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By Zohra


Environmental science


For various basic requirements, each living organism has to depend and also to interact with different nonliving or abiotic and living or biotic components or the environment

‡ ‡ Include basic Inorganic element and compounds Physical factors
Environmental science

‡ Plants ‡ Animals ‡ Microbes


L Smith 1977 ‡ ³A Multi disciplinary science which deals with the organism and its places to live and which focuses on the eco system 2/13/2012 Environmental science 3 .´ ‡R.Definition of Ecology ‡Taylor 1936 ³ the science of the relations of all organisms to all their environments.L Clarke 1954 ‡ ³ the study of inter-relations of plants and animals with their environment which may include the influences of other plants and animals present as well as those of the physical features.´ ‡G.

E.G. At this level the units of study are quite large. ‡ A. Thus he regarded the Eco-systems as including not only the organism complex but also the whole complex of physical factors forming the environment. 2/13/2012 Environmental science 4 . At present ecological studies are made at Eco-system level. Tansley (in1935) defined the Eco-system as µthe system resulting from the integrations of all the living and non-living factors of the environment¶.M. This approach has the view that living organisms and their non-living environment are inseparably interrelated and interact with each other. Clark (1973) considers ecology as ³a study of ecosystems of the totality of the reciprocal interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings.‡.

HLOCOEN Frienderichs (1930) BIOSVSTEM Thienemann(1939) BIOCOENOSIS Karl Mobius (1977) 2/13/2012 Environmental science 5 .HISTORICALBACKGROUND GEOBIOCOENOSIS VVDoduchaev 1846 MICROCOSM S. (1887).A. Forbes.

e. the communities in a given area. STUDY OF ECO SYSTEM STRUCTURAL ASPECTS 2/13/2012 Environmental science FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS 6 .Any unit that includes all the organisms i. interact with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined ‡ Tropic structure ‡ Biotic diversity ‡ Material cycle Aspects of Eco.system ECO system shall be defined as an organizational unit including living organism and non living substances interacting to produce any exchange of materials between the Living and non living parts .

HABITAT ‡ ‡ It is the natural abode or locality of a Plant . animal or a person It includes all features of the environment in a given locality Climatic Factors Physical Factors Chemical Factors ABIOTIC FACTORS ‡ ‡ ‡ BIOTIC FACTORS or BIOLOGICAL FACTORS ‡ ‡ ‡ Each kind of living organism in a eco system is called species Genetically alike Capable of freely interbreeding and producing fertile offspring's Competition Neutralism Mutualism Environmental science 7 SPECIES RELATIONSHIP ‡ ‡ ‡ 2/13/2012 .

POPULATION ‡ It is a group of interacting individuals. usually of the same species in ‡ Space is defined where they live ‡ The balance between reproductive potential and environmental resistance determines the size of the population FACTORS REGULATING POPULATION ‡ ‡ ‡ Physical attributes of the environment Food Disease . Predation . competition DIVISION OF ECO SYSTEM ‡ ‡ ‡ Producer Consumer Reducer 2/13/2012 Environmental science 8 .

BASIC THEMES OF ECO SYSTEM ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ RELATIONSHIP :--Every thing is some how or other related to every thing else Includes interlocking functioning of organisms among themselves LIMITATION :--No individual or species grow indefinitely Controls and limits their own growth due to over crowd The population limitation basis the resources available COMPLEXITY :--It is a three dimensional interactions of various constituent elements This eco system is highly complex Beyond comprehension on the human brain 2/13/2012 Environmental science 9 .

Cannot exceed ‡ Alteration environment-population-adjustment-vanish 2/13/2012 Environmental science 10 .limited.General Characteristic of Ecosystem ‡ Major Structural and functional unit ‡ Structure of ecosystem-Species Diversity ‡ Amount of energy-maintain ecosystem-structure ‡ Function-energy flow ‡ Maturation-complex states ‡ Environment-energy fixation.

Biotic Component a) Autotrophic components of producers b) Heterotrophic components of consumers o Macro consumers o Micro consumers Decomposers 2/13/2012 Environmental science 11 . Abiotic component(Non living component) a) Inorganic Component b) Organic Component c) abiotic component 2.STRUCTURE OF ECO-SYSTEMS Meaning of structure Nature and Function of ecosystem From structural point of view all ecosystem consist of two basic components. 1.

An Illustration POND ECO System structure 2/13/2012 Environmental science 12 .

Transformation of Solar Energy into Food Energy 2.ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS NUMBERS No of individual organisms at each level BIO MASS decrease of bio mass in each tropic level from base to apex ENERGY The rate of energy flow or productivity at successive tropic FUNCTION OF AN ECO-SYSTEM: 1. The Conversion of Elements into Inorganic Flow-Decomposers 4. Organic inorganic 3. The Circulation of elements through Energy Flow. The Growth and Development of Plants 5. Productivity of ecosystem ‡ Primary productivity-Producers ‡ Secondary productivity-consumers ‡ Net Productivity-organic matter not used by consumers ‡ Stability of ecosystem 2/13/2012 Environmental science 13 .

not be assigned a rigid or fixed position in the foodWeb .Biotroph 3. their traffic relation can carry from time to time Decomposers with varying relations 1. (i) Leaching (ii) Catabolism. Function of Decomposition The two major functions of decomposition within ecosystems are as under:(1) The mineralization of essential elements.Nectroph 2.DECOMPOSERS The process of decomposition involves three interrelated components. (iii) Comminution. (2) The formation of soil organic matter to inorganic form.Saprotroph Decomposers occupying different trophic levels Soul Invertebrates and Termites 2/13/2012 Environmental science 14 .

