is one of the most important consideration in the success of the plantation programme. € If plantation is to be raised in the coupe or any other working circle, the area is usually pre-decided. € The working plan specifies the plantation area and spp. To be planted.
€ It

€ Degraded 


Poor soil  Erosion prone
€ Wasteland

Due to limiting factors € Absence of NR or replacement 

€ Railway,

canal, road and agro forestry plantation

€ Easily

approachable ( transportation and others) area involvement

€ Enough

€ Participation € Consult

other agencies

€ Once

decided the area pre-planting survey is necessary.

€ survey

is necessary for:  Identifying terrain, vegetation, soil type to decide the treatment.  Area to be planted and for protection  Selecting the spp.

Type of site preparation  Planning internal layout 

€ To

clear the site € To facilitate planting € To reduce weed growth € To reduce soil erosion € To conserve moisture

€ To

encourage root development € To promote germination € To improve drainage condition

on:  Spp. To be planted  Existing vegetation  Site condition  Finance and other factors
€ Depends

€ Cutting

of trees and shrubs

demander  Shade bearer  Clear felling  Strip cutting 

€ Removal 

of stumps 



€ Disposal

of slash and debris

Slash is fire hazard ‡ It adversely affects soil working ‡ Has harmful effects on seedling and regeneration ‡ Can be source of disease The effective method of disposal is to burn it ‡ Broadcast burning ‡ Spot burning ‡ Piled burning

€ Treatment 

of forest floor

and burning  Mechanical treatment (scarification)
€ Treatment 

to the mineral soil

Deep ploughing Pit Ridge-ditch Self trench 

Application of fertilizer and insecticides

marking of planting sports or the soil working sports with the help of sticks is called as stacking. € Usually soil working is done by the untrained personals, therefore could not maintain spacing and the alignment.
€ Stacking:

€ When

the area is prepared, plantation can be raised either by planting the seedling raised or by direct sowing. sowing: is a practice where the seed is sown directly into the ground on plantation site. (eg. Acacia nilotica, terminalia myriocarpa, shorea robusta, pinus roxburghii,etc..)

€ Direct

€ direct

sowing is cheaper

€ Trees

develop naturally to raise planting stock of several

€ Difficult

€ Several

spp. Gives the same result as that of plantation

€ Need

larger quantity of seeds crop

€ Irregular

€ Nursery

raised get optimum condition for

€ Germinated

seeds can be affected by climate

€ Direct

sowing need more care

€ Therefore

direct sowing is successful only


size is large and abundant 

Cheap  Weed  Soil

growth is nil and

is good

sowing € Hand broadcasting € Aerial broadcasting dibbling € Hand sowing € Strip sowing € Patching sowing
€ Broadcast

€ Seed

rate: Seed rate is the requirement of seed for sowing a hectare of area. € It depends upon species and the method of sowing € Seed rate is higher in broadcasting than other methods

€ Planting

establishment of plantation by nursery raised seedling, stumps, cutting is the most common and successful method in reforestation and afforestation.


€ The

establishment of plantation depends upon several factors such as: 


site preparation  Choice of spp.  Size of planting material  Control of weeds  Protection against grazing and fire

spacing € Best suited to the site € For difficult site perhaps the planting is the only way of afforesting the area € It utilize the seed properly
€ Regular

€ Disadvantages 


is necessary to look a suitable planting program for ensuring success. € Any operation, if delayed, may result in failure. € Planting may depend upon spp., locality, irrigation, and method of plantation
€ It

€ In 

general tree planting is done during three periods

Pre-monsoon planting  Monsoon planting and  Winter planting

€ It

includes those work which are done in the nursery for dispatch to the planting site. includes taking out the plants from the nursery, cleaning and bundling.

€ It

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