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INDIAN MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS AND PRACTICES

SYLLABUS
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Indian Ethos-Multiplicity and Variety-Yet has commonness.
Focus on the Ultimate Principles or Intelligence to Whom man seeks recourse

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2. Personality
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Personality Development through Yoga- the paths/margs; Bhakti, Karma, and Gyan. The three Gunas- Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Individual- A being with infinite capabilities and potential is a result of his own action. Koshas ² The concept of Man. Meditation- The technique for Development of Self. Leadership- Qualities of a Leader with special referance to Indian Thoughts.

3. Society and Social Groups
Society ² Combination of individuals of Diversity ; values that reflect social practices and customs ² impact on individuals and collective behaviour ; Use coercion to enforce compliance for societal values.  Festivals ² Significance of Festivals and harmony with nature  Learning ² Indian Concept of Learning ² Gurukul System of Learning 

6. 8.   5. Scope and Implications at Work Concept of Dharma ² Varna Ashram ² Dharma and Swadharma Concept of Karma ² Meaning and Importance to Managers and Corporates Concept of Vasudev Kutumbakam . Spirituality Core Teachings of all founders of religion Spirituality v/s Religion Concept of Maya (Illusion) ² Meaning.4. 7.

INDIAN ETHOS .INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Various Customs and Traditions  Habits  Individual Characteristics Definition According to the Websters Dictionary. Era or Community. and individuals  . Ethos is ¶The Characteristics Spirit of Culture.

It is something which if imbibed in the work place. They are based on customs and traditions e. They are neither right nor wrong . spontaneous and unplanned c. Part of the psyche of a community b.Ethos are: a. Related to the behaviour that is normal. will make it stress-free and more productive d.

there are different cultural norms:  Goddess Kali to whom wine and meat are offered as a worshiping ritual . Even among Hindus. Poultry etc. multi-ethnic and multireligious country ‡ Dowry System and Sati System ‡ Female Infanticide ‡ IRDP ² project of Leather. in villages where Brahmin and Vaishya Communities live.Evolution of Indian Ethos 1. Multi-cultural.

Alms are offered to poor. God fearing. Joint Family System. 2. . 4. It is still a taboo in India for lovers or spouses to kiss or embrace in public. Upanishads. Guests are welcome (Athiti Devo Bhava) 3. parents and teachers are respected. 6. Children are well taken of until they are married. Marriage is considered to be a life-long relation-Permanent 7. ´Sarva Dharma Sambhavanaµ Ethos are based on Vedas.Common Ethos in India 1. 5. Elders. etc.

love.It implies to know that a man is a part of ´supreme Soul·. self-less service.materialistic and spiritualistic.CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN ETHOS 1) 2) Know one self . loyality. honesty. forgiveness. . but they are dormant. Self realization ² Balanced Life. He has all the divine qualities like integrity. patience. compassion.

e.  Self is constant delight Self is eternal perfection Self is entirely self-sufficient Self is universal love Self is importable and silent ( transferable from one format to other ) The person becomes a socio-centric from egocentric . b.CHARACTERISTICS OF A SELF-REALISED PERSON a. c. d.

3-SELF MANAGEMENT ´ ¶If you cannot manage self. you cannot manage others· Body Mind I Intellect Profession SELF Family Peers and colleagues Society / Nation Soul .

May our efforts be thorough and faithful. Tejasvina vadhita mastu. May we never misunderstand each other. Saha viryam karvavahe. sahanau bhunaktu. May he help us to enjoy. .4-HOLISTIC APPROACH All living beings are part of Supreme Soul ´ So also nature is a part of us 5-Team spirit ¶Om sahana vavatu. May we work together. Maa Vidvisha vahe· (May he protect us.

Chitta Shuddhi ² Purification of Mind. ´blessed are those who have pure mind· Jesus Christ 10-Unity in Diversity 11.Tolerance 12 Peace Loving 13 Humane .Service Attitude 8.Spirit of sacrifice 9.7.

instead of ¶I· and ¶THEM· g) Brings in Synergy .BENEFITS OF COOPERATION a) Promotes Teamwork b) Makes one less self-centered c )Enables one to view things from others perspective d) It enables one to reduce expectation from others e) Fosters unity and dissolves partisanship ´United we stand and divided we fallµ f) Brings in the concept of ¶US· and ¶WE·.

on a regular basis b) Learn to forgive and forget c) Have a regular exposure to Satsang and inspirational literature .How to Develop Cooperation a) Meet the person with whom you are concerned .

´Adopt and Adaptµ .COOPERATION IS THE CRADLE OF FOLLOWING VIRTUES a) Love and friendship ´ b) Love from unexpected quarters ´ c) Reverance and dignity ´ d) Gives binding unity ´ e) Ever lasting peace ´ f) Happiness But it demands efforts ´ ´We must learn to live as brothers or perish together as foolsµ For cooperation.