Exothermic Reaction 2. or act upon matter in various ways. In this process no gain or loss in total energy occurs. Energy is simply transferred from one form or place to another. and results in work. pass from one place to another.ENERGY-ITS FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM Energy-Defined capacity to do work. Potential Energy Potential energy is energy at rest. Two reactions 1. Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is due to motion. It is capable and available for work. It may change forms. Laws of Thermodynamics The expenditure and storage of energy is described by two laws of thermodynamics:(i) Law of conservation of energy: energy is neither created nor destroyed. whether that work be on a gross scale Kinds of Energy 1. 2. Work that results from the expenditure of energy can be of two kinds: 3. Endothermic Reaction 2/13/2012 Environmental science 15 .

From the energetic point of view. the behavior of energy in ecosystem is called Energy Flow. energy flow is explained 2/13/2012 Environmental science 16 .Energy Flow Due to unidirectional flow of energy.

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G. shows gross Primary production. (3) LA shows light absorbed by plant cover (1500). 2/13/2012 Environmental science 18 . (4) P. Boxes numbered 1. (6) Pn shows net primary production. (2) L. 3 in a leaner food chain exhibit these. (7) P shows secondary (consumer) production. (8) Nu shows energy not used (stored or exported). 2.This is a simplified energy flow diagram (1) The diagram depicts three trophic levels. Some more elucidation of the figure is as under: (1) The µboxes¶ represent the tropic levels (2) The µpipes¶ depict the energy flow in and out of each level. shows total energy input (3000). (9) NA shows energy not assimilated by consumers (10) R shows respiration. (5) A shows total assimilation.

Florida.Y-shaped energy flow model-Two channel energy flow model Following the example of Lindeman.T. In model given by Teal (1957) for Root Springs. (2) In Silver Springs the chain began with live plant parts. (2) H. the chain began with dead plant parts. Two illustrations are here: (1) Teal (1957) prepared an energy flow diagram of Root Spring in U.S. Odum (1957) for Silver Spring. Odum (1957) prepared energy flow model for Silver Springs. (3) 30.A. On the other hand in the model given by H. several authors described energy flow modes for different kinds of ecosystems. most of the energy rich material eaten by heterotrophs entered the systems as plant debris. most of the heterotroph¶s food in food chain wasproduced by green with in some systems heterotrophs consume living plants while in others they feel on dead plant parts (detritus). U.A.T. (1) In Root Springs. 810 Kcal/m2 y remained for net production.S. 2/13/2012 Environmental science 19 .

Y-shaped energy flow model-Two channel energy flow model 2/13/2012 Environmental science 20 .

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Meaning Sequence of changes in the species composition of a community . interaction and death of individual organism Change affected by the cycles of season and other natural phenomena Succession may be directional or progressive ‡ Succession tend to continue until the species combination best suited to the regional climate and the particular site are established 2/13/2012 ECO system 21 . structural and functional properties ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Biotic communities are not static and change through time Change shall be understood in various levels Change through growth .

directional. Succession culminates in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass and symbiotic function between organisms are maintain perunit of available energy flow 2/13/2012 ECO system 22 .ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Historical background ‡ Hult 1885 used the word succession first ‡ Anon kernar s book plant life of the danubebasin ‡ HC Cowles says community are not static but dynamic ‡ Central foundation classical theory Early communities alter the environment fa ‡ Later theories say Alogenesis more common means control of community ‡ Odum 1969 defines Succession in three parameters viz 1. Orderly resonable. predicatable community development 2. Community controlled 3.

Climatic. Physiographic and Zoologic called predominant forces Bioseres. cliseres.ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Illustrations ‡ Lake ‡Crop Field Development ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Pioneers: First organism establishment Sere: Whole series of communities Seral Stage: Chanages takes place Community: Temporary but has its own character Classification of seres Biotic. eoseresa and geoserses called resultant seres 2/13/2012 ECO system 23 .

bogs etc b) Mesarch Where adequate moisture is present c)Xerach or exerosere Where minimum amount of moisture is availabe 2/13/2012 ECO system 24 . lake. strems.ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Types of Succession ‡ Primary Succcession (Pressere): Process of species colonization and replacement in which the environment is virtually free of life ‡ Secondary Succession(Subserse): The process of change that occurs when the ecosystem disrupted but not obliterated Organic matters will remain to some extent Secondary succession is more rapid than primary succession Types of Primary and Secondary Successsion a) Hydrach of Hydrosere Aquatic evironment such as pond. swams.

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Autogenic Community The succession progression due to interaction of organisms and their environment EX: Sand dunes. Allegonic Community The succession takes place under the influence of the external factors as input of nutrients Ex: Succession in a small pond or Bog Autotrophic Succession Takes place In an organic environment when there is an indefinite energy flow Ex: Green Plants Heterotrophic Succession Takes place in an organic environment in a declined energy level Ex: Bacteria. Fungi. animals actinomycetes Serule Miniature succession of micro organic environment in decayed wood Category 1 Physiographic remains stable Category 2 Due to local environmental changes due to external factors Category 3 Changes takes place over long time scale on adjacent sites 2/13/2012 ECO system 25 .

flood. Takes place in a bare area or nudation formed due to volcano. burning . Fire. flood. soil soil erosion.Succession general process and climax Begins on bare area or nudation formed by several reasons such as valcanic eruption . Fire. disease. land slide. land side Steps in succession NUDATION Takes place in a bare area or nudation formed due to volcano. quarry. soil soil erosion. digging etc INVASION Means the arrival of the reproductive bodies or organisms and their settlement in the new or bare area Invasion takes place due to dispersal or migration of seeds spores or other propagules of the species reach the bare area through air and water Invasion also takes place due to Ecesis which means migration of plant species in to new area by reproduction by adult plants 2/13/2012 ECO system 26 . land slide.