Reproduction

Aseuxal reproduction Sexual reproduction in animals Sexual reproduction in plants

Organisms are not immortal. They die due to aging, predation, diseases, natural disasters & accidental deaths. Therefore the ability to reproduce in order to ensure continuity of the species, is one of the fundamental characteristics of all living organisms.

Reproduction ± 2 modes
Asexual reproduction ± a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its off spring Sexual reproduction ± two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from each parent

Asexual Reproduction Rapidly reproduces large numbers of individuals. usually have an identical genetic composition to each other and to the single parent from which they are derived. ± production of an individual from a parent without the fusion of gametes ± new organism is exactly like its parent ± takes place under favourable conditions and it results in a rapid growth of the population .

12.1 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction 1 Fusion of gametes none Sexual Reproduction yes .

1 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction 1 Fusion of gametes 2 Type of cell division none mitosis Sexual Reproduction yes meiosis .12.

1 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction 1 Fusion of gametes 2 Type of cell division 3 Genetic variety none mitosis usually identical Sexual Reproduction yes meiosis great genetic variety .12.

12.1 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction 1 Fusion of gametes 2 Type of cell division 3 Genetic variety 4 Adaptation to environment none mitosis usually identical less adapted

Sexual Reproduction yes meiosis great genetic variety better adapted

12.1 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction 1 Fusion of gametes 2 Type of cell division 3 Genetic variety 4 Adaptation to environment 5 Number of parents none mitosis usually identical less adapted one

Sexual Reproduction yes meiosis great genetic variety better adapted two

Asexual Reproduction

There are several types of asexual reproduction: (1) binary or multiple fission, (2) Budding, (3) Fragmentation, (4) Sporulation, (5) Vegetative propagation

Binary or Multiple Fission . e.g.This occurs in single-celled organisms. protozoa and bacteria Parameucium .

Binary fission in amoeba .

followed by the cell as a whole.  Under unfavourable conditions. . then nucleoplasm divides into two.    In bacteria: Under favourable conditions. extremes of temperature and  toxic chemicals. the  endospore forms which is resistant to  desiccation. bacterial DNA replicates first.

Budding .by yeast (a unicellular fungus) reproduces asexually under favourable conditions .differs from binary fission in that the new part produced is smaller in size than the parent .

Budding in Yeast .

annelids. cnidarians .In colonial cnidarian Obelia: blastostyles give out buds called medusae for sexual reproduction Budding in hydra .other examples: .flatworms.

. attach themselves elsewhere and begin vegetative growth again.Regeneration: cell division to regenerate the missing parts of a body as a result of injury.In Spirogyra.Fragmentation . portions of the filamentous alga break away when the filament reaches a certain length. . This drift away. .Fragmentation: an organism regularly and spontaneously divides itself up.

small & light weight.sporangiophore: erect hyphae with columella at tip .sporangium: contains spores .Sporulation Mucor.spores: liberated when sporangium matures. a saprophytic mould living on decaying bread .hyphae: spreading the colony into a mycelium . can be carried over great distances by wind. germinate into new mycelium when suitable substratum is found .

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Corms ± e. mint ± Rhizomes contain horizontally growing underground stems and bear nodes. Crocus ± Corms are short. lotus. erect. Gladiolus. . onion. iris.Asexual reproduction in Angiosperms(Flowering plants) Bulb ± e. ginger. vertical stems surrounded by fleshy scale leaves with base swollen with food stores. scale leaves. adventitious roots and axillary buds. arrowheads ± Tubers are swollen ends of underground stems with numerous axillary buds in scale leaf scars. Tuber ± e. daffodil ± Bulbs are modified shortened. potatoes.g. swollen underground stems and contain scale leaves but no fleshy leaves.g. Rhizomes ± e.g.g.