GLIMPSES OF VARIOUS RELIGIONS Buddhism -Buddha was born around 550 BC -Seeing the sorrows and despair of human being.he left his home -He got enlightenment while sitting under a Bodhi tree Buddhist Philosophy -Governed by democratic principles -Preaches middle path between two extremes-Life of self torture and life of luxurious living ´ ng .

7.1. 3. 6. 5. 2. Buddhism teaches the following: Right Understanding Right aspiration Right conduct Right Vocation Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration . 4.

BUDDHISM HAS LAID DOWN THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS: 1. REFRAINING FROM TAKING WHAT DOES NOT BELONG TO YOU 3. ABSTINENCE FROM INTOXITANTS BUDDHA ALSO STRESSED ON THE FOLLOWING: A)UNIVERSAL LOVE AND FRIENDLINESS B)COMPASSION C)EMPATHY AND JOY IN GIVING HAPPINESS TO OTHERS . AHIMSA 2. REFRAINING FROM FALSEHOOD AND ENCOURAGING MUTUAL TRUST AND UNDERSTANDING 5. ABSTINENCE FROM EXCESSIVE INDULGENCE IN SENCE PLEASURE 4.

JAINISM Mahavir was born around 540 BC and propagated Jainism Principles of Jainism are as follows: Ahimsa (Non-violence) ´ Satyam (Truthfulness) ´ Astiya (Non.stealing) ´ Brahmacharya(Celibacy) ´ Aparigraha( Non-covetousness) It teaches Universal Brotherhood -Ahimsa paramo dharam ´ .

4 To pity the criminals .RULES OF CONDUCT IN JAINISM ARE BASED ON µDAYA¶ (MERCY). 2 To rejoice at the wellbeing of others 3 To sympathise with the sufferings of the distressed people. WHICH HAS THE FOLLOWING FORMS: 1 To perform kind acts without expecting any reward.

Avadhi. Keval Pure.That comes from five sense organs. the five gateways of knowledge are as follows: 1.Additionally. transcending all knowledge and precedes attainment of Nirvana .ShrutiThat comes from listening to learned 2.Through what is in other·s mind 4. Mati. Mana Paraya.Recognition of the events of the past 3.

simplicity. right knowledge and right conduct. The path of ¶Nirvana· is the attainment through right faith. Monks duties include the following: Forgiveness. .UNTRUTHFULNESS. HATRED. and austerity. humility. PUNYA-Doing service with sincerety. celibacy and being faithful. ANGER. BACKBITING AND HYPOCRACY. avoidance of intrigues and deceit in speech and action. UNCHASTITY. ATTACHMENT.JAINS BELIEVE IN µPAPA¶ AND µPUNYA PAPA. as indicated in the scriptures.

Realisation of truth is higher than everything in the world. is truthful living. Higher still. 2.SIKHISM . Its principles are as follows: 1.FOUNDED IN 15TH CENTURY BY GURU NANAK DEV JI -It is the fifth largest organised religion in the world. creed and religion . -It is a system of religious philosophy known as GURUMAT (Counsel of Gurus) -Guru Granth Sahibji (Adi Granth) is the teachings of the ten Sikh Gurus. It emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimmination of the basis of caste. Faith in ¶Wahe guru· represented by the phrase ¶IKONKAR· ² meaning one God (monotheism). 3.

10.4. 9. but stresses on the need of leading a life as a householder. It stresses that God can be seen only from the ¶inward eye· or through the heart. It believes in universality of God. 6. 5. It believes that God created the entire cosmos. . It states that God is omnipresent and is infinite. 8. Devotees must meditate to progress to progress towards enlightenment and reaching the ¶Supreme Soul ² The God·. It emphasizes that God is shapeless. It does not attach any importance to asceticism as a means of attaing salvation. 7. timeless and sightless.

The true believer desires for others that he desires for himself. Assist any oppressed person 6. Fed the hungry. Abuse no one and despise not good . the founder of Islam was born in 570 ad in Mecca and laid the foundation of ISLAM ²Submission to the will of God -It is the religion of self ² surrender and following the commands of God -Believes in the universal brotherhood of man Except Allah there is no God. 7. 1. Got will not be affectionate to those who are not affectionate to God·s creatures 3. 2.ISLAM Mohammed. visit the sick and free the captive if he is unjustifiedly sent to jail 5. Some the teachings of Islam are as follows. Love thy fellow-beings first. He is amongst the most favourites of God from whom the greatest good comes to his creatures 4.

11. . is the strongest person. envy. Religion of sacrifice 13. lying. Drinking. 14. 12. wickedness are not appreciated These doctrines are well-scripted in Quran. flattery. the Ijma. If a man reproaches you for what he knows in you. violence. hypocrisy. Speak to thy brothers of good acts and kindness 9. and the Qias. do not do the same for what you know of him. greed . The Sona. 10. Strongly prohibits use of force for its observance. He who masters himself when angry.8. Do not take up arms except in self-defense.

