Branding & Retailing in Changing Economic Environment

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Retail Formats Communicating Values Through Diff Retail Formats Applying 4 P¶s of Marketing to Retailing.

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Retail Mission/Retail Vision/Retail Objectives. Situational Analysis of the Retail Environment Target Marketing. Evaluating and Understanding the Customer. Financial Operations Management. Merchandising and Handling Logistics. Human Resource Management. Retail Strategy/Marketing Mix. Response of the Market & Retail Auditing.

Retail Mission Situational Analysis of the Retail Environment Target Market Evaluating the customers Financial Management Merchandise Buying Human Resource Management Retail Strategy Market Reponce and retail Audit .

` What is Retailing? Retailing is a distribution channel function where one organization buys products from supplying firms or manufactures the product themselves. A retailer is a reseller (i. and then sells these directly to consumers..e. . obtains product from one party in order to sell to another) from which a consumer purchases products.

or a home delivered Pizza . ` NOT ALL Retailing is Done in Stores. but retailing also involves the sale of services : A haircut. ` Often people think of retailing only as the sale of products in stores.What is Retailing? Retailing is the set of Business activities that add value to the products and services sold to consumers for there personal or Family use. . A DVD Rental.

` As a reseller. and provide consumer feedback to the product marketer. build product demand through retail promotions. For consumers the most important benefits relate to the ability to purchase small quantities of a wide assortment of products at prices that are considered reasonably affordable. . retailers offer many benefits to suppliers and customers . For suppliers the most important benefits relate to offering opportunities to reach their target market.

store formats were restricted among fringe players. .` ` Historically. retailing was carried out in traditional store format. like catalogue selling. with minor non.store variation. Even those non. The last decade witnessed a wide metamorphosis in the retailing business. direct selling and telemarketing till the last decade of twentieth century. while big retail houses concentrated more on -land business model.

As a result. retailers are venturing into multi-format structure to deliver higher value proposition to the shoppers. mainly World Wide Web the retail industry is evolving to serve the more convenience and value seeking shoppers.` Propelled by growth in technological innovation. .

` Basically. discount store. Super market. there are two types of retail formats: store format and non-store format. and warehouse club and mall are some of the store formats. convenience store. Non-store formats are those forms of retailing where end users are served without meeting them in physical store. . department store. category specialist.

most retailers in recent past are tirelessly searching for new ways to grow. vending machine selling. telemarketing. direct personal selling.Store formats are represented by catalogue and direct mail retailing. and internet selling. . Facing a market place overflowing with competitors.` Non. television home shopping.

The fourth stage has unleashed value for money offerings like ware house and factory outlet. there by establishing high street and out of town development. developed initially by food retailers. The third wave adopted dual location strategy. 1998) in developed countries have contributed in growth out-of-town retail formats.` Customers also are continually seeking new outlets and demanding more from those retailers. they choose to patronise. The first two phases are associated with the growth of super stores. The so-called four waves of retailing (Fernie. .

from each buying situation. . they anticipate fulfillment of their shopping motives. In case of existing formats. they are often aware of the behavior that they are engaged. rather they expect a unique experience while shopping. When shoppers decide to visit a particular retail format.` ` Shopper's Expectation from Diverse Formats: Today's shoppers no longer visit to "look-alike boxes". to obtain the highest benefit from their interaction with the retail environment.

buy online and return product at store. .` After living with a wide variety of format choices the customer today choose a medium as an information source and another medium to purchase the product. Today shoppers can check product availability on line and pick up at a store.

(Keaveny and Hunt. 1994). that are attached to a particular store (Baker et al. 1992). or as an individual's cognition and emotions as inferred from perceptions or memory. Retailer's image can be described as a combination of functional and psychological attributes that are meaningful to the shoppers. ..` The concept of retail store's image is described as an overall impression of a store as perceived by consumers.

. display and ambience c) Price d) Customer service and facility and e) Accessibility.` ` ` ` ` A shopper confronts retail mix in the form of elements. a) Variety and assortment of merchandise b) Store design. namely.

