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Diffraction
Monday Nov. 18, 2002
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Diffraction theory (10.4 Hecht)
We will first develop a formalism that will
describe the propagation of a wave ± that
is develop a mathematical description of
Huygen¶s principle
We
know
this
Wavefront U U
What is U U here?
3
Diffraction theory
Consider two well behaved functions U
1
¶, U
2
¶ that
are solutions of the wave equation.
Let U
1
¶ = U
1
e
-iæt
; U
2
¶ = U
2
e
-iæt
Thus U
1
, U
2
are the spatial part of the functions
and since,
we have,
¸ )
0
1 0
' 1
'
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + \ = + \
=
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ \ =
¯
¯
\

U k U U k U
e U
v
U
t
U
v
U
t i
-
æ
æ
4
Green¶s theorem
Consider the product U
1
grad U
2
= U
1
\U
2
Using Gauss¶ Theorem
Where S = surface enclosing V
Thus,
¸ ) ¸ )
¦ ¦
\ = \ \
S V
S d U U dV U U
T
2 1 2 1
dS
n
U
S d U
¯
¯
= \
2
2
T
normal outward n dS n S d = =
Ö Ö
T
5
Green¶s Theorem
Now expand left hand side,
Do the same for U
2
\U
1
and subtract from (2),
gives Green¶s theorem
. J ¸ )
¦ ¦
¯
¯
= \ + \ \
V S
dS
n
U
U dV U U U U 2
2
1 2
2
1 2 1
-
. J ¸ )
¦ ¦
¯
¯

¯
¯
= \ \
V S
dS
n
U
U
n
U
U dV U U U U 3
1
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
-
6
Green¶s theorem
Now for functions satisfying the wave equation
(1), i.e.
Consequently,
since the LHS of (3) = 0
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
U k U U k U = \ = \
¸ ) 4 0
1
2
2
1
- =
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¯
¯
¦
dS
n
U
U
n
U
U
S
7
Green¶s theorem applied to
spherical wave propagation
Let the disturbance at t=0 be,
where r is measured from point P in V and U
1
=
³Green¶s function´
Since there is a singularity at the point P, draw a
small sphere 7
P
, of radius V, around P (with P at
centre)
Then integrate over 7+7
P
, and take limit as V p
0
r
e
U U
ikr
o 1 1
=
8
Spherical Wave propagation
¸ ) 5
2
2
2
2
2
- ;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¦
¦
7
=
7
d
r
e
r
U
r
U
r
e
dS
r
e
n
U
n
U
r
e
P r
ikr ikr
ikr ikr
V
V

V
7
P
7

Thus (4) can be written, Thus (4) can be written,
9
Spherical Wave propagation
In (5), an element of area on 7
P
is defined in
terms of solid angle
and we have used
Now consider first term on RHS of (5)
J U U
V
d d
dS
d sin
2
= = ;
r n ¯
¯
=
¯
¯
. J
1 0
2
2
0
lim lim I d
r
U e
r
ik
p
=
p
=
¦
¦
|
¦

¸

;
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¦
V
V
V
V
V
V
10
Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem
Now U
2
= continuous function and thus the
derivative is bounded (assume)
Its maximum value in V = C
Then since e
ikV
p1 as Vp0 we have,
The second term on the RHS of (5)
r
U
¯
¯
2
. J
¦
= ; =
p p
0 lim lim
0 1 0
Cd I V
V V
. J ;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
=
p p
d
r
e
r
U I
r
ikr
2
2 0 2 0
lim lim V
V
V V
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Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem
. J
. J ; =
;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

=
;
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
¦
¦
p
p
=
p p
d U ik U
d e
ik
U
d
r
e
r
U I
ik
r
ikr
2 2 0
2
2
2 0
2
2 0 2 0
lim
1
lim
lim lim
V
V
V V
V
V
V
V
V
V V
Now as Vp0 U
2
(r) pU
P
(its value at P)
and,
¦ ¦
= ; = ;
P P P
U d U d U T 4
Now designate the disturbance U as an electric field E
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Kirchoff integral theorem
¸ ) 6 4 - dS
n
E
r
e
r
e
n
E E
ikr ikr
P
¦
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¯
¯

¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
= T
This gives the value of disturbance at P in terms of values
on surface 7 enclosing P.
It represents the basic equation of It represents the basic equation of scalar diffraction scalar diffraction
theory theory
13
Geometry of single slit

n
Ö
R
S
P
U¶ U
7
7
Have infinite screen
with aperture A
Radiation from
source, S, arrives
at aperture with
amplitude
'
'
r
e
E E
ikr
o
=
Let the hemisphere
(radius R) and screen
with aperture comprise
the surface (7)
enclosing P.
Since R pg
E=0 on 7.
Also, E = 0 on
side of screen
facing V.

r
14
Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula
Thus E=0 everywhere on surface except the
portion that is the aperture. Thus from (6)
dS
r
e
n r
e
r
e
n r
e
E
ikr ikr ikr ikr
P
¦
À
¿
¾
°
¯
®
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯

¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
' '
4
' '
T
¸ ) ¸ )
¸ )
¸ ) ) 7 (
1
Ö Ö
Ö Ö
. .
,
'
' Ö Ö ' Ö Ö Ö Ö
2
-
ikr
ikr ikr
e
r r
ik
r n
r
e
r
r n
r
e
n
g e
Thus
r
r n n
n
and
r
r n n
n
¦
|
¦

¸

=
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
=
¦
¦
'
+

'

¯
¯
¯
¯
= \ =
¯
¯
¯
¯
= \ =
¯
¯
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Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula
Now assume r, r¶ >> P ; then k/r >> 1/r
2
Then the second term in (7) drops out and we
are left with,
¸ )
¸ ). J
¸ )
¸ )
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) . J . J ' cos cos
2
1
' Ö Ö Ö Ö
2
1
'
,
'
Ö Ö Ö Ö
'
4
'
'
U U U
U
P
T
= =
=
=
¦
¦
+
+
r n r n F
dS F
rr
e iE
E
or
dS r n r n ik
rr
e
E E
aperture
r r ik
o
P
aperture
r r ik
o P
Fresnel Kirchoff Fresnel Kirchoff
diffraction formula diffraction formula
16
Obliquity factor
Since we usually have U¶ = -T or n
.
r¶=-1,
the obliquity factor
F(U) = ½ [1+cos U]
Also in most applications we will also
assume that cos U } 1 ; and F(U) = 1
For now however, keep F(U)
17
Huygen¶s principle
Amplitude at aperture due to source S is,
Now suppose each element of area dA gives rise to a
spherical wavelet with amplitude dE = E
A
dA
Then at P,
Then equation (6) says that the total disturbance at P is
just proportional to the sum of all the wavelets weighted
by the obliquity factor F(U)
This is just a mathematical statement of Huygen¶s
principle.
'
'
r
e
E E
ikr
o A
=
r
e
dA E dE
ikr
A P
=
¸ )
¦
· U F dE
P
18
Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel diffraction
In Fraunhofer diffraction,
both incident and
diffracted waves may be
considered to be plane
(i.e. both S and P are a
large distance away)
If either S or P are close
enough that wavefront
curvature is not
negligible, then we have
Fresnel diffraction
P
S
Hecht 10.2 Hecht 10.2 Hecht 10.3 Hecht 10.3
19
Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel Diffraction
S
P

d
H
U¶ U
h


r
20
Fraunhofer Vs. Fresnel Diffraction
¸ ) ¸ )
. +
¦
'
+

'

+ +
¦
'
+

'

+ = A
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
+ +
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+
+ = A
+ + + + + + + = A
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
'
1 1
2
1
'
'
2
1
1
'
'
2
1
1 '
2
1
1
'
'
2
1
1 '
' ' '
H H
H H
H H
d d d
h
d
h
d
h
d
d
h
d
d
h
d
d
h
d
h d h d h d h d
Now calculate variation in (r+r¶) in going from one side of aperture
to the other. Call it A
21
Fraunhofer diffraction limit
Now, first term = path
difference for plane
waves
U¶ U
HsinU HsinU¶
sinU¶§ h¶/d¶
sinU § h/d
HsinU¶ + HsinU = H ( h¶/d + h/d )
Second term = measure of curvature of wavefront
Fraunhofer Diffraction
P H ££
¦
'
+