Performance ( Piligrimage to Mecca) . Prayer (Namaaz) b.The true Muslim believes in the following ² God and his angels Scriptures and the apostles Resurrection and the Day of Judgement God·s absolute decree Other duties of Muslims are as follows ² a. Haj. Giving alms c. Keep fasting of Ramadaan d.

economics etc are destructive and must be overcome. All men and women are equal 3.BAHAI Founded around 150 years ago. religion. We must investigate truth for ourselves with open mind without any pre-conception ´ . caste. by Baha·ullah. ´ It teaches oneness of all human beings and all religions Basic teachings of Bahai faith are as follows ² 1. All divisive tendencies on the basis of race. 4. All humanity is one family 2.

Our economic problems are linked with spiritual problems 7.5. World peace is the crying need of our time . Science and religion are in harmony with each other 6. There is only one God 9. The family and its unity are very important for eternal peace and happiness 8. All major religions have come from one God 10.

who has brought thee out of bondage. Six days though shall labor and do all thy work Remember the Sabbath ( the seventh day ) and keep it holly.JUDAISM ´ ´ ´ ´ 1. Religion of Jews It was started by Abraham who lived around 2200 BC in Palestine He brought Jews out of Egypt At mount Sinai. TEN COMMANDMENTS I am the God. 2. 4. Though shall not steal . What is hateful to thee. he preached the Ten Commandments which are golden principles to lead a righteous life. 5. Thou shall not have any other God. do not do it to thy followmen. 3. thy God.

Thou shall not bear false witness 10. Thou shall not take the name of thy Lord in vain . Thou shall. 8. show respect and reverence to your parents. at all time.6. Thou shall not kill 9. Thou shall not covet thy neighbour·s wife nor commit adultery 7.

. eluding peace and happiness. fame. This alone gives peace and happiness. ´ Man thus fails to recognise the true goal of life i.2-FOCUS ON THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OR INTELLIGENCE TO WHOM MAN SEEKS RECOURSE ¶You cannot know the meaning of life until you are connected to the power that created you· ´ In the modern world people are busy in acquiring more and more of material wealth. e. power. ´ This results in constant chase. to seek ·Param Brahma·.. etc.

chariot ´ Five senses ²Horses ´ Intellect ²Charioteer ´ Mind ² Reins ´ Soul-Person sitting inside the chariot Destination of Soul³GOD But the ego does not allow individual to seek God E-EXIT. Intellect and Soul which is linked to supreme Soul called GOD ´ Body. Mind. G-GOD.Human body-Body. O-OUT ´ .

reason. Comprehand complex ideas. learn quickly and learn from experience Spiritual Intelligence has been defined as the Intelligence with which to access our deepest purpose. meaning and highest motive. abstractly. .SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE Spirit-That gives life or vitality to the system Intelligence-A very general mental capability which involves the ability to plan. solve problems think.

4. 8. 5.awareness³What one believes in and value Spontaneity³Living in the present moment and be responsive Being visionary and vision-lid ² Acting from principles and deep beliefs and living accordingly Holism ² Seeing larger patterns. Self.Principles of Spiritual Intelligence 1. 10. 2. 7. 9. 3. 11. 6. 12. in relationships and connections Compassion ² Having faith and deep empathy Humility tendency to ask fundamental questions Celebration of diversity Field Independence Ability to reframe Positive use of adversity Sense of Vocation ² Giving back to the Society .

6. The ability to utilize spiritual resources to solve day to day problems. 5. 7. They develop a tender heart and remain in a joyful state. Capacity to experience heightened state of consciousness. . 3. Capacity to transcend the physical and material world. They·re all governed by emotions with pure mind. 2. Ability to sanctify everyday experience. the components of Spiritual Intelligence are as follows: 1. Capacity to the be virtuous.Additionally. 4.

They dedicate all their actions to the GOD. fascination. attachment and malevolence. 13. . They understand the nature of the world as impermanent and joyless. They·re full of devotion. ethical entrepreneurs. but also guide others to become like them. 10. They not only become self-restraint.8. full content and endowed with good qualities. dutiful. benevolent. generous. 9. prepared to enjoy sufferings and free from attachment . They know that they can experience everlasting true bliss and looking within and seeking Supreme Soul. polite. 12. They·re charitable. Their behaviour is devoid of constant craving. 11. have a clean reputation. endured with good character.

Burn out your EGO 2.Trust Others . Believe in the principles of TEA T ² Trust in God .Trust yourself . and then Aspire ² Use Purushartha .Be Trustworthy E ² Minimise your Expectations(Desires) A ² Accept the situation as it is Accept the person as he is.Methods for attaining SPIRITUALITY 1. Minimise your desires for sensual pleasures 3.

It reflects the man·s character and personal traits. says and how he behaves. dresses. attitude and knowledge. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT       Personality is a mixture of various physical.3. cultural and other values. . It makes life highly fruitful. mental. It can be judged by his views character.´Personality has been defined as the type of person one is and which is reflected by the way he feels things and behavesµ It is judged by the way a person looks. contended and meaningful. beliefs. Definition .

