Long Term Evolution (LTE

Dr. Debabrata Das IIIT-Bangalore

D. Das



‡ Introduction ‡ LTE Bearer ‡ Protocol Architecture of LTE
± Control Plane ± User Plane

‡ Layer-2 of LTE
± Medium Access Control (MAC) ± Radio Link Control (RLC) ± Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
D. Das IIIT-B 2

Demand Drivers for LTE & WiMAX
‡ Growth of Internet and Rich Multimedia Solution: Broadband Wireless Communication ‡ Growth in high bandwidth application ‡ Proliferation of Smart phones by 2013 25% phones will be smart phones ‡ Flat revenue due to competition ‡
D. Das IIIT-B 3

3GPP Road Map D. Das IIIT-B 4 .

Das IIIT-B 5 .Service Evolution: Mobile Telephony to Personalized Broadband Wireless Application D.

non-real time applications D. Video games. Video. email. PER. data rate etc. Das IIIT-B 6 . real time applications ± Non-GBR bearers: not defines minimum guarantee bit rate to UE web browsing. FTP.LTE Bearers ‡ LTE mainly a Packet Switched Network ‡ LTE uses a concept of Bearer a central element to control QoS (latency.) for different IP applications ‡ Generally Bearers are divided in TWO ± Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) bearers: minimum data rate guaranteed to UE Voice.

Das IIIT-B 7 .EPS Bearer Service Architecture D.

Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture ‡ Each EPS bearer between Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW) and UE defined ± Maps sets of QoS parameters: data rate. Das IIIT-B 8 . latency. packet error rate ± Different applications like voice and email are put in separate bearers ± End-to-end connectivity done by bearer service ‡ S5/S8 interface transport EPS bearer between Serving-Gateway (S-GW) and PDN-GW D.

PER. GBR and non-GBR classification priority. Das IIIT-B 9 .9-QCI (QoS Class Identifier) for LTE: Each bearer is associated with QoS Class Identifier (QCI) delay. D.

Protocol Architecture in LTE ‡ Protocol architecture in LTE between UE and Core network is divided into ± User Plane Protocol Stack ± Control Plane Protocol Stack ‡ LTE Layer-2 Protocol Stack has following Sub-Layer ± Medium Access Control (MAC) ± Radio Link Control (RLC) ± Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) D. Das IIIT-B 10 .

LTE Protocol Stack: User Plane D. Das IIIT-B 11 .

Das IIIT-B 12 .User Plane ‡ Responsible to carry IP packets from PDN-GW to UE ‡ According to the application IP-Packet encapsulated by Evolved Packet Core (EPC) specific protocol and tunneled by GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) from PDN-GW to eNodeB ‡ From eNodeB to UE the packets are transmitted by Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) D.

Das IIIT-B 13 .Control Plane Protocols ‡ Control plane used to transport signaling between Mobility Management Entity (MME) and UE ‡ Types of signaling done over control plane ± Bearer Management ± QoS Management ± Mobility Management handover. Paging D.

LTE Protocol Stack: Control Plane D. Das IIIT-B 14 .

Das IIIT-B 15 .Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP): supports Control and User plane D.

Das IIIT-B 16 .PDCP function in User Plane ‡ Header compression and decompression of IP Data flows by Robust Header Compression (ROHC) protocol ‡ Ciphering and deciphering of user plane data ‡ In sequence delivery and reordering of upperlayer PDUs at handover ‡ Buffering and forwarding upper-layer PDUs from serving eNodeB to target eNodeB during handover ‡ Timer based discarding of SDUs in the uplink D.

PDCP function in Control Plane ‡ Ciphering and deciphering of control plane Data ‡ Integrity protection and verification of control plane data ‡ Transfer of control plane data D. Das IIIT-B 17 .

PDCP ± Header Compression ‡ LTE is packet-based. if compressed which mechanism of ROHC used D. 3GPP accepted IP-based packet switched Internet MOST COST EFFECTIVE mechanism for delivering high bandwidth data ‡ Large header due to = Network Layer header (IP) + Transport Layer (TCP/UDP) + Application Layer (RTP) many information in header redundant and repetitive ± consumes radio resources ‡ LTE uses Robust Header Compression (ROHC) for header compression ‡ Multiple compression thechniques called ³Profile´ in compressed header shows whether compressed or not. Das IIIT-B 18 .

Das IIIT-B 19 .Header Compression Profile-LTE D.

Das IIIT-B 20 .PDCP ± Integrity and Ciphering ‡ Integrity: No one changes the data during transmission ‡ PDCP PDU ³COUNT´ is maintained and used as input to security algorithm ‡ COUNT is 32 bits and two parts: Hyper Frame Number (HFN) & PDCP Serial Number (SN) ‡ SN is used for reordering and duplicate detection of RLC packet at receiving end ‡ Format of Count D.

