AFRICA&oceania

MAP OF AFRICA

INTRODUCTION
‡ World s second largest continent and second largest population after Asia ‡ Covers an area of 30.2 million sq.km. ‡ Surrounded by Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal and the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Sinai Peninsula ‡ Consists of 54 states, accounts for about 14.72% of the world's human population

7 percent in 2011 from 4.9 percent in 2010 ‡ Inflation-7% ‡ Africa¶s per capita GDP is extremely low and that is why it is the poorest continent ‡ Weakest economies in Africa are Somalia and Malawi with as low as $600 and $596 per capita GDP ‡ Africa is emerging and is set to become an important global player .AFRICA ECONOMY:OVERVIEW ‡ Richest countries of Africa are South Africa and Egypt ‡ GDP 3.

Korea (7. 64% of manganese and 33% of uranium ‡ Foreign direct investment. one of the few ways to invest in African countries without liquid capital markets.5 percent). 50% of gold 90% of platinum.2 percent). is estimated to have fallen to $50-52 billion in 2010 from $59 billion in 2009 and a peak of $72 billion in 2008 ‡ China is Africa's largest trading partner ‡ Africa s top five emerging trade partners are now China (38 percent). and Turkey (6. Brazil (7.1 percent). 70% of tantalite. India (14 percent).‡ Africa has almost 90% of the world s cobalt. 98% of chromium. .

GDP Growth .

FDI Inflows to African Countries .

milk and meat products ‡ African Music.The African cuisine is a combination of traditional fruits and vegetables. ethnic and social groups ‡ Art and Crafts ‡ Cuisine.CULTURE ‡ PEOPLE-Africa is home to innumerable tribes .as diverse as the region's various populations ‡ Languages .

DOING BUSINESS ‡ Most difficult place to do business in the world when it comes to red tape ‡ over 40% of the region's economy is informal ‡ requires a different set of skills ‡ There is unmet demand for many goods and services ‡ Women have yet to attain senior level positions ‡ Trust on research and documentation to support claims on doing business .

POLITICAL FACTORS ‡ The government had been pursuing a number of largescale infrastructure project ‡ INCREASED GROSS FIXED CAPITAL FORMATION ‡ PROGRESSIVE LEGAL FRAME WORK ‡ FINANCIAL SYSTEM ROBUST AND WELL REGULATED ‡ Raising growth potential by further improving trade policies and regional integration .

MARKET VIEW ‡ STOCK MARKETS African stock markets showed mixed performance The largest gain of 3.5% was registered by the stock market in Ghana The market in Nigeria recorded the largest fall of 1. followed by the market in Côte d Ivoire ‡ COMMODITY MARKET  The price of Brent crude oil dropped by 1.0% over the week.6% The price of cotton rose by 3. .5%.

Namibia and South Africa offer ongoing proof that diamond revenues can create sizeable benefits to the economy in countries where they are sourced. Botswana and South Africa are leading producers of diamonds ‡ Countries such as Botswana. . in value. Angola. In these countries. diamonds have contributed to funding impressive economic growth and stability. To date.9 billion carats worth an estimated $US 158 billion mined. producing as much as 50% of global production and . Africa has produced over 75%. of the world's diamonds with more than 1.LAND OF DIAMONDS ‡ Africa is the world's largest producer of diamonds.

for example.‡ Diamonds account for 76% of Botswana's export revenue.000 people are directly employed by the diamond industry. ‡ In southern Africa. provide education for their children and much more . create a better home environment. polishing. 45% of the government revenue and 33% of the gross domestic product (GDP). jewelry retail and jewelry manufacture. These employment opportunities allow thousands of Africans to make a salary. valuing. obtain healthcare. And in South Africa. more than 38. sorting. diamonds represent approximately 10% of GDP. In Botswana. 28. In the country of Namibia.000 people are employed in mining. South Africa has the most diverse range of diamond deposits in the world. 40% of export revenue and 7% of the government's annual revenue. the diamond industry is the country's second largest employer. cutting.

COUNTRIES IN FOCUS ‡ Egypt: The state statistics agency CAPMAS announced that the year-on-year urban consumer price inflation had fallen from 11 % in October to 10. In contrast. which excludes subsidized goods and volatile items ‡ Ghana: The parliament approved an amendment to the Petroleum Revenue Management Bill that would allow up to 70% of the government's share of oil revenues ‡ Tanzania: The Government has revived plans to issue a debut sovereign Eurobond worth $500 million to finance infrastructure projects . the core inflation.2 % in November.