Desirable traits can be restored due to offspring are genetically identical to parents. Large food reserves are provided for daughter plants. The next generation cannot be improved the quality because of no genetic variation.Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative propagation Advantages A rapid way of reproduction Disadvantages Overcrowding may occurs as the daughter plants are close to the parents to cause competition for space. The process doesn¶t include external organs or another plant. Diseases will be transmitted to the offspring from parent plants rapidly. light as well as water. That decreases the ability to adapt to changes in the environment. Also bad traits will be transmitted to the daughter plants. .

Artificial Reproduction in Flowering Plants .

Artificial vegetative propagation 2. Plant tissue culture .Artificial Reproduction in Flowering Plants 1.

Artificial vegetative propagation Leaf cutting ± Many plants can be artificially cloned by leaf cuttings e.g. including both blade and petiole. African violet ± A leaf. it is placed in moist soil or in water under light leaf blade produces auxins (IAA) p auxins are accumulated in the base of the petiole proots are initiated p roots produce cytokinins (CK) p CK is accumulated in the callus p shoot is stimulated to form . is removed from the donor plant ± Then.

Stem cutting ± Process is very much the same as leaf cutting ± Usually. a short piece of stem (three or four internodes maximum) and together with the apical meristem are cut leaves send auxins (IAA) down from the blade p stimulate the formation of callus p roots are formed as described in the leave cutting .

Grafting the bud ± Involves the cutting out of buds and grafting them onto another plant ± Scion: plant being propagated (with the bud) ± Root stock: plant being grafted onto .

bud and a small sliver of the wood underneath it are cut from the budstick using an upward and downward slicing motion vertical cut is made on the stem of the root stock. they are wrapped with a budding rubber. grafting tape or other suitable closure . a perpendicular cut is made at the upper end of the vertical cut bark is carefully slipped from the stem of the rootstock exposing a "pocket" into which the bud shield can be placed bark flaps are held tightly against the bud.

magnolia. rose .Layering ± A useful method of producing roots on the stem of indoor landscape plants ± Mainly used for woody plants e. gardenia.g.

roots develop in the small wad of sphagnum . wounding the lower surface of a stem and the wound is dusted with rooting hormone 2.1. rooted branch can then be cut from the donor tree to develop to another individual plant 4. moist sphagnum moss or even moist soil is packed around the wound 3. sphagnum/soil is held in place with plastic film 5.

2. lateral bud. leaf. Plant tissue culture Produce a large number of plants from small pieces of the stock plant in relatively short periods of time Donor tissue piece may be taken from shoot tip. stem or root tissue .

Place the sterilized explant in a sterilized liquid medium 3. Move the shoot to soil. Spread the callus pieces across a sterile solidified medium 4.1. Sterilize the surface of donor tissue called explant 2. new plant is formed . Move the newlyformed shoots onto a solidified medium 5.

Applications ± Regeneration of plants from organ culture ± Mass propagation of vegetation for horticultural trade ± Improve the quality of plants ± Somatic hybridization (involvement of molecular technique) .

The lamb is Dolly¶s offspring. called Bonnie. . the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.CloningCloning a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell The adult sheep is Dolly.

How Dolly was created .

It might lead to an understanding of the way a morula (mass of cells developed from a blastula) attaches itself to the uterine wall.Producing a greater understanding of the cause of miscarriages Cloning may lead to a treatment to prevent spontaneous abortions. Also. . This might generate new and successful contraceptives.PROs 1.

3. and the duplicate tested for disease and disorder.Generation of genetically modified animal organs Cloning can generate genetically modified animal organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans. A fertilized ovum could be cloned.2. Preventing child suffering heredity Cloning could also be used for parents who risk passing a defect to a child. .

stem cells might be able to repair the damaged tissue. However.4. Damaged adult nerve tissue does not regenerate on its own. .Cure damaged nervous system Damage to the nervous system could be treated through cloning.

In this way.Reducing genetic variability Producing many clones runs the risk of creating a population that is entirely the same. cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution. not allowing for improvement of the species. susceptible to the same diseases 2.CONs : 1.Interfering with natural evolution Cloning may cause people to settle for the best existing animals. .

