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120 MW geothermal power plant, Iceland

RETScreen
Power Projects

Photo credit: Gretar varsson, Nesjavellir

Overview of Power Projects


Isolated grid (community) Central grid (continent)

Photo credit: Northwest Territories Power Corp

Off-grid (single home)

Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research

Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research

Technologies
Renewable Technologies  Wind turbines  Hydroelectric  Geothermal power  Solar photovoltaics  Solar thermal power  Ocean current power  Tidal power  Wave power
Photo credit: RER Renewable Energy Research

On-grid PV, Bavaria, Germany

Technologies (continued)
Conventional Combustion Technologies  Steam turbine  Gas turbine  Gas turbine - Combined cycle  Reciprocating engine Other technologies  Fuel cells  Microturbines

Power System Operation


Gas turbine example  Fuel input  Combustion  Turbine  Generator  Waste heat stream Definitions  Heat rate: the amount of energy input (in kJ or Btu) from the fuel required to produce 1 kWh of electricity  Heat recovery efficiency: the fraction of the remaining energy input from fuel that can be used as heat

Types of Fuels
Combustible Fuels  Fossil fuels: coal, diesel, natural gas, propane, oil, etc.  Biomass: bio-diesel, ethanol, bagasse, wood, bark, coconut fibre, straw, hemp, peat, willow, switch grass, etc.  Waste: tires, landfill gas, food waste, forest residue, coffee refuse, Christmas trees, poultry litter, packaging waste, etc.  Hydrogen Renewable Energy Fuels  Sunshine, wind, waves, tides, geothermal, water, etc.

Power Projects with RETScreen


Steps:  Base case load and power system characteristics (for off-grid systems and internal loads)  Proposed case power system characteristics (energy + costs)  Operating strategy  Summary (energy)  Emission analysis  Financial analysis (including sensitivity and risk analysis)

Types of Analyses
Project Types:  Power  Choose technology (steam turbine, geothermal, photovoltaic, wind, etc.)   Power-Multiple Technologies Other project types:  Heating & Power  Cooling & Power  Heating, Cooling & Power  Project types unrelated to power

Grid Type

For small power system technolgies

Operating Strategy
 Full power capacity  Power load following  Heating load following

Emission & Financial Analysis


Method 1
RET Screen Energy Model - User-defined
Use r-de fine d Use r-de fine d Energy Green power Other Base ca se Grid electricity kW % MWh $/kW $/kW h $/kW h Propose d case Wind turbine 2,000 30% 5,256 2,000 0.010 0.150 Technology Power capacity Capacity factor Electricity exported to grid Incremental initial costs O&M (savings) costs Electricity export rate

Method 2
RET Screen Energy Model - Energy efficiency measures project
Fuels & schedule s Fuel Fuel ty pe Fuel c onsumption - unit Fuel rate - unit Fuel rate Show data Fuel type 1 Electricity MWh $/k Wh Fuel type 2 Natural gas - m m $/m Fuel type 3 #N/A #N/A Fuel type 4 #N/A #N/A Fuel type 5 #N/A #N/A Fuel type 6 #N/A #N/A 0.100 0.400 RETScreen Cost Analysis - Energy efficiency measures project Schedule Des cription Temperature - spac e heating Temperature - spac e cooling Temperature - unoc cupied Occupancy rate - daily Monday Tuesday Wednes day Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Occupancy rate - annual

Settings Method 1 Unit Method 2


C C Initial costs (credits) +/-C

Schedule 1 24/7 23.0 23.0

Schedule 2

Emission Analysis GHG em ission factor (ex cl. T&D) tCO2/MWh 0.211 5,256

Base ca se e le ctricity syste m (Ba seline) Country - re gion Canada Electricity exported to grid GHG em ission Base case Proposed case Gross a nnual GHG em ission reduction GHG credits transaction fee Net a nnua l GHG e mission re duction GHG re duction incom e GHG reduction credit rate

Fue l type All types MWh

T&D losse s % 5.0% T&D losses

GHG em ission factor tCO2/MWh 0.222 8.0%

Heating/cooling changeov temperature er Length of heating season Length of cooling season