Das IIIT-B 21 . COUNT Value.Ciphering and Deciphering Function ‡ It is performed on Control and user plane ‡ Integrity and Ciphering is applied to PDCP Data PDU Control and User plane ± It is NOT used for PDCP Control PDU ‡ Ciphering is done by upper layer ‡ Ciphering stream generated by Ciphering algorithm based on Ciphering Keys. direction of transmission and length of key stream D. the radio bearer identity.

MAC/RLC D. Das IIIT-B 22 .

Das IIIT-B 23 .Data Transfer Mode ‡ Each RLC entity can be operated in Three different modes ± Transparent Mode (TM): ‡ Simplest.RLC . does not add any RLC header to PDU ‡ No data segmentation or concatenation ‡ Suitable for services that do NOT need retransmission or delivery in order ‡ RRC broad cast or paging uses TM ‡ Not used for plane data D.

real time (VoIP) Segments or concatenate RLC SDU according to MAC PDU ± Makes Duplicate Detection.Data Transfer Mode (Contd.RLC . reordering and reassembly of UM RLC PDU D. Das IIIT-B 24 .) ‡ Unacknowledged Mode (UM) ± ± ± ± In sequence delivery of data No retransmission of lost PDU Application uses: delay sensitive.

Das IIIT-B 25 .Data Transfer Mode (Contd.) ‡ Acknowledged Mode (AM) ± Most Complex mode ask retransmission of missing PDUs + all the functionalities of UM ± Application use it: Error sensitive and Delay tolerant ± Receiving AM RLC entity sends STATUS PDU to inform transmitting RLC regarding successful reception of RLC PDUs D.RLC .

segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs (only for UM and AM data transfer) ‡ Re-segmentation of RLC data PDUs (only for AM data transfer) ‡ Duplicate detection (only UM and AM data) ‡ Protocol error detection and recovery ‡ RLC re-establishment D.Functions of Radio Link Control (RLC) ‡ Transferring/Receiving PDUs from layers ‡ Error correction through ARQ (when RLC operates in AM mode) ‡ Concatenation. Das IIIT-B 26 .

Das IIIT-B 27 .Functions of Medium Access Control (MAC) ‡ LTE defines two MAC Entities: In UE and Other one in eNodeB ‡ Main Functions of MAC: ± Mapping between Logical channel and transport channel of Physical layer ± Multiplexing and De-multiplexing of MAC SDUs belonging to one or different logical channels int/from the same transport block ± Scheduling for Downlink and Uplink ± Transmission error correction by H-ARQ ± Priority scheduling D.

Das IIIT-B 28 .RLC Data PDU Format D.

) ‡ Framing Info (FI) ± RLC SDU segmented or not ‡ Length Indicator (LI) ± indicates lenghth in bytes of date field ‡ Extension bit (E) field ± whether next data follows or set of E or LI field follows ‡ SN field: Sequence number of PDU ‡ Data/Control (D/C): indicates whether RLC PDU is a data or control ‡ Re-segmentation Flag (RF): indicates whether RLC PDU or RLC PDU segment ‡ Polling bit (P): Transmitting side of AM RLC ask for STATUS report from receiving AM RLC D. Das IIIT-B 29 .RLC PDU Format (Contd.

Das IIIT-B 30 .MAC PDU Format D.

Zero or more MAC SDUs.) ‡ MAC receives data from RLC and map it on transport block of Physical layer ‡ MAC PDU Two parts: Header and Payload ‡ MAC Payload consists of: Zero or more control element. or padding D. Das IIIT-B 31 . a MAC Control element. and padding ‡ MAC PDU Header consists of one or multiple MAC PDU sub-header Each subheader corresponds to either a MAC SDU.MAC PDU (Contd.

size of MAC SDU/CONTROL less than 128 bytes. Control or padding follows ‡ LCID (logical Channel ID): identifies logical channel instance of corresponding MAC SDU/Control/padding ‡ F field: indicates size of length field. If 0. if 1. shows set of R/R/E/LCID follows. if 0 then MAC SDU.MAC Sub-header ‡ ³R´ Field: currently reserved & always ³0´ ‡ E filed: shows the extension of subheader. Das IIIT-B 32 . if 1 larger size ‡ L filed: indicates length of MAC PDU or Control in Bytes D.

LTE uses one of the two layer retransmission scheme ± Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (H-ARQ) fast with low latency. for highly reliable acknowledgement one use second line of repeat request referred as ARQ ± ARQ for highly reliable and selective repeat request for any packet loss or erroneous transmission D.Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) ‡ If a packet loss or erroneous transmission happens then. Das IIIT-B 33 .

References ‡ A.al. Fundamentals of LTE.org ‡ D. Das IIIT-B 34 . Prentice Hall ‡ www. et.3gpp. Ghosh..