5.Risk of disease transfer Risk of disease transfer between transgenic animals and the animal from which the transgenes were derived.Genetic tailoring of offspring The ability to clone humans may lead to the genetic tailoring of offspring.Detrimental effect on familial relationships A child born from an adult DNA cloning of his father could be considered a delayed identical twin of one of his parents. . 4. This is viewed as inappropriate tampering with "Mother Nature" by many ethicists.3.

The fusion of haploid nuclei is often involved. reproduction may involve one or more of the following: .Sexual Reproduction less rapid. Apart from purely increasing numbers. often involves two parents and produces offspring which are genetically different.

cold or other adverse conditions. .(a) a means of increasing genetic variety and therefore helping a species adapt to changing environmental circumstances. (b) the development of resistant stages in a life cycle which are capable of withstanding periods of drought.

Dioecious: the male and female sex organs are borne on separate individuals Monoecious: the male and female sex organs are borne on the same individual Cross fertilization: the fusion of gametes from two separate parents Self fertilization: sperms and ova from the same individual fuse .

A Variety of Sexual Lifecycles Human Life cycle Most fungi and some protists (including some algae) Plants and some other species of algae .

The human life cycle .

Three sexual life cycles differing in the timing of meiosis and fertilization (syngamy) Alternation of generations .

The Reproductive System .

nourishes. and releases specialized sex cells known as gametes A. Special hormones then cause production of male or female reproductive organs . Sexual Developmentboth male and females start out identical. The Reproductive System ±produces.Reproductive System I. stores.

Functions of System: ‡ produce gametes ‡ deliver gametes ‡ protect and support gametes .

Helps to regulate temperature for sperm production scrotum testes . Male Reproductive System 1. Testes Testes(male gonads)primary male reproductive organ ScrotumScrotum testes are contained in external sac.B.

. From the testes they are deposited into the epididymas and then vas deferens to begin swimming and prepare to be deposited into the female.Sperm cells are haploid and are produced in the tubules within the testes.

paired organs producing sperms. seminiferous tubules €p vasa efferentia €p epididymis €p vas deferens €p urethra €p penis . .spermatic cords contain arteries & veins joining the testes.Human Male Reproductive System testis .

an ejaculation releases about 3 mL of semen .seminal vesicles ± store sperms & secrete fructose-rich fluid: energy for mitochondria protaglandins: initiate female muscle contractions prostate gland & Cowper's gland. (1) activating and nourishing the sperms (2) neutralizing the acidity of the vagina Bulbourethral Gland: lubrication for penis to enter vagina and for sperm to move more easily through the urethra The resulting mixture is called Semen.

Hormonal control of spermatogenesis .

Hormonal regulation in males Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus stimulates the secretion of LH and FSH from anterior pituitary These two hormones act on testis. .

. triggering them to produce testosterone.LH indirectly involved in and FSH is directly involved. FSH acts on sertoli cells. LH acts on interstitial cells. which is required for spermatogenesis. enhancing their spermatogenesis-supporting functions.

testosterone initiates puberty. and it triggers and maintains the sex drive and the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone directly inhibits the release of GnRH from hypothalamus and LH from anterior pituitary.Testosterone In addition to stimulating spermatogenesis. The hormones are regulated by negative feedback. .

Gametogenesis is the formation of gametes. Spermatogenesis is the production of sperm: Primordial germ cell €p MITOSIS €p Spermatogonia which grow into Primary spermatocytes €p 1st MEIOSIS €p Secondary spermatocytes €p 2nd MEIOSIS €p Spermatids which differentiate into Spermatozoa .

Sperm production is in the testis. Spermatogenesis (making of) occurs in the testes. in narrow tubes called seminiferous tubules .

Spermatogonia(2n) located near outer wall of seminiferous tubules. Increase in number through repeated mitosis .

.These spermatogonia grow into larger cells with more cytoplasm called primary spermatocytes.