Aptitude iii. Ready Wit iv. It includes the way a person talks. refusing. Personal Intelligence ii. acknowledging. stands. waving. NO Artificiality.Determinants of Personality The determinants of personality are as follows: a) General Disposition ² which includes the following: i. Presence of Mind b) SPEECH c) General Behaviour ² which should neither below nor over the record level. . sits and performs small tasks such as nodding. smiling.

It includes childupbringing. colour of eyes. a person must develop Satvic gunas. physical features. which includes the development of spiritual qualities so as to have peaceful life. office-environment. These are to be harmonized with the inner personality. skin. . also affects the personality. According to the Indian Concept of Personality. school/college-environment. friendcircle. muscle build up etc. Social environment ² in which a person lives. INDIAN CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY   All the above elements determine external personality.d) e) Looks ² height.

PERSONALITY 1 They are cultured. As a result they are equianimous and do not have any negativity 3 They have ¶sajjan bhav·.CHARACTERSTICS OF A PERSON WITH DEV.gentlemanliness 4 They are individuals with good moral character with integrity . civilised.refined and well mannered and are of pleasant personality 2 They remain in a peaceful state at all times through friendly behaviour with everyone. courteous.

virtues and vices. speech and actions are to be diverted for the welfare of others 8 They can distinguish between good and bad 9 They have developed intellect-Power to easily distinguish between good and bad. speech and actions transparent at all times 7 They believe that their thoughts. true and false. They are called intellectuals and judicious.5 They serve as role models 6 They keep their thoughts. .

In such a situation.10. 11. They have tender heart and are in a joyful state. a person with developed personality sees the ¶Self· in all human beings and all being in ¶self·. the person is called enlightened soul. . Ultimately. They are ethical.

b. c.PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH YOGA ´ ´ a. Radhakrishnan Yoga means union of Union of body and mind Union of mind and soul Union of soul with supreme soul Thereby leading to ¶Purna Anand· . ¶The prime objective of personality development is to make a person enlightened soul. Yoga helps in subserving this purpose· ² Dr S.

truthfulness . ¶Brahma Charya·. b. contentment and non-hoarding. non-stealing. d.1. c. Thus they live in peace and happiness. These rules are non-violence. Niyam ² Set of programs to develop one·s personality which includes the following ² Purity of body and mind Austerity Contentment Penance Self-study Faith in God and surrender to God . 2. Yoga comprises 8 parts Yama ² Rules to be followed while living in the society so as to have co-ordial relations. f. e. a.

Asanaas ² Psycho-somatic postures involving body and mind. ie energy centres ( Chakras) and ¶Nadis·. 8. Dharana ² Focused mind on one object or thought 7. It also develops life force.3. Pranayam . Samadhi ² Ultimate stage of dhyana where one identifies oneself with the object of meditation. 5. spleen and stomach. activities and rest. It improves efficiency of liver. it is moderation and control of diet. In broad sense. . It increases the oxygen absorption capacity of the blood. Pratyahar ² Withdrawing mind from sense objects. Dhyana ² State when one is able to concentrate the mind on the chosen thought without any interruption.Prolonging. controlling and disciplining the breathing. 6. It also nourishes the central nervous system. It is a gateway to spirituality. 4.

DIFFERENT PATHS OF YOGA Bhakti Yoga ² Path of devotion ² Man of heart ´ Gyana Yoga ² Path of knowledge ² Man of head ´ Karma Yoga .Man of mixed psychological ² Karma with detachment ´ Karmanye Vadhika Raste . Maa Phaleshu Kadachinaµ ´ .

d. b.QUALITIES OF YOGI a. f. c. g. e. h. Positive views Humble nature Tolerant Forgiving Fights for injustice Looks at life in a detached manner Self-motivated Inspired Life-long learner . i.

7.BENEFITS OF YOGA 1. violence . 5. selfless service. Makes the body flexible and healthy Makes the mind calm and quiet Develops divine qualities like . 4. anger. serving the followers and community . hatred. 8. helping others. love. non-violence etc Remains undisturbed even during the turmoils in the life Free from jealousy. greed etc Efficient worker in the organisation Socially acceptable person Good leader . 3. 2. 6.compassion.

better behaviour or productivity ´ Learning is a continuous process ´ It is related to experiencing and interpreting ´ It results in change in behaviour more or less permanently ´ Indian concept of learning teaches us nothing is permanent in this world.µ ´ Learning is related to behaviour modification through the process of Knowledge & information gathering & its application resulting in wisdom.LEARNING According to Stephen Robbins ´ Learning is any relative permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. ´ Life is a continuous process of learning from Birth to death .

Learning takes place due to the appearance of neutral stimulus before actual stimulus. Basically an individual does not respond to a neutral stimulus unless he has some previous experience.   Classical learning Involves forming association through learning. .There are three types of learning    Classical learning/conditioning Apparent learning Observational/Social learning 1. Active/Actual stimulus gets the response.

