0 U2(r) p UP (its value at P) and. ! 4TU P 11 Now designate the disturbance U as an electric field E . ! U P ´ d.Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem ® x ¨ e ikr lim V p0 ?I 2 A! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 © xr © r ª ° ¸¾ ¹¿ V 2 d.

Kirchoff integral theorem ® x ¨ e ikr ©  4TE P ! ´ ¯ E xn © r ª ° ¸ e ikr xE ¾ ¹ ¿dS ¹ r xn À º .

It represents the basic equation of scalar diffraction theory 12 .6 This gives the value of disturbance at P in terms of values on surface 7 enclosing P.

Geometry of single slit Have infinite screen with aperture A Ö n 7 P U S Let the hemisphere (radius R) and screen with aperture comprise the surface (7) enclosing P. e ikr ' E ! Eo r' Also. S. E = 0 on side of screen facing V. 13 . arrives at aperture with amplitude Ö n R 7 Since R pg E=0 on 7. r¶ U¶ r Radiation from source.

Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula  Thus E=0 everywhere on surface except the portion that is the aperture. Thus from (6) ® ikr ' x ¨ eikr ¸ e ikr x ¨ eikr ' ¸¾ e ©  4TE P ! ´ ¯ ¹ © ¹ © r ¹  r xn © r ' ¹¿dS r ' xn ª ºÀ ª º ° x x Ö   ! .

n  r Ö Ö !n xn xr Thus. x ¨ eikr © xn © r ª and x x Ö  ' ! .

g . ¸ x ¨ eikr ¸ ¹ ! .n  r ' Ö Ö !n xn xr ' e.

n  r © ¹ Ö Ö xr © r ¹ ¹ º ª º « ik 1 » ikr Ö Ö ! .

(7) ­r r ½ 14 .n  r ¬  2 ¼ e .

then k/r >> 1/r2 Then the second term in (7) drops out and we are left with. r¶ >> P . eik .Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula   Now assume r.

r  r ' Ö Ö Ö Ö .

ik ?n  r  n  r 'AdS  4TE P ! ´ Eo rr ' aperture iEo EP !  P or . ´ aperture e ik .

r  r ' rr ' U F .

dS Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction formula 1 1 Ö Ö Ö Ö U F .

! ?.

n  r  .

n  r ' A! ?cosU  cosU 'A 2 2 15 .

keep F(U)  16 . the obliquity factor F(U) = ½ [1+cos U]  Also in most applications we will also assume that cos U } 1 .Obliquity factor Since we usually have U¶ = -T or n.r¶=-1. and F(U) = 1  For now however.

e ikr ' E A ! Eo r' Now suppose each element of area dA gives rise to a spherical wavelet with amplitude dE = EAdA Then at P.Huygen¶s principle   Amplitude at aperture due to source S is.   eikr dEP ! E A dA r Then equation (6) says that the total disturbance at P is just proportional to the sum w ´all the.

17  .wavelets weighted of dE P F U by the obliquity factor F(U) This is just a mathematical statement of Huygen¶s principle.

3 18 .2 Hecht 10. then we have Fresnel diffraction S P Hecht 10.e. both S and P are a large distance away)  If either S or P are close enough that wavefront curvature is not negligible.Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel diffraction  In Fraunhofer diffraction. both incident and diffracted waves may be considered to be plane (i.

Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel Diffraction H U¶ r¶ h¶ S d¶ h U r d P 19 .

Call it ( ( ! d '2 . Fresnel Diffraction Now calculate variation in (r+r¶) in going from one side of aperture to the other.Fraunhofer Vs.

h  H  d 2  .

Fraunhofer diffraction limit HsinU¶ HsinU  Now. first term = path difference for plane waves U¶ U sinU¶§ h¶/d¶ sinU § h/d HsinU¶ + HsinU = H ( h¶/d + h/d ) Second term = measure of curvature of wavefront Fraunhofer Diffraction   1¨ 1 1¸ 2 ©  ¹H ££ P 2 ª d' d º 21 .

area of P aperture Fraunhofer or far field limit 22 d" .H X H The same relation holds in azimuthal plane and H2 ~ measure of the area of the aperture Then we have the Fraunhofer diffraction if.Fraunhofer diffraction limit    If aperture is a square . H2 d" P or .

Fresnel limits  The near field. or Fresnel.Fraunhofer.1. limit is H2 de P  See 10.2 of text 23 .

plane waves out  screen S U f1 f2 24 .Fraunhofer diffraction Typical arrangement (or use laser as a source of plane waves)  Plane waves in.

so n  r ' ! 1 Ö Ö Assume U small ( < 30o). 2.Fraunhofer diffraction 1. Obliquity factor Ö Ö Assume S on axis. Dimensions of aperture << r r will not vary much in denominator for calculation of amplitude at any point P consider r = constant in denominator e r' ikr ' is constant over the aperture 25 . so n  r } 1 Assume uniform illumination over aperture r¶ >> H so 3.

Fraunhofer diffraction  Then the magnitude of the electric field at P is. ikEo e ikr ' EP !  2Trr ' e ikr dS ´ aperture 26 .

ysinU dA = L dy where L p g ( very long slit) 27 .Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction P y=b U dy y r ro r = ro .

Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction E P ! C ´ e ikr dA _______________ b I o ! .

kb F ! sin U 2 sin F I ! Io 2 F Fraunhofer single slit diffraction pattern 2 28 .bC 2 E P ! C ´ e ikro e iky sin U dy o E P ! bCe e ikro  iF sin F F ikEo e ikr ' C! 2Trr ' where.