Each primary spermatocyte carries out the first division to produce two secondary spermatocytes. .

Each secondary spermatocyte carries out the second division of meiosis to produce two spermatids .

called Sertoli cells which help the spermatids develop into spermatozoa.Spermatids become associated with nurse cells. Cell differentiation .

.Sperm cells detach from Sertoli cells and are carried out by fluid in the centre of the seminiferous tubules.

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Millions. Sperm are very stream-lined for what they do.´ No food for the trip and no proteins on their surface. Flagellum: propulsion Mitochondria: power Nucleus:DNA Acrosome: a way into the egg« (digestive enzymes) . They don¶t have any extraneous ³gear. If they are not ejaculated. in fact. they are reabsorbed after a couple of weeks by the body and recycled. Just DNA with a tail. are produced in a male every day.Finally we have a bunch of sperm.

. the penis must become erect. Blood flows into the erectile tissue and the build up of blood pressure causes the penis to become rigid.In order to deliver the gametes into the females¶ reproductive tract and to the females¶ gametes. Further stimulation of the nerves on the penis triggers a series of smooth muscle contractions that propel the sperm out of the penis.

only a few will survive to meet the egg a couple of days later. This is because the environment into which the sperm will enter is very harsh and the vast majority die: no energy source very acidic The male body provides these things to the sperm cell to aid it on its journey to find the female gamete (the egg): sugar (from seminal vesicle) a basic solution to neutralize the acid (prostate) .Of the millions of sperm cells ejaculated into a female.

Testosterone also stimulates secondary sex characteristics In males ‡Facial hair ‡ Deepening of the voice ‡Growth of skeleton ‡Sweat gland development .

‡ Produce gametes ‡ Deliver gametes ‡ Provide environment for organism to develop if fertilization occurs .All female structures are analogous to male structures and must perform the similar functions.

primary female reproductive organ .Female Reproductive System 1. Ovaries (female gonads).

Also produces female hormones. Produces eggs.estrogen and progesterone (causes appearance of secondary sex characteristics) .a.process called ovulation (happens about once a month) b.

Uterus hollow.2. muscular Uterusorgan with thick walls in which a fertilized egg develops 3. pear-shaped. Vagina lower end of uterus connected to Vaginaoutside of body by muscular tube (also called birth canal) .

A female is born with all the egg cells that she will ever have. They are immature primary oocytes and only develop into mature egg cells when the woman enters sexual maturity. Eggs are stored and mature in the ovary. From puberty (around age 12) until menopause (around age 50) a female will release 1 egg per 28 days (on average) unless fertilization occurs. They travel down the fallopian tube (oviduct) to the uterus .

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Primordial germ cell €p MITOSIS €p Oogonia which grow into Primary oocytes €p 1st MEIOSIS €p 1st Polar body (degenerates later) + a Secondary oocyte €p 2nd MEIOSIS €p 2nd Polar body (degenerates later) + an Ovum .

The Menstrual Cycle ±complex series of periodic events (cycle varies from 20 to 40 days) Controlled by hormones operating on negativefeedback mechanism (from pituitary and ovaries) .

growth of uterine lining Progesterone Stimulates growth of uterine lining and placenta formation LH . maturation of eggs. growth of corpus luteum. Anterior pituitary Ovaries Ovaries Stimulates ovulation. and secretion of estrogen and progesterone Estrogren Female secondary characteristics. secretion of estrogen.Female Hormones and reproduction Site of production Hormone Main function Hypothalamus GnRH (to anterior pituitary) Anterior pituitary FSH Stimulates follicle growth.

. The ovarian cycle covers events in the ovary. the menstrual cycle occurs in the uterus. 2.Hormones and Female Cycles two phases. the corpus luteum secretes both estrogen and progesterone after ovulation. 1. Hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary control the ovarian cycle. The follicle secretes estrogen before ovulation.