Good Food Punishment for Late Coming Calling Persons by name This way values can be developed Social Conditioning Learning takes place by observing other·s behaviour. ´ . Actors. Teachers. they repeat the behaviour & thus learning takes place. 3. Parents. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Apparent Conditioning People behave in a particular manner to bring changes in the society.2. Friends effect. & condition your behaviour. leaders. If the consequences are favourable.

Individuals grow 6. Fulfill Social responsibility 8. So remember learning should lead to the betterment of ourselves & others & lead to HAPPINESS . Helps in bringing discipline in the organisation 4.Benefits of Learning 1. Face competitions 5. It can be helpful to change individual·s behaviour in different life situation 2. Manage others 7. Helps in building better relationships 3. Helps to understand others. Helps in Market Survey Remember learning could be bad or good.

In Gurukul system. Be with nature Learn from elders and respect Respect of elders ´ Right to Perform and no control over result . « « « « Abstinence from worldly pleasure and pleasure of senses. know Thyself. Students were leaving their homes and staying in Ashram with students from all walks of life ² learning equality of all. Learning was to lead idividual to overall PEACE ´ ´ Overall PEACE Through Silent Meditation.´ In Indian system. Bramhacharya learn and inculcate all the positive traits and qualities.

2. Systems Thinking Inter connections between various departments. It evolves through environment experiences. Problem solving from Organisations viewpoint. 1. Personal Proficiency It helps in clarifying and deepening the vision.Learning Organisation Organisation that does something about addressing present & future needs through Structured learning opportunities. Five Disciplines of a Learning Organisation These disciplines are practiced continuously and presence of each of them is critical to success. focus & energy .

& beliefs for better effectiveness. Assumptions. Shared Vision Every employee must have similar organisational goals & values. Leaders should demonstrate these in their day ² to ² day life Team Learning Through creative & positive challenging tasks . Perceptions & Belief Develop right models. 5.3. 4.

people and nation·s interest was first Today·s leaders should also behave in the same way Leadership is defined as an interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process towards the attainment of specified goals It is an element that makes organisation a dynamic entity In the absence of leadership. For them. kings used to govern the state.LEADERSHIP ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ In earlier days. there is a drift or stagnancy and subsequent decay . and lead and guide his subjects.

Good Time Manager ´ . Bill Gates. They inspire. Help their followers to set the goals and achieve them 3. Subroto Roy. Narayan Murthy. Mahatma Gandhi are all living examples of leader Qualities 1. Maintain Harmonious relationship ² Conflict Management. motivate and lead the way ahead 8.´ Azim Premji. High Mobility ² mental as well as phsyical 4. They assume responsibilities 7. High interpersonal skills 5. Visionary ² Macro Vision 2. G D Birla. Winston Churchill. M S Oberoi. Service Attitude ² Service Orientation 6.

morals of karta become the base of business culture in the organisation ´ Karta has unlimited liability ´ All decisions are made by karta and others have to follow ´ He rewards and punishes according to situation ´ Centralised decision ´ Benevolent and authoritative leader .9. 11. skills Concern for the welfare of others God fearing.Head of the Family ² Leader ´ Head of the family-owned business ´ Values. 13. 12. ethics .R. H. clear understanding of his goals Man of Principle Equinanimous KARTA . 10.

5. leading to higher productivity 5. Factor. Participative 4. Both sides 4. V. MNC 1. Imp.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FAMILY MANAGED BUSINESS AND MNC 1. Professional 2. Family Managed Traditional outlook Autocratic leadership Centralised decision making Training not important No importance to social responsibility Communication ² downward 3. Some regards to social responsibility 6. People oriented. democratic 3. . 6. 2.

7. Limited 10.Profit through customer satisfaction 11. Performance based rewards 9. Loyalty to organisation 8. 10.No such thing 11. 7. . Loyalty to owners Rewards based on loyalty Leaders have unlimited liability Profit main motive Long term relationships with employees 8. 9.

Who is having the leadership skills. Born leader . They became leaders to run organisations « Sonia Gandhi. . Indira Gandhi 2. Kings Made Leader ² Persons who have been turned into a leader because of a situation « Born leaders are few « Anybody can be a leader provided he has a will. Bill Gates.Difference between Born & Made Leaders 1. He can then acquire skills and qualities required Narayan Murthy. abilities & authorities from his early childhood ² Vivekanand. M C Oberai are all made leaders.

