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DNA is found in all living organisms Before direct DNA analysis was developed - look at products of DNA (proteins, blood type, etc) ... = genetic markers Genetic difference among people enabling them to be distinguished = genetic polymorphism
Nuclear DNA: in the nucleus; = genomic DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): in mitochondria (maternally inherited) Every cell in the body has a complete set of DNA Exceptions: mature red blood cells sperm + egg have a half set Any tissue or organ can be used in DNA typing (hypothetically)
makes it useful when extracting DNA from old.~16.HV1.has high copy number (lots of copies per cell) . or skeletonized remains . HV2: HV = hypervariable regions .000 base pairs (10.000X smaller than genomic DNA) .show variation between individuals in populations .Mitochondrial DNA: . decomposed.
trace stains.... less concentrated. need comparison sample to distinguish evidence from background . background material can be important .Collection & Preservation .large and/or concentrated samples: so much DNA that background biological material will be inconsequential -small.. diluted.evidence should be thoroughly dry .
. also autolysis Bacteria However.. always attempt to isolate DNA . DNases = released during putrefaction.DNA cannot always be obtained Age + heating tend to make biological stains insoluble DNA tends to degrade in biological traces/stains that are damp or warm or both. evidence should not be dismissed.
PCR.heat-to-tail repeat of the same sequence of DNA (2-dozens of bps) # of repeats varies..Development & Methods of DNA Analysis Started in 1970s + 80s Forensic applications of DNA typing exploit tandemly repeated sequences. number of repeats = the polymorphism .called variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci 3 generations of typing: RFLP.people differ in # of repeats at a particular locus . .. STR (current) .
First.. DNA has to be collected and isolated. breaks downs proteins so DNA separates more easily Organic solvents are added to separate DNA from other cell components . disrupts cell + nuclear membranes.... DNA has to be isolated or extracted from the evidence Digest the evidentiary material with broad spectrum proteinase .
2nd fraction after sperm cells are disrupted = almost exclusively male DNA .. 1st fraction = almost exclusively epithelial (female) DNA ..Differential extraction = used to separate DNA from mixed vaginal and semen samples Epithelial cells = more easily broken down ...
some 15-20 DNA cut with restriction endonucleases Separate bands by electrophoresis Southern blot Detection with radio.or chemiluminescence-labeled DNA probe . now largely obsolete Target loci with 50+ nucleotides per repeat.Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) used in 1980s.
Colin Pitchfork (27) identified. suspect not guilty >5... 1st use of DNA Typing in a Criminal Case (1983) 15yr old girl raped and murdered along country lane .The Narborough (Leicestershire. cases related..000 samples collected.. no suspects 3 yrs later: similar case Suspect: Rodney Buckland DNA from evidence + suspect analyzed... See book 'The Blooding' by Joseph Wambaugh .. England) Rape Murders. convicted.
1st DNA Criminal Case in USA Orlando. May 9.Tommy Lee Andrews . FL. . 1986: young woman sexually assaulted Tommy Lee Andrews arrested and visually identified Mistrial 2nd trial evidence analyzed via RFLP Andrews convicted in 1987.
.. primers Better technique than RFLP: 1) Faster + automatable 2) Works with degraded samples 3) More sensitive (works with smaller samples) Eventually used 6 loci . Specificity determined by pair a sml single-stranded DNA molecules .Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Makes millions of copies of a segment of DNA.
. called short tandem repeats (STRs) Analyzed with capillary electrophoresis Instrument also uses laser light to induce measurable fluorescence .Short Tandem Repeats (STR) Repeating units of 4-5 base pairs.. but 13 selected (high level of individualization) . 100s of possibilities...
. fluorescence ...Electrophoresis and Genetic Analyzers Electrophoresis: separation of charged molecules in an electric field Use a buffer to hold acidity constant At pH near neutral DNA = strongly neg. use capillary electrophoresis Primers include a dye that fluoresces at a specific wavelengths Fragments identified by size. net charge.. migrates to +ve pole Many laboratories use instruments from Applied Biosystems .
1847 1.1384 0.98 x 10-5 1.78 x 1061 .1166 0.1954 0.15 x 10-6 2.05 x 10-6 6.2903 0.55 x 10-6 1.1174 0.05 X 10-6 2.05 x 10-6 6.66 x 1011 Least 6.04 x 10-4 1.1140 0.0841 0.2762 0.05 x 10-6 6.1969 0.11 x 10-5 6.28 x 10-3 6.0651 0.05 x 10-6 6.04 x 10-4 6.0655 0.DNA Population Genetics/ Individualization Locus Most Common Common D3S1358 VWA FGA D8S1179 D21S11 D18S51 D5S818 D13S317 D7S820 CSF1PO TPOX THO1 D16S539 Combined: One in 0.0137 0.50 x 10-6 4.