Facility characteristics

tCO2 tCO2 tCO2 % tCO2

1,167 93 1,074 0.0% 1,074 is equivalent to 218 Cars & light trucks not used

Feasibility study Feasibility study Sub-total: h/d Development 24 Development 24 Sub-total: 24 Engineering 24 Engineering 24 Sub-total: 24 Energy efficiency measures 24 Incremental initial costs 8,760 h/y r Balance of system & miscellaneous % 100% Spare parts Transportation C 16.0 d 242 Training & commissioning d 123 User-defined Contingencies Interest during construction Show data Sub-total: Total initial costs
Electricity GJ

Occupied Occupied 21.0 24.0 Unit Quantity Unit cost Amount Relative costs Unoccupied Unoccupied Unoccupied Unoccupied Unoccupied RETScreen Emission Reduction Analysis - Energy efficiency measures project 3.0 cost $ Occupied Occupied Occupied Occupied Occupied Emission Analysis $ 0.0% h/d h/d h/d h/d h/d 18.0 cost $ RETScreen Financial Analysis - Energy efficiency measures project Method 1 18.0
Finan cial pa ram eters 18.0 Method 2 Genera l 18.0 Method 3 cost Fuel c os t es c alation rate 18.0 Inflation rate 18.0 Disc ount rate 18.0 Project life 6,570 0 0 0 Base case system GHG summary (Baseline) 75% 0% 0% 0% Finan ce

Notes/Range Schedule 3 Schedule 4 Schedule 5 Second currency Notes/Range Occupied Occupied Occupied Cost allocation

Schedule 6

Second currency

None

$ $ $

0 0%

% % % yr

Show : Fuel saved Heating sys tem Boiler Cooling system Air-c onditioning Building envelope Appartment building Ventilation Lights Electrical equipment Hot water Other Total

Heating Cooling Annual costs (credits) GJ GJ 0 2,686

CO2 em$ ission $ % $ factor $ $ kg/GJ $ $ % 60,000 $ yr $/y r 60,000 $ Enter number of months $ $ 60,000 tax Increm entalcase system GHG sumInco me (Energy efficiency m easures project) Fuel cost Increm entalana lysis Include Proposed mary tive income tax rate Effec %
Incentives and grants Debt ratio Debt Fuel m ix Equity % Debt 100.0% interes t rate Debt term $ 100.0% Debt pay ments $

% project p-d Fuel type cost Natural gas % Total

Project costs and savings/incom e sum m ary 21 Initial costs Feas ibility s tudy 0.0%310 Developm 0.0% 0.0% ent Engineering 0.0% Power s ys tem 0.0% 60,000 100.0% s y stem Heating 0.0% Cooling sy stem 0.0% User-defined 0.0% CH4 -emission N2O em ission Energy efficiency measures 100.0% factor 0 Balance factor & misc . of s y stem 0.0% kg/GJ60,000 Total initial costs kg/GJ 100.0%

0.0%

Global w arming potential of GHG


Yea rly ca CH4 tonnes CO2 = 1 tonne sh flows $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

(IPCC 1996) (IPCC 1996)$


-60,000 29,232 29,817 30,413 31,022 31,642 After -tax Cum ulative $ -60,000 -30,768 -951 29,463 60,484 92,126 124,401 157,321 190,900 225,150 260,086 295,720 332,066 369,140 406,955 445,527 484,869 524,999 565,931 607,682 650,268 693,706 738,012 783,205 829,301 876,320 924,279 973,196 1,023,093 1,073,987 1,125,899 1,178,849 1,232,858 1,287,948 1,344,139 1,401,454 1,459,916 1,519,546 1,580,370 1,642,409 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690 1,705,690

2.0% 2.0% 12.0% 40

tonnes CO20= 1 tonne N2O #


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Yea r

Pre-tax $ -60,000 29,232 29,817 30,413 31,022 31,642

Incentives and grants 0 Annu al costs and de bt pa ym ents 0.0% O&M 100.0% os t - propos ed c ase Fuel c Debt pay ments - 0 yrs Total annua l co sts Periodic costs (cr edits)