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The Menstrual Cycle: Hypothalamus releases GnRH GnRh stimulates release of FSH & LH by pituitary FSH & LH stimulate development of follicles Follicles secrete estrogen 2 follicles form per month Increased growth of follicle releases more estrogen Estrogen has 3 effects ‡Promotes further growth of follicle, oocyte ‡Stimulates growth of endometrium in uterus ‡Stimulate increase in FSH & LH

The surge in LH has three effects ‡Trigger meiosis I in oocyte ‡Final explosive growth of follicle & ovulation ‡Turns remnants of follicle into corpus luteum Corpus luteum secretes estrogen & progesterone These inhibit the pituitary & hypothalamus thus stopping FSH & LH This stops formation of further follicles Stimulates further growth of endometrium

What happens next depends on«..

Without the corpus luteum. It is shed as menstrual flow that begins about the 27th or 28th day. .if fertilization occurs or not. The reduced level of progesterone means that the hypothalamus and pituitary can start producing GnRH The cycle starts again. the corpus luteum disintegrates after 1 week after ovulation This is because progesterone stops LH production which stimulates corpus luteum growth.«. If pregnancy does not occur then«. progesterone and estrogen levels drop which causes the endometrium to die.

. The embryo itself starts secreting a LH like hormone called CG or chorionic gonadotropin that prevents the breakdown of the corpus luteum. The embryo releases so much CG that it comes out in the urine and can be used as a pregnancy test. Which continues to produce progesterone and estrogen which nourishes the endometrium and the embryo. .If pregnancy does occur then «.

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5 from the last 3 bullet points . glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (1). thus raising the blood glucose (1) high blood glucose level would stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin (1).8 blood glucose The hormonal secretion of the endocrine gland (pancreas) is under the direct control of the blood glucose level (1) Action / effect of the 2 hormones are antagonistic to each other (1) Low blood glucose level would stimulate the pancreas to secrete more glucagon (1).2007 Paper II Q. insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose into glycogen (1) / the uptake of glucose into body cells / inhibit the formation of glucose from proteins and fats. thus lowering the blood glucose (1) The blood glucose level is kept within a normal range by a negative feedback mechanism (1) max.

thus inhibiting the development of another follicle (1). shortly before ovulation to trigger sudden surge of LH and FSH (1) Surge in LH stimulates ovulation (1) and progesterone secretion (1) by the corpus luteum.8 follicular development The hormonal secretion of one set of endocrine glands (follicles in ovary and corpus luteum) is under the control of another endocrine gland / the pituitary (1) through its secretion of the trophic hormones (1) / gonadotrophins Action of the hormones are interactive (1) FSH stimulates follicular growth (1) and the secretion of oestrogen (1) by the follicle cells Increase in oestrogn level exerts negative feedback (1) during early part of the follicular phase by inhibiting further FSH secretion (1). Max 7 from the last 3 bullet points . High level of progesterone inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH from the pituitary by negative feedback (1). but negative feedback is converted to positive feedback (1).2007 Paper II Q.

This means a man would be infertile. . but not impotent.Birth Control pills contain estrogen and progesterone which suppresses LH which is the hormone that triggers ovulation Efforts are being made to develop a male pill which will suppress the production of FSH which causes spermatogenesis and continue LH production so that testosterone production.

Oral Contraception Combined (estrogen and progestin containing pills) ± Failure rate 3/100 women/year Progesterone only (generally used in the US only while breastfeeding) ± Higher failure rate than combined pills especially if patient weighs over 200 lbs .

Oral Contraception Mechanism of Action: Inhibition of ovulation Most contain ethinyl estradiol (2050mcg) .

Oral Contraception Advantages: ± Protects against ovarian and endometrial cancers ± Decreased risk of iron deficiency anemia ± Decreased incidence in benign breast disease ± Decreased risk of ovarian cysts ± Decreases menstrual blood loss .

Oral Contraception Disadvantages: ± Increases risk of venous thromboembolic disease especially in smokers ± Risk of worsening uncontrolled hypertension (especially with higher dose estrogen pills) ± Must be able to remember to take pill daily therefore very high risk for noncompliance ± No STD protection .

