Traffic Light Control

Hoàng Hải Lưu Như Hòa Department of Automatic Control Hanoi University of Technology

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Overview
The problem of transport system is an optimal problem control Main Goals are:

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Improving safety Minimizing travel time Increasing the capacity of infrastructures

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Outline
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Section 1: How traffic can be modeled ? Section 2: What a traffic light control system contain ? Section 3: New approaches to traffic light control !!!

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic
Section 1

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic
How traffic can be modeled ?

Macroscopic scale: Similar to models of fluid dynamics PDE

Microscopic scale: each vehicle is considered as an individual ODE

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic

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Macroscopic models

Macroscopic models based on fluid dynamics model Relation between: traffic flux, traffic density and velocity.

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic

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Macroscopic models

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic

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Microscopic models

Microscopic models focus on vehicles (position and velocity ) Cellular automaton (CA): discrete model
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Road Δx Time steps Δt Nagel-Schreckenberg model

Stephen Wolfram Creator of CA

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic

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Microscopic models
Road Cell

Rule

18410  101110002

If next state is available Then Move forwards Else Stop

current pattern new state for center cell

111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Modeling and Controlling Traffic 9

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Microscopic models

Self-caused slowdown: Stable "stop-waves“ Two stable states

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Modeling and Controlling Traffic

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Traffic Light Control System

Section 2

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Traffic Light Control System

No obvious optimal solution In practice most traffic lights are controlled by fixed-cycle controllers Fixed controllers need manual changes to adapted specific situation

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Traffic Light Control System

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Driver Detector - Camera
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Identification image Expensive Complex Traffic System

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Traffic Light Control System

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Driver Detector - Loop Detector
•Measure Inductive •Most popular •Cheap

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Traffic Light Control System

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Traffic Light Control System

Distributed System
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A set of intersections A set of connection (roads) Traffic lights regulating Traffic lights are cooperation

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Traffic Light Control System

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Traffic Control and Command Centre In Thailand

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Traffic Light Control System

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Green Waves

Offset of cycle can be adjusted to create green waves.

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Traffic Light Control System

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Control Algorithms

Section 3

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Expert Systems

uses a set of given rules to decide upon the next action (change some of the control parameters) Findler,Stapp,1992 describe a network of roads connected by traffic lightbased expert systems improve performance but much computation

Can Machines Think?

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Control Algorithms

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Evolutionary Algorithms

Taaleetal,1998 using evolutionary algorithms to evolve a traffic light controller for a single intersection Result:

Generates green times for next switching schedule. Minimization of total delay / number of stops. Better results (3 – 5%) / higher flexibility than with traditional controllers. Dynamic optimization, depending on actual traffic (measured by control loops).

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Control Algorithms

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Fuzzy Logic

Passed through 31% more cars Average waiting time shorter by 5% Performance also measure 72% higher. In comparison with a human expert the fuzzy controller passed through 14% more cars with 14% shorter waiting time and 36% higher performance index
Control Algorithms 22

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Reinforcement Learning

how an agent take actions in an environment to maximize long-term reward Thorpe used it for the traffic-light problem

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Control Algorithms

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Intelligent Agents

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Control Algorithms

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Conclusion

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Modeling
Macroscopic Model Microscopic Model


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Traffic Control System
Traffic light control in a junction Co-operation in traffic control system

Control Algorithms

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References
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http://en.wikipedia.org [Wiering,2004],Intelligent Traffic Light Control [Tan Kok Khiang,1997] Intelligent Traffic Lights Control by Fuzzy Logic

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Thank you for your attention!

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