` ` ` Opportunities arising out of proliferation of retail formats: The new area of retail business ushered lots of opportunity both for the shoppers and retailers. uninterrupted accessibility and smooth flow of transaction choosing any of the available Format. shopping convenience and greater availability of customised products. expanded information on goods and services. . Shoppers acquire benefits from savings in terms of time price and searching effort.

` ` Opportunities arising out of proliferation of retail formats: To the retailers e-commerce offers greater efficiencies in market and information access. and extracts either price premium or volume advantage (in case of price parity). providing scope of better services. . reduced operating and product procurement cost. or both. Retailer with strong brand equity enjoys shoppers' preference and loyalty.

` The opportunity lies in the fact that. . retailers of a particular format appear to be increasingly successful in attracting customers from a widened variety of formats. by using technologically driven formats. Electronic retailing created a huge scope for the store-based retailer to reach out to a large customer base. overcoming the physical distance.

merchandise and marketing activities are very much a reality in retailing.retailers are opening physical format and there by complementing the existing operation.` Converting the threats into opportunities. . customer. The scope of positive synergy in terms of brand. the pure e. It also in turn helps in operational and financial efficiency through economies of scale and greater bargaining power against the manufacturers.

. to survive and grow in the new multichannel environment retailers need to integrate branding by offering consistent value via the retail mix in every interaction with shoppers across retail formats.` However. It requires a paradigm change in retailing by bringing into a cross channel focus on shoppers.

Consequently. an important objective for retailers is to identify the products customers will demand and negotiate with suppliers to obtain these products. Thus. . The key issues include: Customer Satisfaction ± Retailers know that satisfied customers are loyal customers. they must seek suppliers who will supply products demanded by customers.` ` ` ` Concerns of Retailers Retailers are faced with many issues as they attempt to be successful. Ability to Acquire the Right Products ± A customer will only be satisfied if they can purchase the right products to satisfy their needs. Since a large percentage of retailers do not manufacture their own products. retailers must develop strategies intended to build relationships that result in customers returning to make more purchases.

Building ³traffic´ is accomplished with a variety of promotional techniques such as advertising.` ` ` Concerns of Retailers Product Presentation ± Once obtained products must be presented or merchandised to customers in a way that generates interest. including local newspapers or Internet. and specialized promotional activities. For retailers a key measure of interest is the number of people visiting a retail location or website. Traffic Building ± Like any marketer. retailers must use promotional methods to build customer interest. . such as coupons. Retail merchandising often requires hiring creative people who understand and can relate to the market.

sound) can add to the appeal of a store. objects. For many retailers designing the right shopping atmosphere (e. . Layout is also important in the online world where site navigation and usability may be deciding factors in whether of a retail website is successful.g.. The physical layout is more than just deciding in what part of the store to locate products. light.` ` Concerns of Retailers Layout± For store-based retailers a store¶s physical layout is an important component in creating a retail experience that will attract customers.

.` ` Concerns of Retailers Location ± Where to physically locate a retail store may help or hinder store traffic. Understanding the trade-off between costs and benefits of locations is an important retail decision. Well placed stores with high visibility and easy access. may hold significantly more value than lower cost sites that yield less traffic. while possibly commanding higher land usage fees.

.. product movement (e. . customer relationship management software).. use of RFID tags for tracking). web technologies (e. kiosks. point-of-purchase (e. purchase recommendations) and many more. online shopping carts. self-serve checkout)..` Keeping Pace With Technology ± Technology has invaded all areas of retailing including customer knowledge (e. scanners.g.g.g.g.

For our purposes we will separate retailers based on six factors directly related to major marketing decisions: Target Markets Served Product Offerings Pricing Structure Promotional Emphasis Distribution Method Service Level and one operational factor: Ownership Structure .` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` There are many ways retailers can be categorized depending on the characteristics being evaluated.

we now use these categories to distinguish general formats or business models that best describes a retail operation. a retailer will be involved in more than one format. In some cases. In many cases these are family-run businesses catering to the local community often with a high level of service but relatively small product selection. individually owned and operated retail outlet. . These categories are designed to identify the primary format a retailer follows. particularly with the advent of the Internet. Mom-and-Pop ± Represent the small.` ` Now that we have presented ways in which retailers can be classified..