Autocratic Leader plans. gives direction and wants the follower to obey his order. Believes in ¶Power Over People· Believes in Theory X ² People need direction and does not believe in self motivation of employees 2.Indian Style Of Leadership 1. Democratic « Involves the followers in decision making « Liberal « Has faith in employees « Respected and supported « Believes in US and WE « Believes in Team Spirit « Provides alternative solutions Large organisation. where many professionals work require such type of leadership . He behaves like a dictator. orders.

experienced. professional & expert « Subordinates respect leaders for their valuable advice and are ready to listen to them « Fatherly Figure « Mentors Such style is suited for R & D orgn where employees are qualified and mature. and leader is an Expert .3. Laissez Faire Style « Leaders give complete independence to followers « They neither motivate nor guide « Believe in Management By Exception « Leadership only when situation demands or employees ask Functional/Intellectual « Leaders are quite knowledgeable. 4.

a leader develops and adopts that style which is most suitable in a particular situation 6. Bureaucratic Style « Leader believes in rules and regulations « Does not believe in any change ² Status Quo « Has faith in Centralised decision making « No innovation and Flexibility « Mostly followed in Govt Depts. specially Banks « No employee oriented Situational Style Depending upon the market condition and followers mentally.5. .

Directive ii. Supportive iii. a.There are various types of situational styles: i. Achievement Oriented Which type of leadership style to follow depends on two factors: 1. They believe that success or failure depends on others or luck/chance Internal Self Motivated Masters of their fate Followers confidence level is high Supportive Style 2. Characteristics of subordinates Whether the subordinates are of external locus of control or internal External They require direction. Participative iv. Work Environment .

Directive style ² Leaders ask the followers what needs to be done and how to do it. He does Planning, Organising, Directing, Controlling, Coordinating and Motivating in order to achieve goals. Supportive Style ² Leader is interested in creating and amicable, congenial atmosphere in the organisation. He is approachable & is concerned for the well-being of the followers. Participative Style ² Takes the followers· suggestions and involves them in decision making. Achievement Oriented ² Leader sets challenging tasks for the followers. He motivates and inspires them.

Transformational Leadership
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Leaders change the attitude of the employees in such a manner that for them organisational goals become more than their own goals. He motivates them, builds up team spirit, creates a positive synergy. Thus creates excellent organisation Changes the mindset Provides vision and a sense of mission. Arouses their selfesteem. Inspires them to perform far beyond their expectations Expresses his high expectations from his employees. Provides a complete picture of his vision and inspires them Encourages creativity and innovations Mentors ² uniqueness of each employee

Characteristics of Exceptional CEOs
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Shri Narayan Murthy
Man of Action ² believes in accountability over delivery. Creating wealth and opportunity for others Fully Professional ² Understands the know-how of the business ² Worked in SRL Sense of Gratitude to employees and shareholders HR Oriented ² Believes more in software and human being Participatory decision making Empathetic Optimist and self confident ´Can doµ Attitude Integrity No false information to customers about product, services and company ² Authentic Maintains transparent relationship

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iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

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vi. Kumar Mangalam Birla Believes in People Count Everyone is Important Effective Communication Develops Attitude & Soft Skills Values of Organisation and integrates them with the people Creates an Environment of Openness and Trust . xii. xiv. iii.xi. ii. v. iv. i. xiii. Man of clear conscience ² believes in AUM Achievement oriented Highly motivated Believes in employee development Overall believes in Value-based Management II.

Need of the hour ² leaders with high SQ IQ is related to logic and reasoning EQ produces empathy, compassion and ability to respond appropriately to pleasure and pain SQ is Ultimate and is related to your Value System & how you connect yourself with others and see that when you interact with others you make yourself and others happy. » A person with high SQ can balance his personal and professional life » Maintains harmonious and blissful life, never agitated, stressed or burnt out » Provides Job Satisfaction, better interpersonal relations and happiness » Leads to value based organisations How to develop SQ Introspect, find out your Strengths & Weaknesses & be a better person Feel in harmony with others. Respect others. Surrender to God

4-THREE GUNAS DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY ´ Psychological human beings reveal three thought conditions:
1 SATTVA(Illuminating or Pure) Noble Desires -Satvik person performs his duties with with enthusiasm, determination, wisdom, love and a lot of energy. - He thinks about welfare of others - He lives a balanced life - -It is easy for him to seek Supreme Soul by prayer and meditation - HE works without desires or fruits

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RAJAS GUNA(The kinetic force) Motivation leading to activities, desires and restlessness -They are passionate and believe in material wellbeing They love power and enjoy sensual pleasures They are ambitious and enjoy fruits for their actionsEgo-centric

arrogant and totally egoistic PERSONALITY -Dominance . one has to take the help of a Guru.To remain in Satvik state . at any point of time.of any one of the three Gunas . lack of care or attention and headless-ness . do Yoga .No consistency in behaviour Obstinate.3 TAMAS -Their state of mind is in complete state of inertia laziness.have Satsang and read religious scriptures ´ .

force him to act . IS A RESULT OF HIS OWN ACTION AND THE LAW OF KARMA -Man has infinite potential and capacities but they lie dormant -Life should be organised for the discovery of your potential ´ Law of karma - Desires (Vasanas) prompt a person to act Vasansas create mental agitation and discomfort.5-LAW OF KARMA MAN HAS INFINITE POTENTIAL AND CAPACITIES .