'

+
2
1
'
1
2
1
d d
22
Fraunhofer diffraction limit
If aperture is a square - H X H
The same relation holds in azimuthal plane and
H
2
~ measure of the area of the aperture
Then we have the Fraunhofer diffraction if,
P
P
H
aperture of area
d
or
d
"
"
,
2
Fraunhofer or far field limit
23
Fraunhofer, Fresnel limits
The near field, or Fresnel, limit is
See 10.1.2 of text
P
H
2
e d
24
Fraunhofer diffraction
Typical arrangement (or use laser as a
source of plane waves)
Plane waves in, plane waves out
S
f
1
f
2
U
screen
25
Fraunhofer diffraction
1. Obliquity factor
Assume S on axis, so
Assume U small ( < 30
o
), so
2. Assume uniform illumination over aperture
r¶ >> H so is constant over the aperture
3. Dimensions of aperture << r
r will not vary much in denominator for calculation of
amplitude at any point P
consider r = constant in denominator
1 ' Ö Ö = r n
1 Ö Ö } r n
'
'
r
e
ikr
26
Fraunhofer diffraction
Then the magnitude of the electric field at P is,
¦
=
aperture
ikr
ikr
o
P
dS e
rr
e ikE
E
' 2
'
T
27
Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
y = b
y
dy
P
U
r
o
r
r = r
o
- ysinU
dA = L dy
where L p g ( very long slit)
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Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction
' 2
sin
2
,
sin
_____ __________
'
sin
rr
e ikE
C
kb
where
e bCe E
dy e e C E
dA e C E
ikr
o
i ikr
P
iky
b
o
ikr
P
ikr
P
o
o
T
U F
F
F
F
U
= =
=
=
=

¦
¦
2
2
sin
F
F
o
I I =
Fraunhofer single slit diffraction pattern
¸ )
2
bC I
o
=

Diffraction theory (10.4 Hecht) 

We will first develop a formalism that will describe the propagation of a wave ± that is develop a mathematical description of Huygen¶s principle
Wavefront U What is U here? We know this

2

U2 are the spatial part of the functions and since. we have. Let U1¶ = U1e-i[t . U2¶ = U2e-i[t Thus U1 . ¸  i[ t [2 1 x 2U ' ¨ 2 2 ! 0“ U ' 2 ! © “ U  2 U ¹e 2 ¹ © v xt v º ª . U2¶ that are solutions of the wave equation.Diffraction theory    Consider two well behaved functions U1¶.

1  “ 2U 1  k 2U 1 ! “ 2U 2  k 2U 2 ! 0 3 .

Green¶s theorem   Consider the product U1 grad U2 = U1“U2 Using Gauss¶ Theorem T ´ “ ™ .

U1“U 2 dV ! ´ .

normal  T xU 2 “U 2 ™ dS ! dS xn 4 .U1“U 2 ™ dS V S  Where S Tsurface enclosing V = Ö Ö dS ! ndS n ! outward Thus.

´? V xU 2 dS “U 1 ™ “U 2  U1“ U 2 dV ! ´ U 1 xn S 2 A .Green¶s Theorem  Now expand left hand side.

gives Green¶s theorem xU 2 xU1 ´ U1“ U 2  U 2“ U1 dV ! ´ U1 xn  U 2 xn dS .2  Do the same for U2“U1 and subtract from (2).

3 V S ? 2 2 A 5 .

e.Green¶s theorem  Now for functions satisfying the wave equation 2 2 (1). “ 2U !  k 2U “ U ! k U 2 2 1 1  Consequently. xU 2 xU 1 ¸ ¨ © ´ ªU1 xn  U 2 xn ¹dS ! 0º S  . i.

4 since the LHS of (3) = 0 6 .

and take limit as V p 0 7 . U 1 ! U1o eikr r   where r is measured from point P in V and U1 = ³Green¶s function´ Since there is a singularity at the point P. draw a small sphere 7P.Green¶s theorem applied to spherical wave propagation  Let the disturbance at t=0 be. around P (with P at centre) Then integrate over 7+7P. of radius V.

