Plant Disease Agents
Living organisms - Nonliving agents
reaction to the living organism or nonliving agent
Alternaria blotch on apple
.Identifying Plant Diseases
Identifying Plant Diseases
Sign . bacterial ooze)
Green mold on orange (Penicillium)
Bacterial ooze on crabapple (fire blight)
.g. mold or fungal spores..physical evidence of the presence of disease agent (e.
Organisms that lack chlorophyll and obtain their food by living on other organisms Reproduce by spores (aids in identification) Attack crops above and below soil surface Spread by wind. insects. soil.
. Scanning electron micrographs by Alan Jones. rain. machinery and contaminated seed
Blue mold (apple) fungal spores and fruiting structures of cherry powdery mildew.
irrigation water and equipment
Wildfire bacterium of tobacco (Pseudomonas tabaci)
Photograph provided by NCSU Plant Pathology Department. one-celled organisms that reproduce by dividing in half Identified by plant symptoms or by signs of the bacteria Spread by infected seed. insects. birds. contaminated rainwater.
etc. infected Scanning electron micrograph plants. of tobacco mosaic virus No pesticides available to control viruses.g. nematodes.. control by using diseasefree or resistant plants and cultural methods (e. fungi. crop rotation)
Too small to be seen with ordinary microscope Cannot complete their life cycle independently Transmitted by insects.
History of Fungicide Use
Before mid-1960s: fungicides were protectives. used at ounces per acre
. used at pounds per acre 1980s to 1990s: sterol-inhibiting fungicides were introduced which are systemic fungicides with both protective and curative activities. used at pounds per acre Mid-1960s to 1980s: fungicides introduced with systemic and/or curative effects.
Types of Fungicides
Protective (preventative): application prevents the establishment of an infection Curative: application interrupts the development of an established infection before visible symptoms Eradicant: application interrupts further development of an established infection having visible symptoms Residual: remains on surface of the leaf and provides protection Systemic: movement of fungicide inside the plant (locally or throughout the plant)
must be applied frequently at a high rate and phytotoxic at high temperatures Copper: phytotoxic to plants in elemental form (use uncommon)
. disadvantages include limited spectrum of activity (best on mildews). advantages include cheap cost and ease of application (dusts). about 8 million pounds used in 1990 in U.. works as a general growth inhibitor. S.Classes of Fungicides: Inorganics
Inorganics are protective (preventative) fungicides Sulfur: one of oldest fungicides used.
copper hydroxide and other copper compounds
. copper sulfate. less toxic to plants Broad spectrum poison. useful as fungicides and bactericides. protective (preventative) fungicides Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate and hydrated lime).Classes of Fungicides: Copper
Copper is bound to organic and inorganic molecules in fixed-type coppers.
maneb and zineb Captan: one of the most widely used fungicides worldwide. broad spectrum control Chlorothalonil (Bravo. Daconil 2787): widely used.Classes of Fungicides: Organics
Organics are protective (preventative) fungicides Broad spectrum control. multi-site activity Represent 60-70% of fungicides used Dithiocarbamates: thiram Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs): manozeb. ornamentals and turf
Classes of Fungicides: Systemics
Systemic and/or curative activities Benomyl (Benlate): broad spectrum. turf and ornamentals Metalaxyl: seed treatments (Apron). turf and fruit Iprodione (Chipco 26019. Rovral): broad spectrum. narrow spectrum of activity. effective against certain soil-borne diseases
. and turf and ornamentals (Subdue). widely used Thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M): broad spectrum. field and vegetable crops (Ridomil).
mycobutanil (Nova). include imazalil (Fungaflor). fenarimol (Rubigan). propiconazole (Tilt) and triadimefon (Bayleton)
. broad spectrum of activity. triforine (Funginex). has both protective and curative activity.Classes of Fungicides: Systemics
Sterol inhibitors: large group of fungicides. widely used.
insects and weeds) and chloropicrin
.Classes of Fungicides: Fumigants
Highly volatile chemicals that have fungicidal activity. include methyl bromide (controls fungi. nematodes.
mostly for bacterial diseases
.Classes of Fungicides: Antibiotics
Antibiotics are substances produced by microorganisms which inhibit growth of plant diseases in very dilute concentrations Streptomycin (Agri-Mycin): used as dust. spray and seed treatment.
roundworms Nematodes parasitic to plants have a stylet (hollow feeding spear) Feed on plant roots. loss of vigor and general decline of plants
Nematodes under light microscope. leaves and flowers Above-ground symptoms include stunting. Photograph from NCSU Plant Pathology Dept.Nematodes
Small. stems. usually microscopic.
. Photograph provided by Tom Melton. yellowing.
Damage to peanuts by sting nematodes.
potent biocide. insects and weeds Chloropicrin: used at the end of World War I. now used as warning agent (2%) with methyl bromide (98%).3-dichloropropene (Telone) and vapam (Busan)
. soil-fumigant that controls nematodes.3-dichloropropene (Telone C-17) Others: 1. mixed with 1.Classes of Nematicides: Fumigants
Exert toxic action as a gas Methyl bromide: used since 1941. fungi.
paralyze and kill nematodes. carbofuran (Furadan) and oxamyl (Vydate)
. include aldicarb (Temik). paralyze and kill nematodes. ethoprop (Mocap) and fenamiphos (Nemacur) Carbamates: inhibit acetylcholinesterase. easier to apply Organophosphates: inhibit acetylcholinesterase.Classes of Nematicides: Non-fumigants
Less phytotoxic than fumigants Extremely toxic to humans Most are granular formulations. include disulfoton (Disyston).