A Safe and Healthy Environment
Understand the nature of safety and its role Describe accidents and their types Design a safety programme Identify dangers to health of employees and suggest ways of eliminating the dangers
Long distance trains were halted. Thousands suffered irreversible health damage. December 1985 An oleum gas leak from the Sriram Foods and Fertilisers plant in Delhi severely affected workers and those living in the neighbourhood. Durgapur. December 1985 Blast furnace accident in Rourkela Steel Plant. Rourkela. killed 7.
. November 1988 Fire at the Bharat Petroleum Refinery at Mahul.Major Accidents in the Last Decade
Bhopal. 18 workers affected. Bombay. September 1989 Major gas leak at Fertilisers Corporation of India unit at Ramagundam. December 1984 In the world s worst chemical disaster. Delhi. a methylisocyanate gas leak from the Union Carbide plant in the city killed over 4000 people. Ramagundam. June 1987 Chlorine leak at Durgapur Chemicals Factory created panic all around. North-East Bombay. killed 32. Over 100 were affected.
11 killed and several injured.. Bombay. Kahalgaon. 14 killed and 22 severely injured. August 3. killed 11. 2003 Over 30 persons were killed and several injured in an explosion in an old three storeyed building that housed an industrial unit to manufacture equipment for a diamond cutting and polishing industry. July 1991 Accident in a Hindustan Organic Chemicals unit near Bombay kills 7 workers.2 Ahmedabad. Nagothane Complex. many injured. December 1991 Blast at the dyeing department of GRASIM unit at Gwalior. Panipat.
. August 1992 Ammonia leak at the National Fertilisers plant. Panipat.Accidents (contd. November 1990 Explosion at the Indian Petrochemicals. over 50 suffered 70 per cent burns. October 1992 Boiler explosion in the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).)
Nagothane. Gwalior. 35 persons killed.
Bhadravati.Accidents (contd. 2003 23 employees of ONGC were killed in a helicopter crash in the offshore Heera Panna Oilfield s Neelam area. an office of IOC was murdered on Nov 19. including two officers. 2003 Eight employees of VISL. died on the spot and nine others were injured when a powerful explosion occurred in a converter in the steel-making section (SMS) of the plant. August 11..
. 2005. Kolkota. set ablaze house of a trade union leader in the Dalgaon tea estate in north Bengal s Jalpaiguri District. August 1. Mumbai. mostly tea garden workers. S Manjunath. November 6. Karnataka. 2003 19 people were burnt alive when a mob of nearly 400.
Types of Accidents
Accidents Internal External
09.1989 23. March 10.1987 09.00 41.44
Source: The Economic Times. In crore) 4.08.03.02.00 5.1988 20.10. Tarapur IOC..01.01.1988 05. Vizag JK Synthetics Monica Electronics Zenith Chem.40 6..05. Pasarlapudi well blowout Estimated Loss (Rs. Manali HPL Refinery.09.1989 08.63 5.02.92 3.1988 02.00 41.11.1995 Name of the Organisation Madras Ref.1987 11. 1995
.1988 07.00 4.02. Warora ONGC.1988 30.1989 09. Baroda IAAI.85 3. Bombay Voltas.1988 09.86 4.00 9.Accidents Estimated Loss
Date of Occurrence 29.82 43. Gornia BPCL IPCL.95 to 02. Mathura IEL.11.
Strategic Choices Development of Safety Policy Organisation for Safety
Evaluation of Effectiveness
Implementation of the Programme
Analysis of Causes for Accidents
sources of glare. nuclear. guards of improper height. etc. 8. Using unsafe equipment. high heels. 9. Inadequately ventilated. Operating without clearance. combining. 2. 7. Operating or working at an unsafe speed. etc. etc. no goggles. 7. blocked exits.Causes of Industrial Accidents
Unsafe acts of persons 1. decayed. Unsafely clothed. etc. Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices. startling. poor housekeeping congestion. teasing. 6. inadequately lighted. etc. etc. etc. Making safety devices inoperative. slippery. tools. Inadequately guarded. etc. Unsafe loading. strength. 3.
. 4. Working on moving or dangerous equipment. Unsafely arranged. Taking an unsafe position or posture. etc. 3. Defective. placing. 9. Unguarded. Unsafe processes. Unsafely designed machines. failure to heed warning. etc. abusing. glares or masks. Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Conditions 1. rough. impure oil source. 5. cracked. 6. electrical. 8. mechanical. sharp. absence or required guards. 5. mixing. mesh. Distracting. or using equipment unsafely. 2. chemical. 4.
2 46 103 15 1 4 38 65 50 130 1 24 33 40 131 4 48 62 1 22 3 5 903 Factories per Inspector 233 212 1038 144 255 529 180 315 186 156 184 357 94 304 232 100 175 135 138 284 208 140 171 6004
Source: The Economic Times.Inadequate Inspection
State Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Haryana HImachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Chandigarh Delhi Goa Pondicherry All India Number of Inspectors 92 1. November 8. 1992
Physical health Mental health Noise control Work stress AIDS Alcoholism and drug abuse Violence in the work place
asbestos. coke over emissions Radiation Chemical fumes. radiation. office equipment High noise levels
. active or passive cigarette smoke Asbestos Coal dust Cotton dust Benzene.Health Hazards
Health Hazards Lung cancer White lung disease Black lung disease Brown lung disease Leukemia Cancer of other organs Sterility/reproductive problems Deteriorating eye-sight Hearing impairment Causes Coke oven emissions. vinyl chloride. radiation Asbestos.