The Power of DNA to Individualize Depends on population genetics of the loci and types used Profiles = probabilities Different estimates of probability according to ethnic/racial group Has implications if defendant claims to be a member of a particular minority .
Ava¶s father. murder of Christa Worthington (fashion writer stabbed to death and found in her bungalow on Cape Cod. 2-year-old daughter clutching her body. a doughnut shop.DNA Dragnets Trash Collector Guilty in Cape Cod Slaying (NYT. Then they took the controversial step of setting up DNA screenings in Truro. Initially focused on former boyfriends. 1st day: collected swabs of saliva from ~75 men stopped at the post office. . incl. 2006) 2002 rape. Nov 17. even town dump.
sample analyzed ± linked to DNA found on Ms. McCowen: garbage collector at Ms. Trash collector convicted! Christopher McCowen. delayed for 2 yrs. . Sentence: 3 concurrent terms of life in prison without parole. Incarcerated in FL (1993-1998) (auto theft. 1yr later. guilty of 1st-degree murder with extreme atrocity.Mr. 34. Agreed to submit DNA sample. burglary) Early suspect. Worthington¶s house each wk. aggravated armed burglary. Worthington¶s body. aggravated rape.
charged with 10 counts of murder + 1 of attempted murder after state DNA lab discovered DNA link between evidence from old crime scenes and that of Franklin¶s son. recently convicted of felony weapons charge.Familial Searches using DNA Databases and Samples Permitted in CA. Concerns: Invasion of privacy. racial profiling based on arrests . Franklin Jr. CO The use of DNA samples taken from convicted criminals to track down relatives who may themselves have committed a crime Arrest in the case of the ³Grim Sleeper´ ² a serial killer who terrorized South LA for 2 decades Lonnie D.. 57.
or not. .1) 1) Should DNA dragnets be more extensively used. in the USA? Should Familial Searches be permitted on a broader basis in the USA? Defend your positions.
TX. 2007) ± Texas Governor Rick Perry today officially pardoned James Waller. was proven innocent by DNA testing in 2006. He first requested these tests in 1989. represented by the Innocence Project. March 9. Waller did not commit the rape of a child he was convicted of in 1983 . and continued requesting them after his release on parole in 1993. who was wrongly convicted of rape more than 23 years ago. Waller.The Innocence Project (DALLAS. Waller becomes the 197th person nationwide exonerated by DNA evidence.
.. easy to store profiles in computer databases All states have legislation allowing storage of profiles from those convicted of felony sex crimes. letters. combination.Databasing & CODIS DNA types at individual loci = designated by numbers. At least 2 parts to databases: 1) profiles of convicted offenders 2) profiles from biological evidence from unsolved cases 3) missing persons . Much variation in which other profiles may be included.
139.000 forensic file profiles >32.000 'hits' Match to convicted offender profile results in warrant for new sample .Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) Maintained by FBI laboratory States + localities have their own databases (SDIS and LDIS) Interconnected databases allows cross-jurisdiction searches mid-2006: >3.000 convicted offender profiles >136.
also dragnets : state-by-state patchwork.conviction.laws + standards vary within USA. conviction for specific crimes : expand databases or limit entries? : 4th Amendment issue (unreasonable search + seizure) .UK: . arrest (OH) regardless of conviction.USA any arrest for offense w/ prison term.Whose DNA profiles should be included? . internationally .
recovered.Applications of Forensic DNA Typing Biological evidence must have been deposited. 2003) rape cases: ~169. may be incriminating or innocent ... yields DNA that can be typed Backlogs in casework + convicted offender database typing homicide cases: ~52.000 (Dec.000 (Dec. 2003) total (all case types: ~542. 2003) Major applications: criminal cases civil cases (usually parentage issues) identification of persons Establishes connection between an individual + evidence .000 (Dec.
no clear advantage over STRs .Newer DNA Technologies Y-chromosome analysis useful in cases with male suspects. only epithelial cells Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) would require redoing databases and re-equipping labs as yet.
partial fingerprints. Hype DNA = possible most revolutionary forensic development since fingerprints Many crime scenes do not yield biological evidence Complications: mixtures of samples. Limitations. one hair root) CSI effect Backlogs .Strengths. very small samples (dandruff flakes. Promise.
blood in apartment linked to victim . incl. sentenced to life .. Simms convicted. 1988 Helen McCourt visits her lover at his apartment Scream heard. England. 9. bloodstained clothing Trace evidence from Simms apartment found Although body never found. Feb..Ian Simms Billinge. not seen or heard from again Items of hers found.
Josef Mengele dead? Chief Medical Officer at Auschwitz death camp Fugitive since end of WW2 Rumors that he had fled to South America ..Is Dr. almost conclusive due to dental comparison.. buried in Brazilian village under name Wolfgang Gerhard mid-1980s body exhumed.. examined anthropologically . but some doubt 1992: DNA from relatives in Germany proves corpse was that of Josef Mengele ..
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