® ikr e ´¯ r 7° x ¨ e ikr xU 2 ¸ ¨ ¹ U2 © © xn © r xn º ª ª ¸¾ ¹¿dS ¹ ºÀ ¸¾ ¹¿ V 2 d. .Spherical Wave propagation Ö n Ö n 7P V 7 Thus (4) can be written.

5 ¹ ºÀ r ! V 8 ® ikr ¨ xU 2 ¸ ¨ eikr x e ! ´¯ © ¹ U2 © xr © r r ª xr º ª 7P ° .

an element of area on 7P is defined in terms of solid angle dS d.Spherical Wave propagation  In (5). ! 2 ! sin UdUdJ V and we have used x x ! xn xr   Now consider first term on RHS of (5) « eikV ¨ xU 2 ¸ » 2 lim V p0 ¬ ´ © ¹ V d. ¼ ! lim V p0 ?I1 A ¬ V ª xr º r ! V ¼ ­ ½ 9 .

2 lim V p0 ?I1 A! lim V p0 ´ VCd. ! 0  The second term on the RHS of (5) ® x ¨ eikr ¸¾ © ¹¿ V 2 d. lim V p0 ?I 2 A! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 © xr ª r ¹À r ! V º ° 10 .Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem    Now U2 = continuous function and thus the xU xr derivative is bounded (assume) Its maximum value in V = C Then since eikV p 1 as Vp0 we have.

©V V ¹ º À ° ª U ! lim V p0 ´ ? 2ikV  U 2 Ad. ¹ ºÀr ! V ® ¨ ik 1 ¸ ikV ¾ 2 ! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 ©  2 ¹e ¿ V d. ´U P d. Now as Vp0 U2(r) p UP (its value at P) and. ! 4TU P 11 Now designate the disturbance U as an electric field E . ! U P ´ d.Kirchoff¶s Integral Theorem ® x ¨ e ikr lim V p0 ?I 2 A! lim V p0 ´ ¯U 2 © xr © r ª ° ¸¾ ¹¿ V 2 d.

Kirchoff integral theorem ® x ¨ e ikr ©  4TE P ! ´ ¯ E xn © r ª ° ¸ e ikr xE ¾ ¹ ¿dS ¹ r xn À º .

It represents the basic equation of scalar diffraction theory 12 .6 This gives the value of disturbance at P in terms of values on surface 7 enclosing P.

Geometry of single slit Have infinite screen with aperture A Ö n 7 P U S Let the hemisphere (radius R) and screen with aperture comprise the surface (7) enclosing P. e ikr ' E ! Eo r' Also. S. E = 0 on side of screen facing V. 13 . arrives at aperture with amplitude Ö n R 7 Since R pg E=0 on 7. r¶ U¶ r Radiation from source.

Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula  Thus E=0 everywhere on surface except the portion that is the aperture. Thus from (6) ® ikr ' x ¨ eikr ¸ e ikr x ¨ eikr ' ¸¾ e ©  4TE P ! ´ ¯ ¹ © ¹ © r ¹  r xn © r ' ¹¿dS r ' xn ª ºÀ ª º ° x x Ö ™ “ ! .

n ™ r Ö Ö !n xn xr Thus. x ¨ eikr © xn © r ª and x x Ö ™ “' ! .

g . ¸ x ¨ eikr ¸ ¹ ! .n ™ r ' Ö Ö !n xn xr ' e.

n ™ r © ¹ Ö Ö xr © r ¹ ¹ º ª º « ik 1 » ikr Ö Ö ! .

(7) ­r r ½ 14 .n ™ r ¬  2 ¼ e .

then k/r >> 1/r2 Then the second term in (7) drops out and we are left with. r¶ >> P . eik .Fresnel-Kirchoff Formula   Now assume r.

r  r ' Ö Ö Ö Ö .

ik ?n ™ r  n ™ r 'AdS  4TE P ! ´ Eo rr ' aperture iEo EP !  P or . ´ aperture e ik .

r  r ' rr ' U F .

dS Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction formula 1 1 Ö Ö Ö Ö U F .