- - - Law of karma helps an individual in understanding his infinite and to decide the right course of action In Bhagwat Gita. Arjun was confused about his right action. Lord Krishna guided him to perform right action To perform action without the desire for results Karma stands for Action.Thoughts and Utterance .

They can be reversed by prayers and meditation.Those karmas whose Experiences are being experienced right now or in the near future in the present life .TYPES OF KARMA a) b) c) d) Sanchit Karma-Sum total of the accumulated Karma of previous births Prarabdha Karma. One should do good karma to exhaust Prarabdha Karma.Part of Sanchit Karma which are currently active. Agami Karma-Those karmas which will affect our future life activities Kriyaman Karma.

LAW OF PURUSHARTHA ´ YOU do not have any control over the circumstances and events of the life. but you have the capacity to choose your action ´ Through one·s action one can change one·s destiny ´ Thus Future lies in the hands of man hinself. clothing. actions should not only be driven for fulfilling the desires of gross bodyfood. Law of Karma applies not only to individuals but also to a community. shelter. society and nation . However to become peaceful. intellect. and soul. fame and power. but also fulfill the subtle desires of mind. so as to be happy and peaceful.

thoughts and emotions.BELIEFS OF KARMA THEORY 1 Whatever you do to others. but on the quality of intentions at the base of mind This law is valid for your actions. . words. will be done to you in this birth or in future 2 Whatever you do may attract persons around you that have same or similar karma 3 It applies to all human beings 4 Consequences of an action depend not on the outward appearances of the action.

How to achieve your Goals a) Concentrate on positive goals b) Body and mind should be filled with the goal c) Believe in GOD .

Intellectual ± Vigyana Maya 5. KOSHAS Ancient Sages discovered that human personality comprises the divine spark of life called ¶aatma· (soul) with 5 layers (Koshas) of matter enveloping it.6.Vital Air ± Pranayama Maya 3. These 5 five layers are called ¶Sheaths· 1.Mental ± Mano maya 4.Food ± Anna Maya 2.Bliss ± Anand Maya .

Mother and the individual. ´ ´ ´ The Food Sheath The Physical Body is known as Food Sheath. feet.1. It contains the energy channels (Nadis) and energy centres (Charkras). genital organs and organs of evacuation. ears. It consists of the 5 senses ² eyes. Vital Air Sheath Also known as Pranik or energy sheath. Five organs of action ² speech. hands. nose . Amending one·s breathing patternthrough ¶Pranayama· enhances the flow of energy in the right direction. tongue and skin. It is made from the food eaten by Father. . ´ ´ ´ ´ 2.

It controls the perceptions of the five-fold stimuli received from the five senses.The 5 Pranas comprising this sheath are: I. Samaana ² Faculty of Digestion IV. ´ . V. II. weakening of these 5 faculties due to advances in age can be checked. Apana ² Faculty of excretion III. Vyaana ² Faculty of Circulation ² the power by which the digestive food is properly conveyed to the various limbs of the body by the blood stream. Uddana ² The Faculty of Thinking ² the capacity of self-education through practice of Yoga. Pranas ² the faculty of percetion.

II. Mental Sheath ´ Mind Regulates the Vital Air Sheath ´ There are 5 characteristics of mind: I. Mind gives integrated experience. The mind works in the known areas. V. III. It is a continuous flow of thoughts. Mind receives stimuli from 5 senses and communicates the response to the organs of Action.3. the mind can give peace . It is also a seat of emotions and feelings. If the thoughts can be streamlined or focused. It is always in the state of flux. IV.

contemplate and comprehend new discoveries. c) Intellect can decide the flow of thoughts. so as to enable an individual to understand and discern. 4. ´ Power of discrimination ´ In terms of good of others.The Intellectual Sheath ´ The mind functions as a stimulus for this sheath. orders the body for action. b) It can work beyond known areas and can investigate. ´ It is also the seat of Ego Intellectual Sheath works as follows: a) Intellect with the help of experience and knowledge. .

Aatma is subtlest of all these sheaths. ´ ´ ´ The Bliss Sheath It is the deep sleep state of consciousness. etc. . it is considered as blissful because whatever may be the condition while an individual is awake. in deep sleep state he experiences peace and bliss It controls the intellectual sheath.5. BRAHMA. also known as GOD.

etc. jealousy. Further it is in the grip of envy. . YOU can visualise how difficult it is to be happy and peaceful.7.Therefore there is a need for a technique which can control or streamline the flow of thoughts. because mind controls the health.MEDITATION Need for Meditation Mind is a flow of thought Always active with many thoughts To add to it is drunk by unending desires.

´Stylized mental technique repetitively practiced for the purpose of attaining a subjective experience described as restful.Latin word meaning . a person sits comfortably in silence centering his attention on an object or a process and scans his thoughts It leads to Self. silent and of heightened alertnessµ It is also called a blissful state In mindful meditation.realization .Sanskrit. to concentrate Dhyai. to contemplate.MEDITATION ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Meditation ²To ponder Meditari.

