Neural interfacing fantasies has mainly grown out of science fiction. without any other equipment. Neural interface allows human brain communicate directly with a computer. .Neural Interfacing Neural interfacing is a powerful means which can develop a robust bridge between humans and machines.

 It is Part human and part machine. .  It is an application of neural interfacing.What is a Cyborg?  Cyborg is cybernetic organism.  It is a humanbeing partially transformed into a machine by providing a proper interface between man and computer.

Microelectrode array(MEA) . It acts as an electrical conductor transmitting the electrical information in the brain into an amplifying and recording equipment.Microelectrode It is a very small electrode which is used to study electrical characteristics of living cells and tissues.

When recording. electrodes transduce electronic currents into ionic currents. causing a change in voltage both inside and outside the cell. When stimulating.How an ME works? Neurons and muscle cells create ion currents through their membranes when excited. the electrodes on an ME transduce the change in voltage into electronic currents. .

Operation of a cyborg: An ME is implanted into any part of the body where most of the nerves are interconnected. . This digital signal is transmitted to a computer for analysis. Electronic impulses received from ME are amplified and encoded into digital format.

Rat implanted with MEs .

Monkey operating a robotic arm with brain-computer interfacing .

Human implanted with a silicon chip-A Cyborg .

Future projects proposed by cyborg stevemann: Third hand .

Artificial sight to blind people .

Useful where wide variety of sensors are required.Advantages: Artificial sight to blind people. . Enables a physically handicapped person to lead a normal life. Very much useful in medical field.

Disadvantages: They are all expensive. .  Collection of debris resulting from cell death. Insertion of electrode into tissues causes:  cell death.  Mechanical tissue compression.  Severed neuronal processes and blood vessels.

Negative consequences: Possibility of a destructive cyborg .

it is inevitable that for everything there are both positives and negatives but we should focus on positives because it would be unrealistic to ban such a useful technology. At the same time some safeguards should be insisted to prevent negative impacts.conclusion: In this world. .

Thank you .