Fuel 60,000 consumption 0 MW h 60,000 1,668 0 1,668


0 35,419 0 35,419

GHG emission 6 32,275 32,275 factor 32,920 GHG emission 7 32,920 8 tCO2/MW h 33,579 tCO2 33,579 9 34,250 34,250 0.179 299 10 34,935 34,935 0.179 299 11 35,634 35,634
12 13 14 15 16 17 GHG 18 36,347 37,074 37,815 38,571 39,343 40,130 emission 40,932 36,347 37,074 37,815 38,571 39,343 40,130 40,932

$/tCO2

0.00

O&M O&M (savings) costs Parts & labour User-defined 0 Contingencies Sub-total: 0 Fuel cost - proposed case Natural gas Sub-total:

initial costs $

Unit

savings $

0 Fuel type 0

project 0 project Natural gas cost %0 Total


28,659

60,000

Los s No Quantity carry forward? cost Unit Amount $ yr Dec lining balanc Deprec iation method CO2 em ission CH4 emissione Half-y ear rule - y ear 1 y es /no Yes Fuel m ix factor factor $ Deprec iation tax bas is % 0 % kg/GJ kg/GJ $ Deprec iation rate % Deprec iation period yr 15 $ 100.0% 0 Tax holiday available? y es /no No $ - $ 100.0% Tax holiday duration yr $ Annu al inco me

O&M savings

Simple payback

measure?

$ $ $ $

N2O em ission factor kg/GJ

End of projec t life - c os t Annu al savin gs a nd incom e T&D t - bas e Fuel c oslosses c as e Elec tric ity ex port inc om e GHG reduction inc om e - 0 y rs Cus tomer premium inc ome (rebate) Other inc ome (c os t) - yrs CE produc tion income - y rs Total annua l saving s an d incom e

$ $ $

Fuel consumption MW h 922 922

0 0 0

2.1

Electr port m 88,546 GHG emission reduction summ ary icity ex $

incom e 0.400 Elec tric ity ex ported to grid Elec tric ity ex port rate Elec tric ity ex port inc om e

$ $

35,419
MW h 35,419 $/MW h $ 0 0.00 0

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

64,078 0 0 0 0

19 41,751 20 tCO2/MW h 42,586 21 43,438 0.179 22 44,306 0.179 23 45,193 Total 24 46,096 25 47,018 26 47,959 27 48,918 28 49,896 29 50,894 30 51,912 GHG credits 31 52,950 transaction54,009 fee 32 % 55,089 33 34 56,191 35 57,315 36 58,461 37 59,631 38 60,823 not used 39 62,040 40 63,281 41 0 42 0 43 0 44 0 45 0 46 0 47 0 48 0 49 0 50 0

factor

GHG emission 41,751 tCO2 42,586 43,438 165 44,306 165 45,193 165 46,096
47,018 47,959 48,918 49,896

Fina ncia l Ana lysis Fina ncia l para me ters Inflation rate Project life Debt ratio Debt interest rate Debt term Initia l costs Incremental initial costs Other Tota l initia l costs Ince ntives a nd gra nts Annual costs a nd debt pa ym e nts O&M (savings) costs Fuel cost - proposed case Debt payments - 10 yrs Other Tota l a nnua l costs Annual savings a nd income Fuel cost - base case Electricity export income Other Tota l a nnua l sa vings a nd incom e Fina ncia l viability Pre-tax IRR - equity Pre-tax IRR - assets Simple payback Equity payback % yr % % yr 2.0% 20 70% 7.00% 10

Annual savings Fuel cost - base case 2,686 0 Natural gas Sub-total:
Show data Periodic costs (credits) User-defined

Quantitytric ity ex portUnit costBase case Amount Elec Years of es calation rate % Proposed case occurrence GHG emission GHG emission redu n 60,000 efficiency measures GHG 0 ctio$ incom e 2.09 tCO2 28,659 m 160,194 0.400 $ 64,078tCO2 Energy yr tCO2/y r 0 $ 64,078 165 Net GHG to -1 tCO2/y r 134 project 1 reduction 299
Net GHG reduction - 40 y rs tCO2 5,342 GHG $/tCO2 Unit Year reduction credit rate Unit cost Amount GHG reduction inc om e $ cost $ GHG Net annual GHG emission reductionreduction credit duration cost savingsy r Proposed case Fuel 134 $ Net GHG reduction - 0 yrs tCO2 GHG reduction credit esc alation rate $ % cost Fuel Fuel cost