Relationship between Stressors and Stress
Perception Past Experience Social Support Individual Differences
The Individual Stress
Organisational Family Economy Lack of mobility Quality of Life
Physiology Increased-blood pressure High cholesterol heart disease Burnout
.A Model of Occupational Stress
Stressors Outcome Individual Level Personality Role Overload Role Conflict Role Ambiguity Task-Characteristics Behavioural Satisfaction Performance Absenteeism Turn over Accidents substance Abuse
Group Level Managerial Behaviour Lack of Cohesiveness Intra-group conflict Status Incongruence Sexual harassment Work place violence
Cognitive Poor Decision-making Lack of concentration forgetfulness
Organisational Level Climate Management styles Organisational life cycle
Moderating Variables Perception Past Experience Social Support Individual Differences
Stress The person feels fatigue The person is anxious The person is dissatisfied with his or her job The person¶s job commitment has dropped off The person feels moody The person feels guilty The person is having difficulty in concentrating he/she tends to forget things The person undergoes physiological changes such as increased blood pressure and heartbeat Burnout The individual encounters chronic exhaustion The individual is hypertensive The individual is bored and cynical about the work The individual's job commitment is virtually nil. Organisational Behaviour.345
. irritable and unwilling to talk to others The individual encounters mental depression The individual does not seem to know where he/she is. he/she is mentally detached from the organisation The individual feels impatient. Hodgetts.Stress Vs. forgetfulness is become more frequent The individual begins to voice psychosomatic complaints
Source: Richard M.
Job and organisational stressors
Attitudinal and Behavioural symptoms of Burnout
Feeling a lack of personal Accomplishment
.A Model of Burnout
Signs of Stress
Physical signs Appetite changes Headaches Fatigue Insomnia Indigestion Cold Weight change Teeth grinding Tension Emotional signs Bad temper Anxiety Nightmares Irritability Depression Frustration Over sensitivity Mood swings Fearfulness Mental signs Lacking humour Dull senses Lethargy Boredom Indecisivenes s Forgetfulness Poor concentration Personality change Stuck in past Relational signs Isolation Defensive Intolerance Resentment Loneliness Nagging Lower sex drive Aggression abuse Spiritual signs A feeling of emptiness Apathy Inability to forgive Cynicism Loss of direction Doubt Need to prove self Negative look Gloom Behavioural signs Pacing Swearing Substance abuse Nail biting Slumped posture Restlessness Risk aversion Eating disorder Headaches
Source: Suzanne C.. et al.72
. Interpersonal Skills in Organisation. De Junasz. p.
Today many organisations are training their managers how to get more done in less time. ± Determine when you do the best work morning or afternoon and schedule the most difficult assignments for this time period. ± Delegate as much minor work as possible to subordinates.Taking Time to Manage Time
One of the major causes of stress for managers comes from time pressures. they are still unable to get all their work done.
. preferably at least one hour. One of the most effective ways of dealing with this problem is the use of time management technique. No matter how fast some managers work and how much time they put in. Some of the most helpful guidelines for effective time management are:
± Make out a to do list that identifies everything that must be done during the day. during the day when visitors or other interruptions are not permitted. ± Set time aside. This helps keep track of work progress.
The average person reads faster and more accurately when in a less comfortable position. ± Read standing up..00 pm. ± Discourage drop-in visitors by turning your desk so that you do not have eye contact with the door or hallway. People tend to keep these conversations brief so that they can go home. Put them on the top of the to do list for tomorrow. ± Make telephone calls between 4. ± Do not feel guilty about those things that have not been accomplished today.)
± Have the secretary screen all incoming calls in order to turn away those that are minor or do not require your personal attention. ± Eat lunch in the office one or two days a week in order to save time and give yourself the opportunity to catch up on paperwork.30 and 5.Time (contd.
Targets of Organisational Stress Management Programmes
Organisational Stress Management Programmes
Work Stressors Workload Job Conditions Role Conflict and Ambiguity Career Development Interpersonal Relations Aggressive Behaviour Conflict between Work and other Roles
Outcomes of Stress Physiological Emotional Behavioural Employee Perceptions/ Experience of Stress
HIV Growth in India
. fist fights Major violations of company policy Frequent arguments with customers. Highly Injurious Physical attacks and assaults Psychological trauma Anger-related accidents Rape Arson Murder
. co-workers or supervisors Theft
Source: Bernardin. et al. vandalism Sabotage Pushing.Workplace Violence . cit. Moderately Injurious Property damage.419
Fire risks ± 15% of all industrial fires arise from smoking
Time spent smoking
.Smoking Related Costs
Insurance costs are higher Ventilation costs are greater for smoky atmosphere
Absenteeism-smokers take 50% more sick leave
Cleaning costs ± dirty ceilings.