BY DR. MUDASSAR ALI ROOMI (MBBS, M. PHIL.

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The olfactory epithelium has:
(a) Columnar epithelium with goblet cella (b) columnar stratified epithelium (c) bipolar neurons (d) Clara cells (e) Dust cells

The respiratory epithelium of the conducting portion of the respiratory tract has:

(a) stratified squamous epithelium (b) pseudostratified columnar epithelium (c) No ciliated cells (d) No goblet cells (e) Cells with stereocilia

PHARYNX
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The pharynx connects the nasal cavity with the larynx. Depending on the extent of abrasive forces on the epithelium, the pharynx is either lined with respiratory epithelium ( in nasopharynx) or with a stratified squamous epithelium (in oropharynx and hypopharynx) Lymphocytes frequently accumulate beneath the epithelium of the pharynx (pharyngeal tonsils). The nasal cavity and pharynx form the upper respiratory passages.

LARYNX
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The larynx connects the pharynx and trachea. The vocal folds of the larynx control airflow and allow the production of sound. The true vocal folds are lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium(MCQ) and contain the muscle (striated, skeletal) and ligaments. Respiratory epithelium lines the false vocal fold, as in posterior epiglottis. The larynx is supported by a set of cartilages.

LARYNX

EPIGLOTTIS
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The epiglottis is the superior portion of the larynx that projects upward from the larynx¶s anterior wall. It has both a lingual and a laryngeal surface. A central elastic cartilage of epiglottis forms the framework of the epiglottis. Its lingual mucosa ( anterior side) is lined with a stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium . The lingual mucosa with its stratified squamous epithelium covers the apex of the epiglottis and about half of the laryngeal mucosa (posterior side). Toward the base of the epiglottis on the laryngeal surface , the lining stratified squamous epithelium changes to pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

Located below the epithelium in the lamina propria on the laryngeal side of the epiglottis are tubuloacinar seromucous glands. € In addition to the tongue, taste buds and solitary lymphatic nodules may be observed in the lingual epithelium or laryngeal epithelium
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Trachea
Mucosa: € it is lined with Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated epithelium with goblet cells (respiratory epithelium). 2. Submucosa: it contains Sero-mucous glands 3. 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline Cartilage + trachialis muscle 4. adventitia: it has loose connective tissue
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Bronchi
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1. 2. 3.

Extrapulmonary bronchus is just like the trachea. Intrapulmonary bronchi have got the following differences from the extrapulmonary bronchi: Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated epithelium (shorter) Goblet cells (fewer) Irregular Cartilage plates all around the wall Smooth muscle layer is complete

Cancer of lung (bronchogenic carcinoma)
Smoking is a major reason € Pseudostratified epithelium changes to stratified squamous epithelium (squamous metaplasia) € Dysplasia leads to cancer
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Bronchioles
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1 mm or less in diameter. Simple columnar or cuboidal ciliated epithelium goblet cells present in larger bronchioles but absent in the smaller ones. No cartilage in their walls Mucosa contains no glands. Smooth muscle (relatively abundant) Clara cells (non ciliated cells): produce surfactant and function as stem cells.

Respiratory Bronchiole
Simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium € Goblet cells and glands are entirely absent. € Clara cells are present here. € Alveolar outpocketing on its walls.
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Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis: it is due to abnormal Cltransport by Clara cells € Associated with thick mucus and recurrent lung infections.
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asthma
Recurrent spasm of bronchiolar smooth muscles. € It is a type of hypersensitivity reaction.
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Alveoli
Type I alveolar cells or type 1 Pneumocytes (squamous alveolar cells): € flattened for gas exchange € 40% of all cells in the wall of alveoli but cover 90-95% of the surface area. € With capillary endothelium, form the thin blood-air barrier (0.6 um thick).

Type II alveolar cells or type 2 Pneumocytes (great alveolar cells): € cuboidal in shape € 60% of all cells in the wall of alveoli but cover 5-10% of the surface area. € Luminal surface of these cells bear microvilli € Are secretory cells and produces surfactant ‡ Contain numerous secretory granules

Alveolar Macrophages (dust cells)
‡ Are monocytes that enter pulmonary connective tissue and alveoli € are somponent of reticuloendothelial system ‡ Clean alveoli of invading organisms and phagocytose particular matter € Their cytoplasm is laiden with phagocytosed carbon and dust pariticles.

emphysema
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Destruction of alveolar walls. Large air spaces. wasted ventilation.

The type I alveolar cells:
(a) are columnar epithelial cells (b) are rounded or cuboid in shape (c) have abundant microvilli on their surface (d) secrete surfactant (e) are involved in gaseous exchange with the blood

Respiratory surfactant:
(a) is secreted by type II (great alveolar) cells (b) increases surface tension of alveoli (c) Has nothing to do with surface tension of alveoli (d) Not essential for correct respiratory function (e) mainly a triglyceride

The alveolar dust cells:
(a) are phagocytic (b) secrete surfactant (c) produce antibodies (d) Are mast cells (e) develop from eosinophils