Thoughts may stray.Meditation ² Three Main Criteria: ‡Use of Defined Technique ‡Logical Relaxation ‡A Self-induced state of mind Each religion believes in the practice of meditation. . Dhyana ² Continuous attention on one object Samadhi ² Ultimate in Meditation ² So engrossed in one thought that we·re one with God ² are unaware of the body and environment ² state of ultimate bliss ² one can remain in this state without consuming any energy. Various Stages of Meditation Dharana ² Direct our thoughts to an object.

One gets untroubled and sound sleep. roving eyes. Deep spiritual state can be enjoyed while living the normal life of a householder. drinking. Through inner awareness. to seek SUPREME SOUL. It improves the overall health of a person. one is able to guide oneself to attain one s Ultimate Potential. . drop out automatically. viz. Family life and all relations become more harmonious. It enables a person to face the turmoil of life in a peaceful manner.. It improves the professional efficiency of the individual. Bad habits such as smoking. etc. It makes a person useful to the society.Benefits of Meditation It calms down the mind: stress and tension are reduced.

. GOD IS SPEAKING AND YOU ARE LISTENING. BUT WHILE IN MEDITATION. YOU ARE SPEAKING AND GOD IS LISTENING.µWHILE IN PRAYER.

political.9. role. patriotic or other purposes. social network. scientific. etc. . cultural.SOCIETY ´ ´ ´ Societè ² Fellowship ² French Societès ² Companionship ² Latin Definition ² 1) Group of people related to each other through persistent relationship such as social status. 2)An organisation or an association of person engaged in a common purpose to achieve their needs and goals which they cannot fulfil alone. 3) Organised voluntary association of people for religious. benevolence. Thus society teaches team-work.

rather than industrial production -This evolved two class of people. primarily based on agriculture and handicrafts.Led to establishment of economic institutions ´ . land owners and field workers .A non-profit company can also be regarded as a society. TYPES OF SOCIETIES ´ 1-Tribal Society ´ 2-Agrarian Society ² It refers to a form of society. ´ It can be registered or non-registered.

Social system which focuses primarily on finished goods manufacturing with the help of machines . .. etc. . crops.They existed primarily in towns . taxes.Several rules and regulations were framed by the Govt.-Religion also evolved .Necessitated keeping of records of land.Social life became impersonal .Trade became more elaborate .Labor evolved .-Art and culture developed 3 Industrial Society .

4. Different Types of Socities in India a) Professional Socities b) Charitable Socities c) Economic Co-op Socities d) Religious and Cultural Socieities. Post ² Industrial Society ´ Importance of Knowledge. . ´ Service Industry became more important ´ Supremacy of Professionals and Techincal Experts ´ These people were involved in decision making in economic and political life. innovations and policy formulations there from.

. it reduces the cost of living.Benefits ´ Promotes Teamwork ´ Teaches Co-operation ´ Teaches to share and care ´ Brings in synergy ´ Sets norms of behaviours for peaceful living ´ In economic societies. ´ Provides physical and psychological protection. ´ Balance between independence and interdependence.

´ Society. ´ Coercion can be physical and mental.Disadvantages ´ Society sets norms and thus curbs individual freedom to grow. which is detrimental for the physical and mental health of a person. ´ Society uses coercive methods for compliance of social norms. sometimes curbs the creativity and innovation of the individual .

and poor economic condition of India.. inspite of people being poor. relationships. may change but right values system.people. It is because of their faith in God and tolerance Indians easily bond themselves and mix easily. Indians are the happiest people. etc. lack if job satisfaction. Indians believe that circumstances.FESTIVALS OF INDIA AND THEIR SGNIFICANCE ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ According to a survey. and attitude enable a person to face them They have a positive attitude and are happy inspite of turmoils of daily life They need only an excuseto celebrate .

DIFFERENT KINDS OF FESTIVALS IN INDIA 1-National Festivals 2-Birthdays of great leaders 3.Festivals of seasons a) Basant Panchami b) Makar Sankranti c) Gudi Padwa .

j. h. b. l. m. INDIAN RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS a. Basant Panchami Holi Naag Panchami Janmashtmi Ram Navmi Dussera Dipawali Durgashtmi Baisakhi Id Navroz Christmas and Easter Navroz . i. d. c.4. f. g. k. e.

RELATIONSHIP FESTIVALS a. CULTURAL FESTIVALS .5. Rakshabandhan Karwa Chauth 6. YOUTH FESTIVALS 7. b.

6. 3. 2. They revive religious sentiments among people and make them ethical and spiritual. Some festivals like Holy and Payushan Parva teach people to forgive and forget. They bring people closer and enable them to forget their differences. 7. They promote cultural values The joyous moments of festivals give opportunities to people to relax and are good tools of stress management. They make family bonds stronger.IMPORTANCE OF FESTIVALS 1. and start a new life. They give an opportunity to people to have a break from their mundane routine life. 4. . Some festivals teach restraints and control of physical senses. 5. 8.