75 %.‡ Mauritius: The central bank kept its benchmark repo rate at 4. but several members of the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) noted inflation could rise faster than previously anticipated ‡ Mozambique: The Government has estimated its 2011 budget at $3. up from $3. compared with the 1. Analysts said growth in manufacturing output was still weak .8 billion.3 % rise in September.5% year-on-year in October.4 billion in the previous year ‡ South Africa: Manufacturing output grew by 2.

and (iii) higher cost of borrowing on the global credit market. ‡ Other important challenges . (ii) decline in trade-related tax revenues for African governments.MAJOR RISKS ‡ The sovereign debt crisis in Europe and the fiscal problems in the US ‡ International Food and commodity prices ‡ Political Stability and Governance ‡ Sovereign risk.: (i) contraction in official development assistance (ODA) flows from Europe.

debt burden and good governance remain important challenges to address . also played an important role in preventing large procyclical fiscal cuts ‡ In several countries. government interventions stimulated agriculture and the overall private domestic demand ‡ greater diversity of partnerships can benefit Africa. over. including the Bank.DRIVERS TO RECOVERY ‡ Private capital flows are also projected to increase and some African frontier markets will benefit from improved access to international bond markets ‡ The financial support from IFIs.specialisation on unprocessed raw materials.

cultural and moral interests of the African working class and to enhance the policy of full employment and equitable distribution of national income.Trade unions ‡ Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU)OATUU is an independent regional union federation for trade union centers in Africa. to accelerate the total liberation of the African continent ‡ ‡ Year of Established. to work for the harmonization of labour legislation and collective bargaining in member countries and to assist all trade unions.Human Rights. It aims to defend trade union freedom and the material.1963 Global issues. especially those in countries still under colonial and foreign domination. Labour Conditions .

. of whom at least 1. At our launch we represented less than half a million workers organised in 33 unions. sexism and the exploitation of the working class . ‡ To organise the unorganised ‡ To ensure worker participation in the struggle for peace and democracy Principles COSATU believes in a democratic society free of racism.8 million are paid up Our main broad strategic objectives have always been: ‡ To improve material conditions of our members and of the working people as a whole..contd ‡ Congress of South African Trade Unions(COSATU) The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) was launched in December 1985 after four years of unity talks between unions opposed to apartheid and committed to a non-racial. non-sexist and democratic South Africa. We currently have more than two million workers.

MAJOR MNCs IN AFRICAN MARKET ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ DABUR GODREJ UNILEVER PROCTER AND GAMBLE LOREAL SABMILLER SHELL BARCLAYS VODAFONE BHP BILLITON VSNL .

OCEANIA .

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New Zealand etc. ‡ The first of these is Australia. the islands of Oceania are often divided into four different sub-regions based on the geologic processes playing a role in their physical development. ‡ In terms of its physical geography. It spans over 3. It is separated because of its location in the middle of the Indo-Australian Plate and the fact that due to its location there was no mountain building during its development.3 million square miles (8. Some of the countries included in Oceania are Australia.5 million sq km). .Introduction ‡ Oceania is the name of the region consisting of island groups within the central and South Pacific Ocean.

‡ Finally. These are found specifically in the South Pacific.Contd ‡ The second landscape category in Oceania is the islands found on the collision boundaries between the Earth's crustal plates. coral reef islands and atolls such as Tuvalu are the last type of landscape found in Oceania . These islands typically rise from the seafloor through hotspots in the Pacific Ocean basin. ‡ Volcanic islands such as Fiji are the third category of landscape types found in Oceania.

2% .GDP of Australia ‡ GDP in 2010 was 2.8% ‡ GDP in 2011 was 3.

8% ‡ GDP in 2011 was 3.1% .GDP of New Zealand ‡ GDP in 2010 was 2.

Political factors ‡ Australia is a safe destination for investment. ‡ The country's political and regulatory environment is stable. ‡ The adaptability of Australian government policy to changes in the economy has been ranked in the top two countries in the region . providing investors with a high degree of confidence and certainty. open and progressive. in part. ‡ Australia's strength as an investment destination stems. from a political system that has been assessed as being highly effective in responding to economic challenges and policy direction.