. mass discounters offer fewer services and lower quality products. Compared to department stores.These retailers can be either general or specialty merchandisers but either way their main focus is on offering discount pricing.` Mass Discounters .

.` Warehouse Stores ± This is a form of mass discounter that often provides even lower prices than traditional mass discounters. the retail design and layout is as the name suggests. they often require buyers to make purchases in quantities that are greater than what can be purchased at mass discount stores. warehouse style. called warehouse clubs. In addition. Some forms of warehouse stores. require customers purchase memberships in order to gain access to the outlet. These retail outlets provide few services and product selection can be limited. Furthermore. with consumers often selecting products off the ground from the shipping package.

West Side.g.. For instance.. though in most cases these retailers would not fall into the full-service category. small specialty store concepts and have expanded them to create large specialty stores. While department stores are classified as general merchandisers some carry a more selective product line. .CROMA). These so-called ³category killers´ have been found in such specialty areas as electronic (e. Department Stores ± These retailers are general merchandisers offering mid-to-high quality products and strong level of services.` ` Category Killers ± Many major retail chains have taken what were previously narrowly focused. office supplies (e. Vijay Sales.g. Staples) and Clothes Shoppers Stop.

` ` Boutique ± This retail format is best represented by a small store carrying very specialized and often high-end merchandise. In many cases a boutique is a full-service retailer following a fullpricing strategy. . Orders are then delivered by a third-party shipper. Catalog Retailers ± Retailers such as Lands¶ End and LL Bean have built their business by having customers place orders after seeing products that appear in a mailed catalog.

` e-tailers . every day. These retailers offer shopping convenience including being open for business all day. they may not need to have the product on-hand the way physical stores do. . Electronic retailers or e-tailers also have the ability to offer a wide selection of product since all they really need in order to attract orders is a picture and description of the product. There are thousands of online-only retail sellers of which Amazon.com is the most famous. That is.Possibly the most publicized retail model to evolve in the last 50 years is the retailer that principally sells via the Internet. This cuts down significantly on the cost of maintaining products in-stock. Instead an e-tailer can wait until an order is received from their customers before placing their own order with their suppliers.

upfront franchise fee and also ongoing percentage of revenue. such as the franchise name. the franchisee. controls the business activities of another party.` Franchise ± A franchise is a form of contractual channel in which one party. For instance. an eligible franchisee agrees to pay for the right to use the franchisor¶s business methods and other important business aspects. Payment is usually in the form of a one-time. Under these arrangements. . McDonalds is a well-known franchisor that allows individuals to use the McDonalds name and methods to deliver food to consumers. the franchisor.

in addition to added revenue..g. local advertising) are often supported by the franchisee¶s up-front franchise fee. which may allow the franchisee to be successful much faster than if they attempted to start a business on their own.` Franchise ±While the cost to the franchisee may be quite high. For the franchisor. and 2) being trained in how to operate the business. the franchise model allows for faster expansion since funds needed to expand the business (e. this form of retailing offers several advantages including: 1) allowing the franchisee to open a retail outlet that may already be known to local customers. . acquiring retail space.

. Convenience is offered in many ways including through easily accessible store locations. small store size that allows for quick shopping. and fast checkout.` Convenience Store ± As the name implies these general merchandise retailers cater to offering customers an easy purchase experience. The product selection offered by these retailers is very limited and pricing can be high.

` Vending ± Within this category are automated methods for allowing consumers to make purchases and quickly acquire products. newer devices are entering the market containing more expensive and bulkier products. While most consumers are well aware of vending machines allowing customers to purchase smaller items. such as beverages and snack food. . These systems require the vending machine have either Internet or telecommunications access to permit purchase using credit cards.

doc..docx .` Matrix on Types Of Stors.