Emergency Contraception 3 modalities (administered within 72 hours of unprotected sex) ± High dose combined oral contraceptive pills (at least 100mcg of ethinyl estradiol/dose) ± High dose progestin only pills ‡ Both are 2 doses taken 12 hours apart ± IUD insertion (rarely used) .

interference with fertilization. alteration of endometrial lining ± NOTE***once implantation takes place emergency contraception has NO effect (ie. Not an abortion pill) .Emergency Contraception Mechanism of Action: ± Inhibition of ovulation.

Emergency Contraception Advantages: Can prevent pregnancy in assaults and contraceptive failure (broken condom. displaced diaphragm. or missed pills) ± 75% effective (new data to suggest it is most effective if administered within 24 hours) .

Emergency Contraception Disadvantages: ± ± ± ± Not as effective as other modalities 50% associated with nausea 20-25% associated with vomiting No STD protection .

2006 Q.4 (c) .

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Permanent Sterilization Bilateral Tubal Ligation ± PERMANENT ± Counsel extensively about other long term reversible options ± Failure rate 4-6/1000 .

Permanent Sterilization Vasectomy ± ± ± ± ± ± PERMANENT Extensive counseling prior to procedure No STD protection Need back up method for several months Failure rate 1-2/1000 Less expensive than a tubal ligation .

Barriers et. Spermacide ± ± ± ± ± ± Should not be used alone Over the counter Can be used as a back up method Good for breastfeeding mothers Can cause irritation Need to reapply after one hour or with repeated sexual acts ± Best if used in conjunction with a condom or diaphragm . al.

al.Barriers et. Condoms ± ± ± ± Protects against STDs Requires cooperation of partner They can break or leak Less reliable form of BC when used alone ‡ Failure rate 12/100 women/year (when used alone) .

Diaphragms ± Can be used in patients who can¶t tolerate other forms of BC ± Requires fitting in doctors office ± Requires motivated patient ± Can have a high failure rate because of incorrect or inconsistent use .al.Barriers et.

good for 10 years) ± Progestasert ($100. good for one year only) Failure rate: 2/100 women/year Can be used as emergency contraception Mechanism of Action: Inhibition of sperm motility therefore preventing fertilization ± Previously thought to be inhibition of implantation of fertilized egg .Intrauterine Device Name brands: ± Copper T ($285.

IUD Advantages: ± Easy to use. good for low risk patients ± No systemic effects ± May use while breastfeeding .

IUD Disadvantages Risk of uterine perforation Risk of expulsion Can be associated with ascending pelvic infections and infertility in high risk patients Patients may not return for annual pap smears .

blocked sperm ducts Treatment Surgery. low sperm count. hormone therapy .Enhancing fertility Causes ± Blocked oviducts.

As isolating mechanism to prevent different species from interbreeding 2.Significance of courtship behaviour 1. Strengthen bonding to prepare for parental care .

acrosome reaction 4. fusion 5. cortical reaction 6. Fertilization Fertilization1. binding 3. arrival of sperm 2. mitosis .Fertilization to Birth A.

Stages in fertilization .

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Sperm deposited into vagina move through uterus into the oviducts (200 to 300 million sperm are deposited) 2. Egg and sperm unite to form zygote .1.

3. Egg moves along oviduct to uterus 4. Fertilized egg implanted in wall of uterus and pregnancy) develops for nine months (called pregnancy .

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Invagination ± formation of notochord . Gastrulation ± formation of the trophoblast with the outer layers of cells develop into the embryonic membranes C.Stages of development in the fertilized egg A. Clevage (Blastulation) ± formation of the blastocyst B.