' (Hans Vestberg. These factors provide a sophisticated market and the right environment enabling Ericsson to drive innovation and technology. a skilled. a stable political and business environment. Australia hosts a growing economy. well educated and multi-lingual workforce. Chief Financial Officer and Head of Group Function Finance.) . Ericsson. Executive Vice President. a strategic time-zone and a competitive cost base.Contd ‡ µAustralia is one of the most important markets for Ericsson in the Asia-Pacific region.

‡ It also values its participation in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). and the current coalition government has been active in multilateral fora on issues of recurring interest to New Zealand-trade liberalization.New Zealand ‡ New Zealand's foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. environment. ‡ New Zealand's economic involvement with Asia has been increasingly important through expanding trade with the growing economies of Asia. International Monetary Fund (IMF). and arms control. World Bank. . ‡ The country's major political parties have generally agreed on the broad outlines of foreign policy. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

Christianity remains dominant in Australia. ‡ Most Australians are immigrants or the descendants of immigrants who arrived during the past two centuries from more than 200 countries. then creates its own unique sense of style with a completely different set of rules . ‡ According to the 2006 Census. individualist nation is well illustrated through its fashion. ‡ here is also a new generation which takes its inspiration from Australia¶s surf culture. ethnic. art and childhood dreams. linguistic and religious backgrounds. ‡ Australia¶s reputation as a vibrant.Culture(Australia) ‡ Australia is a society of people from a rich variety of cultural. which is characterised by a rich and colourful mix of exuberant style. ‡ Australia recognises. graffiti. accepts and respects cultural diversity.

‡ The influence of Maori. and the arts make New Zealanders and their culture unique in the world.New zealand ‡ New Zealand has a very unique and dynamic culture. and even the accents of all New Zealanders. including friendliness. invention and self-reliance. Pacific Island. European and Asian cultures makes the arts in New Zealand colourful. that you'll find in most New Zealanders. The culture of its indigenous Maori people affects the language. ‡ Their place in the South Pacific. there are many qualities. unique and vibrant . sport. individuality. the arts. and their love of the outdoors. ‡ Though a diverse and multicultural people.definitely something to look out for! .

Business setup (Australia) ‡ A person can conduct business in Australia as a sole trader. or as a corporation. i. ‡ Companies in Australia are incorporated (registered) under the Corporations Act. ‡ Most foreign companies conduct their business in Australia through a wholly or partly owned subsidiary company incorporated in Australia or through an Australian branch. 2001. The Act is overseen and administered by the Australian Securities & Investments Commission ("ASIC"). .e. through a Trust or a joint venture. in partnership. the foreign company is registered in Australia as such.

in lieu of incorporating a wholly owned Australian subsidiary. . ‡ An overseas company may register itself in Australia to operate as a branch.Contd ‡ An Australian company is usually incorporated as either a Public Company or as a Proprietary Company. ‡ The company must also formally establish a registered office in Australia and appoint a local resident agent. ‡ To do so various application forms need to be lodged with ASIC and annexed to them must be certified copies of the company's current certificate of incorporation and other prescribed documents.

Major MNC (Australia) ‡ Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ) ‡ ABB ‡ AXA ‡ Coca-Cola Amatil ‡ Lifestyle Clotheslines .

New zealand ‡ Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited (ANZ National Bank Ltd) ‡ AMP Limited ‡ Sika .

org/index.html ‡ http://www.cia.economywatch.diamondfacts.org/Reports.reuters.Reference ‡ http://dataportal.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.asiapacifichomes.afdb.org/wiki/Politics_of_Australia ‡ http://www.austrade.com/world_economy/africa/ ‡ http://af.htm ‡ Africa Emerging Issues Series.au/invest/why-australia/democratic-andpolitically-stable/default.aspx ‡ en.wikipedia.htm ‡ http://www.gov.php?option=com_content&vie w=article&id=132&Itemid=169&lang=en .com/article/topNews/idAFJOE75506Z20110606 ‡ https://www.aspx?type=DataByTopic&key=RE P_C_CBEP ‡ http://www.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/tz.pdf ‡ http://www.com/australia/australia.state.