# FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI¶S EQUATION

BY : MDM. NADIA BINTI MOHAMED

A flow . . in which velocities of liquid particles at all sections of the pipe or channel are equal. y Non-uniform Flow. This term is generally applied to flow in channels. in which the velocities of liquid particles at all sections of the pipe or channel are not equal. A flow .TYPES OF FLOW LINES y Uniform Flow. is called a uniform flow. is called a non-uniform flow.

and the paths of individual particles also cross each other. in which each liquid particle does not have a definite path. is called a turbulent flow. in which each liquid particle has a definite path and the paths of individual particles do not cross each other. . is called a streamline flow. It is also called a laminar flow. y Turbulent Flow A flow.y Streamline Flow A flow.

is called unsteady flow. A steady flow may be uniform or non-uniform.y Steady Flow A flow . . in which the quantity of liquid flowing per second is constant. is called a steady flow. y Unsteady Flow A flow. in which the quantity of liquid flowing per second is not constant.

Laminar and turbulent flow y If we were to take a pipe of free flowing water and inject a dye into the middle of the stream. what would we expect to happen? This .

This This .

but for different flow rates.y Actually both would happen . y In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines parallel to the pipe walls. The top occurs when the fluid is flowing fast and the lower when it is flowing slowly. y The top situation is known as turbulent flow and the lower as laminar flow. .

y But what is fast or slow? And at what speed does the flow pattern change? And why might we want to know this? y The phenomenon was first investigated in the 1880s by Osbourne Reynolds in an experiment which has become a classic in fluid mechanics. .

d = diameter and µ= viscosity y would help predict the change in flow type. u = mean velocity.y He used a tank arranged as above with a pipe taking water from the centre into which he injected a dy e through a needle. if y greater than 4000 then turbulent and in between these then in the transition zone. After many experiments he saw that this expression  y Where = density. If the value is less than about 2000 then flow is laminar. .

Re:  y Laminar flow: Re < 2000 y Transitional flow: 2000 < Re < 4000 y Turbulent flow: Re > 4000 y What are the units of this Reynolds number? y It has no units. A quantity that has no units is known as a non-dimensional (or dimensionless) .y This value is known as the Reynolds number.

y We can go through an example to discover at what y y y y y velocity the flow in a pipe stops being laminar. If the pipe and the fluid have the following properties: water density = 1000 kg/m3 pipe diameter d = 0.5m (dynamic) viscosity. .55x10-3 Ns/m2 What is the maximum velocity when the Re is 2000. µ = 0.

Answer Re:       .