Role of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) early pregancy
Trophoblasts (cells surrounding the embryo which attach to the uterine wall and provide nutrition) undergo dramatic transformation during the first several days of pregnancy and ultimately lead to the development of the placenta

Human CG appears to have two distinct roles in maintaining pregnancy. 1. the earliest form of hCG expressed by trophoblasts seems to facilitate embryo implantation. This form of hCG, which is expressed 6-10 days following conception, does not efficiently stimulate ovarian progesterone production. Over the course of the subsequent week, hCG matures into a form that is capable of stimulating ovarian progesterone secretion. 2. hCG stimulates ovarian progesterone secretion in quantities sufficient for the maintenance of pregnancy.

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unborn child known as an embryo .B. Stages of the Embryo and Fetus Embryo1. Embryo during the first two months of pregnancy.

Placenta develops to provide nutrients Placentato developing embryo .2.

3. Umbilical cord transports nutrients and cordoxygen from mother to baby. Attached to placenta and embryo¶s navel .

Mammalian embryo Amnion covers the embryo and secretes amniotic fluid. prevents the embryo from becoming desiccated and allows it to move. Umbilical cord transports blood between the embryo and placenta for exchange of food and wastes. Placenta connect the embryo to the wall of uterus to supply the nutrients and oxygen and remove wastes. protects the embryo from mechanical shock. Amniotic fluid acts as a shock absorber. .

4. thin membrane forms around embryo. This sac is filled with clear liquid called amniotic fluid . Amniotic sac during third week of sacpregnancy.

5. All body organs are present b. Fetus after first two months of pregnancy. Fetusdeveloping baby called fetus a. Develops for total of nine months and is then ready for birth .

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Labor series of events that expel infant from uterus (muscular contractions of uterus) 2. Contractions cause uterus to widen to allow baby to pass through 4.C. Childbirth Labor1. Amniotic sac usually breaks (³breaking water´) 3. More powerful contractions push body out through vagina .

Contractions expel placenta .5. Umbilical cord is cut (scar later forms navel) 6.

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Neonatal Means ³new born´ (first four weeks) Baby totally depends on others to survive. Period of Infancyrapid growth and development. . Adolescence begins from age 12-14. AdolescencePuberty1. Infancy from neonatal to one year. C. Time of growth spurt AdulthoodE. Development Childhoodof muscular coordination and mental abilities D. B. Puberty time of development when person becomes physically able to reproduce (hormones produced) 2. Adulthood begins at end of adolescence and extends to old age.Development after Birth and parental care NeonatalA. Childhood lasts until twelve.

Milk Production .

Evolutionary Psychology Which Obama is more attractive? .

youtube.com/watch?v=PoKAa5vEEc&feature=BF&list=PL2DCD5FF59B0BADBF&i ndex=8 Science of Sex Appeal: Falling in Love http://www.com/watch?v=wK6d7vrN17U&featur e=BF&list=PL2DCD5FF59B0BADBF&index=17 .youtube.Science of Sex Appeal: What Women Find Attractive http://www.

it seemed to both parents' advantage to be hardworking. female great reed warblers of Scandinavia select males with a larger repertoire . females are sneaking off with other males whose offspring are then raised by the female and her unknowing partner. The female appears to choose "high-quality" males endowed with desirable traits for these "extra pair" matings. Behind the appearance of monogamy. which have traditionally been thought to form monogamous pairs for child-rearing." she's adding some genetic variability that could enable some of her offspring to survive if the environment should change.is one thing. By adding some male genes from outside her "family.staying together for the sake of the kids -. Why the deception? A leading theory is that it provides a sort of evolutionary insurance policy for the female bird.Songbird Infidelity: The development of DNA identification has given scientists potent new tools for discovering the genetic relationships between animal parents and their offspring. faithful partners. In recent years this has led to some eye-opening revelations about monogamy and infidelity in the animal world -particularly in birds. "sexual fidelity is hard to find. Because avian offspring require a lot of parental care -.incubating the eggs and feeding the nestlings -. Scientists using DNA "fingerprinting" have discovered instead that a surprising number of eggs in birds' nests contain another male's genes. "Social" monogamy -. For example. But among birds. scientists are finding." as science author Virginia Morell put it.