Unit

Summary

Finan cial via bility Pre-tax IRR - equity Pre-tax IRR - as sets After-tax IRR - equity is equivalent to After-tax IRR - ass ets Simple payback Equity pay back

Gross annual 0 64,078 GHG emission reduction tCO2 134


50.7% 50.7%

Net annual 50,894 51,912 GHG emission 52,950 reduction 54,009 tCO2 55,089 56,191 134
57,315 58,461 59,631 60,823 62,040 63,281 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

% %

$ $ $ $

4,000,000 4,000,000

100.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0%


14,000,000

Fuel type Natural gas Total

Fuel Fuel consumption - End of project life Fuel rate unit m $ 0.400

Base case Fuel consumption 160,194.2

-tCO2 -

27.2

% 50.7% Cars & light trucks % yr yr $ $/y r 50.7% 2.1 2.0 225,387 27,340 4.76 No debt -791.21 ( 205)

$ $

Fuel cost 64,078 64,078

consumption 88,546.3

$ $

Cum ula tive ca sh flow s graph

Project verification Fuel type Natural gas

Fuel consumption unit m Heating GJ 4,204 2,324 1,880 44.7%

Fuel consumption historical

Fuel consumption Base case 160,194.2 Electricity GJ 0 0 0

Fuel consumption variance

Fuel cost Custom er pre mium Fuel saved te) in com e (reba 35,419 71,647.8 Elec tric ity premium (rebate) Elec tric ity premium inc om e (rebate) 35,419 Heating premium (rebate) Heating premium inc om e (rebate) Cooling prem ium (rebate) Cooling prem ium income (rebate) Cus tomer premium inc ome (rebate)
Othe r incom e (cost) Energy Rate Other inc ome (c os t) Duration Esc alation rate Cle an Ener gy (CE) pr oduction incom e CE produc tion CE produc tion c redit rate CE produc tion income CE produc tion c redit duration CE produc tion c redit es calation rate

$ $

savings % 28,659 $ 28,659


% $ % $ $

0 0 0 0

Net Present Value (NPV) Annual life cy c le savings Benefit-Cos t (B-C) ratio Debt s ervic e c overage Energy produc tion c os t GHG reduction cos t Cum ulative cash flo ws g raph

$/MW h $/tCO 2

Cum ulative cash flows ($)

$ $ $ $ $

0 398,657 451,217

12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 0 -2,000,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Energy Energy - base case Energy - proposed case Energy saved Energy saved - % Benchmark Energy unit Reference unit User-defined Benchmark Energy Energy - base case Energy - proposed case Energy saved

Cooling GJ 0 0 0

Total GJ 4,204 2,324 1,880 44.7%

MW h $/MW h $ yr % MW h $/k Wh $ yr % Ene rgy deliver ed (MWh ) 922

1,800,000

1,600,000 922 1,400,000 0 1,200,000 Cum ulative cash flows ($)

kWh m m Heating kWh/m 155.7 86.1 69.6

7,500 2,000 Cooling kWh/m 0.0 0.0 0.0 Electricity kWh/m 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total kWh/m 155.7 86.1 69.6

1,000,000

$ $ $ $

0 788,400 788,400

Fue l type 1 Natural gas 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 # # # # # # # # #

Cle an ener gy Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

800,000

600,000

400,000

200,000

% % yr yr

34.6% 12.3% 5.4 3.2

0 0 -200,000 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

Yea r

Yea r

Project Example 1: Grid Projects


Landfill gas fuelled power plant using a lean-burn engine  Bergen, Norway  1.3 MW  US$ 0.03/kWh  37% efficiency
Power plant in Bergen, Norway 1.3 MW Lean-Burn Engine

Photo credit: CADDET Centre for Renewable Energy

Photo credit: CADDET Centre for Renewable Energy

Project Example 2: Off-grid


3.6 kW Photovoltaic Power System  6 households  Syrian Arab Republic  Peak load 2.4 kW  Average daily load 8.4 kWh  Installed cost of PV: US$ 6,500 per kWp for array plus US$ 17,000 for other equipment and installation  Competing genset: US$ 1,000 but consumes 13,400 L of diesel per year
Photo credit: Binu Parthan, IT Power India Ltd.

Village PV System, Syria

Questions?

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