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Architecture

Another Historical Source

Another Historical Source




Buildings of all kinds have their own stories: their planning, construction, occupation, changing uses, site of events Buildings also are constructed in particular styles unique to their times and location but also with an eye to their functions

Architectural Styles


Buildings may go through many changes of use over time but their architectural style is usually based on their original use (with later modifications possible) Uses: Religious (e.g., churches, temples) Royalty & Nobility (e.g., palaces, castles) Public (e.g., parliament, hotel, theatre, museum) Domestic (e.g., townhouse, apartment) Commercial (e.g., market, department store, stoa, office tower) Industrial (e.g., factory, warehouse)

Architectural Styles


Reading architectural styles entails the observation of details:


 Materials , Columns & Capitals, Arches, Roofs & Gables, Vaults, Domes, Towers, Doors & Porches, Windows, Stairways, Chimneys & Fireplaces, Ornamentation

By looking at these pieces and putting them together you can identify the architectural style within the context of location

Architectural Styles


Let s learn about a few architectural styles you re likely to encounter during the study of history and then see if you can identify them from photographs.

Romanesque (circa 800-1100) 800

A medieval effort to capture the power of the Roman Empire Characterized by a massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin or semisemi-circular vaults, sometimes with large towers and decorative arcading. Often have a dark quality Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of a very regular, symmetrical plan (e.g., cruciform or Latin cross floorplans) so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity Identified all across Europe . Remarkably consistent in style; Pre-cursor to the Gothic Prestyle Used mostly in the building of castles and especially churches

Gothic (circa 1150-1500) 1150

Characterized by the pointed or ogival arch; rectangular or trapezoidal vaults; flying buttresses; vertical and height emphasis. Also characterized by the abundance of light through windows; detailed ornamentation; sense of majesty Identified all across Europe with some regional variations. French, German and Belgian styles emphasized height while English Gothic emphasized expansive horizontal lines as well. Islamic influences can also be found. Follower of the Romanesque style and preprecursor to Renaissance architecture

Renaissance (circa 1420-1650) 1420

Initially the Italian rejection of the elaborate Gothic style Reincorporated orders & pediments, strong horizontal entablatures, flat ceilings and Greek or Roman motifs Very symmetrical Simpler style in Italy than elsewhere in Europe. Less adherence to the rules beyond Italy (e.g., England often combined Gothic and Renaissance styles)

Baroque (circa 1545-1650) 1545

A sub-group of Renaissance architecture subthat adopted the humanist ideals of the movement Renaissance architecture placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of Classical antiquity particularly Ancient Rome. Renaissance architecture included orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules. The baroque style was directly related to the Counter-Reformation in the Catholic CounterChurch. It was theatrical is style demonstrating intensity, drama, colour, light and shade, sculpture and painting.

What style is it?

What style is it?

What style is it?

What style is it?

Other Student Activities




Have students:
 Research an architectural style and report on it with examples (explore lesser known styles: Indian, Chinese, Japanese, etc.)  Identify important buildings and research significant inhabitants or events throughout history  Choose a local building are research its style and history  Identify the function of buildings and explain how the form is appropriate  Build replicas of buildings or towns they are studying in history (use diverse materials)

Architeacher
 

Architectural Styles Architecture and Aesthetics Recycling Buildings Maintaining the Unique Quality of a Community Community Planning: Understanding the Built Environment
(note links to Sensory, Formal, Technical and Expressive Elements)