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IEEE C37.

234 Guide for Protective Relay Application to Power System Buses


B.Kasztenny (Chairman), S.Conrad (Vice-Chairman), P.Beaumont, K.Behrendt, O.Bolado, J.Boyle, G.Brunello, J.Burger, F.Calero, S.Chano, G.Dalke, A.Darlington, H.DoCarmo, D.Fontana, Z.Gajic, J.Holbach, L.Kojovic, F.Lopez, D.Lukach, D.McGinn, J.Miller, P.Mysore, J.O'Brien, B.Pickett, S.Sambasivan, G.Sessler, V.Skendzic, J.Smith, D.Tholomier, M.Thompson, J.Uchiyama, D.Ware, D.Weers, R.Whittaker, R.Young, S.Zocholl
Presentation to the Main Committee of PSRC, January 14, 2010, Orlando, FL

Table of Contents
Definitions Bus configurations Introduction to bus protection Relay input sources Bus protection methods Application of bus protection schemes Annexes

Definitions
23 new terms defined Bus protection and primary equipment
breaker substitution Temporary usage of a bus tie breaker in a
multiple bus configuration to substitute for one of the network element s circuit breakers, typically for the maintenance of the latter; also known as breaker transfer

check zone Nonselective part of a multi-zone bus protection


system measuring current flows around the entire station and supervising selective tripping from individual bus zones of protection

stub bus Area of a bus or line that becomes isolated from the
original zone of protection or an area that loses protection due to the loss of sensing to zone protection relays

Bus design considerations


Continuity of service for the bus and essential network elements Equipment maintainability and network switching flexibility Economical and footprint constraints Sectionalizing requirements to avoid exceeding breaker fault duties Ease of future bus expansion

Bus arrangements
Single bus Main and transfer bus Double-bus double-breaker Double-bus single-breaker Breaker-and-a-half Ring bus

Main and transfer bus

Main and transfer bus

Introduction to bus protection


Zones of protection Bus protection methods Scheme selection guidelines

Zones of protection

Dynamic zones of protection

Dynamic zones of protection

Dynamic zones of protection

Zones of protection

Over

Bus protection methods


Differential
Differentially-connected overcurrent
Instantaneous Time-delayed

Percentage-restrained differential
Restrained Advanced microprocessor based

High-impedance differential
Resistor-stabilized overcurrent High-impedance

Partial differential overcurrent Fault bus

Bus protection methods


Zone-interlocked schemes
Simple blocking Directional blocking

Time-coordinated relays overlapping the bus Protection (sensors) built into the gas isolated switchgear*

* Not covered in the Guide

Scheme selection criteria


Bus arrangement and flexibility
Fixed vs. switchable buses

Availability and characteristics of CTs For reconfigurable buses, availability of auxiliary contacts of disconnect switches Performance requirements
Security, Selectivity, Speed, Sensitivity

Cost and complexity

Breaker/Bus Arrangements Fixed bus arrangements Switchable bus arrangements Bus Sectionalized with switches Buses with low short circuit levels Available CTs Dedicated CTs available Shared CTs with other protection Unmonitored network elements CTs with unmatched ratios CTs with low accuracy class Performance Selectivity Speed Sensitivity Security H H5 H
5

R R
1

R N
1

R R

R R

R R

R R N N N R

R R N R R
3

R N N N R
2 4

R R R R

R R R R

H M M M

H H M H

H H H H

L L6 L L

H M M M

H M M M

Time coordinated relays that overlap the bus zone L L M H


7

Zone interlocked directional blocking

High-impedance differential

Differentially connected overcurrent

Zone interlocked simple blocking

Partial differential overcurrent

Advanced percentagerestrained differential

Percentage-restrained differential

Scheme selection

Relay input sources


Current transformers
Types Accuracy classes Equivalent circuit & time to saturation No universal CT requirements

Voltage Transformers
Voltage trip supervision Directional blocking schemes

Position of switches and breakers

Detailed scheme review


Section 7 gives in-depth review of each method following a consistent pattern
Theory of operation Setting considerations CT requirements Application considerations

Example High-impedance scheme


Voltage setting:
Above the maximum voltage for an external fault assuming that one CT saturates completely High enough so that pickup current is above the short circuit current on the secondary of any PT or station service transformer inside the bus zone Below the accuracy class voltage rating of the lowest accuracy class CT in the differential circuit Low enough so that pickup current is below the minimum fault current for the bus

Example High-impedance scheme


CT requirements:
CTs dedicated to bus protection (cannot be shared) Equal CT ratios* The accuracy class voltage rating of the CT with the lowest accuracy class above the selected voltage setting, with margin

* Ratio matching covered but discouraged

Application of bus protection


Partial differential
Loads Capacitor banks Application with overcurrent and distance relays

Combined bus and transformer zone Buses with directly connected grounding transformers Application of auxiliary transformers
Generally discouraged

Application of bus protection


Applications with paralleled CTs

Generally discouraged Guidelines included

Application of bus protection


Application of auxiliary tripping relays
Lockout relays Non-lockout relays Ratings

Automatic reclosing after bus faults Dynamic bus replica Check-zone Voltage trip supervision

Dynamic bus replica

Position of switches and breakers

If not opened, then closed logic


Auxiliary contacts 89a On Off On Off 1 89b Off On On Off Closed Opened Closed Closed Scheme output Declared position Discrepancy alarm Normal Normal Alarm Alarm

In-service transfer

In-service transfer

In-service transfer

Check zone
Check zone

Application of bus protection


Application of CT trouble detection
Detection methods Fallback strategies

Reliable, selective tripping at the differential zone boundary


Line-side CT Bus-side CT Bus coupler considerations The role of Breaker Failure protection

Line-side CT

Bus

Bus coupler considerations

Bus coupler considerations

Application of bus protection


CT column ground fault protection In-zone grounds
Surge arresters Safety grounds and circulating current while testing In-zone grounding of out-of-service elements

In-service transfer of network elements and breaker substitution

Breaker substitution

BUS 1

Application of bus protection


Stub bus considerations Breaker Failure considerations Backup protection
Local backup
Duplicated relays BF, batteries, wiring Reverse-looking distance relays Overcurrent relays

Remote backup

Annexes
Setting example for a high-impedance scheme (Annex A) Logic example for double-bus singlebreaker configuration (Annex B)
Bus and Breaker Failure protection Two zones, check zone and voltage supervision In-service transfers and breaker substitution

Setting guidelines for differentially connected OC schemes (Annex C)

C37.234 Highlights
Complex bus arrangements and switching Advanced bus protection topics (reconfigurable buses, QP relays) Balanced coverage of high- and lowimpedance schemes Protection scheme selection guidelines CT requirements given per scheme List of application considerations Detailed examples for most common schemes