! ?.

n ™ r  .

n ™ r ' A! ?cosU  cosU 'A 2 2 15 .

keep F(U)  16 . the obliquity factor F(U) = ½ [1+cos U]  Also in most applications we will also assume that cos U } 1 .Obliquity factor Since we usually have U¶ = -T or n.r¶=-1. and F(U) = 1  For now however.

e ikr ' E A ! Eo r' Now suppose each element of area dA gives rise to a spherical wavelet with amplitude dE = EAdA Then at P.Huygen¶s principle   Amplitude at aperture due to source S is.   eikr dEP ! E A dA r Then equation (6) says that the total disturbance at P is just proportional to the sum w ´all the.

17  .wavelets weighted of dE P F U by the obliquity factor F(U) This is just a mathematical statement of Huygen¶s principle.

3 18 .2 Hecht 10. then we have Fresnel diffraction S P Hecht 10.e. both S and P are a large distance away)  If either S or P are close enough that wavefront curvature is not negligible.Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel diffraction  In Fraunhofer diffraction. both incident and diffracted waves may be considered to be plane (i.

Fraunhofer vs. Fresnel Diffraction H U¶ r¶ h¶ S d¶ h U r d P 19 .

Call it ( ( ! d '2 . Fresnel Diffraction Now calculate variation in (r+r¶) in going from one side of aperture to the other.Fraunhofer Vs.

h  H  d 2  .

h  H  d '2  h'2  d 2  h 2 2 2 ¨ 1 ¨ h' ¸ 2 ¸ ¨ 1 ¨ h ¸ 2 ¸ ¨ 1 ¨ h'H ¸ 2 ¸ ¨ 1 ¨ h  H ¸ 2 ¸ ( $ d ' ©1  © ¹ ¹  d ' ©1  © ¹ ¹  d ©1  © ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹  d ©1  © © 2 ª d'º ¹ © 2 ª d º ¹ © 2 ª d' º ¹ © 2 ª d º ¹ ª ª º º ª º º ª 1¨1 1 ¸ 2 ¨ h' h ¸ ( ! ©  ¹H  ©  ¹H  . 2 ª d d'º ª d' d º 20 .

Fraunhofer diffraction limit HsinU¶ HsinU  Now. first term = path difference for plane waves U¶ U sinU¶§ h¶/d¶ sinU § h/d HsinU¶ + HsinU = H ( h¶/d + h/d ) Second term = measure of curvature of wavefront Fraunhofer Diffraction   1¨ 1 1¸ 2 ©  ¹H ££ P 2 ª d' d º 21 .

area of P aperture Fraunhofer or far field limit 22 d" .H X H The same relation holds in azimuthal plane and H2 ~ measure of the area of the aperture Then we have the Fraunhofer diffraction if.Fraunhofer diffraction limit    If aperture is a square . H2 d" P or .

Fresnel limits  The near field. or Fresnel.Fraunhofer.1. limit is H2 de P  See 10.2 of text 23 .

plane waves out  screen S U f1 f2 24 .Fraunhofer diffraction Typical arrangement (or use laser as a source of plane waves)  Plane waves in.

so n ™ r ' ! 1 Ö Ö Assume U small ( < 30o). 2.Fraunhofer diffraction 1. Obliquity factor Ö Ö Assume S on axis. Dimensions of aperture << r r will not vary much in denominator for calculation of amplitude at any point P consider r = constant in denominator e r' ikr ' is constant over the aperture 25 . so n ™ r } 1 Assume uniform illumination over aperture r¶ >> H so 3.

Fraunhofer diffraction  Then the magnitude of the electric field at P is. ikEo e ikr ' EP !  2Trr ' e ikr dS ´ aperture 26 .

ysinU dA = L dy where L p g ( very long slit) 27 .Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction P y=b U dy y r ro r = ro .

Single slit Fraunhofer diffraction E P ! C ´ e ikr dA _______________ b I o ! .

kb F ! sin U 2 sin F I ! Io 2 F Fraunhofer single slit diffraction pattern 2 28 .bC 2 E P ! C ´ e ikro e iky sin U dy o E P ! bCe e ikro  iF sin F F ikEo e ikr ' C! 2Trr ' where.