PROJECT REPORT Organization Behaviour


Get to understand what is meant by Personality. Look at personality theories,  Different methods for measuring personality, Describe some personality characters, Habits of effective people in organizations, Managerial issues regarding individual differences in organizations, and  Organization-based personality characteristics.

Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual.It¶s a broad amorphous designation relating to fundamental approaches of persons to others and themselves.  It¶s like a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his/her behaviour toward goal achievement.

Several factors influence the shaping of our personality.Major among these are; ‡ Hereditary, ‡ Culture, ‡ Family background, ‡ Our experiences through life, ‡ The people we interact with,and also ‡ Genetic factors.

it viewed personality as revolving around attempts to identify and label permanent characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.1. ‡ Shyness. Traits Theory  The traditional approach of understanding personality was to identify and describe personality in terms of traits. In other words. ‡ Aggressiveness.  Popular characteristics or traits include. .

Cont. ‡ Laziness. ‡ Ambition.. ‡ Submissiveness. are called personality traits. and ‡ Timidity. ‡ Loyalty. when they are exhibited in a large number of situations.  This distinctiveness. .

 The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations.Cont. the more important that trait is in describing the individual .

the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts.2.  Many of Freud¶s ideas have become part and parcel of every day usage. and early childhood experience on a person. The Psychoanalytic Perspective Theory  Founded by Sigmund Freud. art. psychiatry and films.  This theory has been very influential not only in psychology but also in literary circles. . this theory emphasizes the influence of the unconscious.

He used free association to help his patients recover forgotten memories.  Freud discovered that mind is like an iceberg and we have limited conscious awareness. His theory developed in the course of his observations of his patients. self analysis.  Freud started his career as a neurologist.Cont.  Freud proposed that psychological forces operate at three levels of awareness. as well as. .

 Preconscious level: It contains information of which one is not currently aware. and sensations that one is aware of at he present moment. It. however. however. drives etc. feelings. wishes. they can easily enter conscious mind. . feelings. of which we are not aware.  Unconscious level: It consists of thought. influences our conscious level of activity.  Conscious level: The thoughts.Cont.

Interpretation of dreams and free association were used for analysis of the three levels of awareness.  Freud thought that unconscious material often seeks to push through to the conscious level in a disguised manner. It may be in a distorted manner and or it may take a symbolic form.Cont. .

To this end he proposed three structures which interact with each other. personality arises in the course of our effort to resolve the conflicts. .  Thus.  They include.Personality Structure  Freud believed that human personality emerges due to a conflict between our aggressive and pleasure seeking biological impulses and the internalized social restraints against them.

a). It is the primitive part immune to morality and demands of the external world. irrational part of personality. It operates on the pleasure principle.  It seeks immediate satisfaction. .Id  It is the unconscious.

 It teaches the person to balance demands of external world and needs of the person.Ego  It is involved with the workings of the real world.b). and rational part of personality that regulates thoughts and behaviors. It operates on the reality principle. It is the conscious. .

 Failing up to moral ideals bring about the shame. good or bad. .  It judges one¶s behaviors as right or wrong. It works as the voice of conscience. guilt. that compels the ego to consider not only the real but also the ideal.Super Ego  It is the internal representation of parental and societal values. inferiority and anxiety in the person.c).

Personality Development  Freud reached at a conclusion that personality development occurs through a sequence of psychosexual stages.  In these stages the Id¶s pleasure seeking tendency focuses on different areas of body. .

The Social Cognitive Perspective Theory  This perspective was developed by Albert Bandura. It views behaviour as influenced by the interaction between persons and the social context.  It is proposed that our thoughts and actions originate in the social world but it is essential to note that human beings have capacity for selfregulation and engage in active cognitive processes.3. .

Cont.  Their interrelationships are shown below. Cognitive factors Behavioural factors Environment al factors .

.  The theory is based on laboratory research. abilities and attitudes as represented in one¶s self-system. However.  Bandura developed the concept of self efficacy which incorporates a person¶scognitive skills. Selfefficacy indicates the degree to which one is convinced of the abilities and effectiveness in meeting the demands of a particular situation.Cont. the theory ignores the unconscious factors which may influence behaviour.

 The theory also emphasizes the rational side of life while ignoring the emotional side. .  The cognitive-social theory brings into focus the role of thought and memory in personality.Conti. We often find that the expectations and skills learned by people are very important in determining behaviours.

also known as the third force. . The Humanistic Perspective Theory  These theories propose that within each individual is an active creative force. often called ³self´. It views human beings as innately good. This force seeks expression. It develops and grows.4. emphasizes on human potential and characteristics like self-awareness and free will.  The conscious and subjective perception of self is considered very important.  This perspective.

.  Abraham Maslow proposed the idea of self actualized people.Conti. He proposed that human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of needs.  Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the main proponents of the humanistic perspective. organized from physiological needs to self transcendence.

are creative. easily accept self and others. . and enjoy and appreciate positive aspects of life.Conti. are spontaneous. It is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism. like privacy and independence.  Carl Rogers thinks that the basic human motive is actualizing tendency.  Maslow notes that the self actualized people have realistic perception. Rogers observed that people are motivated to act in accordance with their self concept.

 They deny or distort the experiences that are contrary to their self-concept. It holds an optimistic view of human beings.Conti. The ideal condition for development is unconditional positive regard.  His notion of a fully functioning individual is that the self-concept is flexible and evolving. .

food. limits. security. etc. warmth. ‡ Safety needs . stability. etc. Maslow's basic needs are as follows ‡ Biological and Physiological needs . group. law. .air. relationships. from elements. affection. ‡ Belongingness and Love needs . shelter.Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs  Maslow¶s theory maintains that a person does not feel a higher need until the needs of the current level have been satisfied. etc . drink. sleep. sex.

managerial responsibility. independence. prestige.realising personal potential. ‡ Self-Actualization needs . dominance.self-esteem. achievement. seeking personal growth and peak experiences. status. self-fulfillment. mastery.Conti. . etc. ‡ Esteem needs .

. Dimensional approaches such as the Big 5 describe personality as a set of continuous dimensions on which individuals differ.MEASURING PERSONALITY  Personality tests can be scored using a dimensional (normative) or a typological (ipsative) approach.  Efforts to measure personality constructs stem from a variety of sources. Frequently they grow out of theories of personality.

and to use the score thus obtained in the assessment of and in the prediction of future behaviour.Conti. . are among the central concepts of the theory of psychoanalysis. for example. It is understandable that efforts would be made to quantify one¶s degree of anxiety. anxiety and repression (the forgetting of unpleasant experiences). for example.

questions over validity and reliability as well as the time consuming and expensive nature of such testing  The following are methods by which personality can be measured: ‡ Interviews .Conti.  Measuring and assessing individual personality traits may be useful in identifying and predicting future sporting talents from a young age  There are however.

‡ Questionnaires ‡ Observation  Interviews and Questionnaires allow an element of 'cheating' by answering questions in such a way as to influence the outcome. During observations the individual must be aware of the process as observations in secret are unethical. This however.Conti. leaves the testing open to changes in the individuals behavior as a result of being watched. .

. they can accomplish something.  When people display nice behavior.  At a further level. It is a channel through which a man expresses himself.  Behavior is superficial and comes through training. At the next level. they can create something original.PERSONALITY CHARACTERS  Character and personality are distinct levels in the evolution of the human being. when they have character. we say they are presentable. being endowed with µpersonality¶.

Conti. . The vital energies are short-lived responses to a situation. has polite manners and does not criticize anyone.  The energies for behavior come from the vital emotions. But if this is where his growth has stopped. He is very presentable in society. whereas the energies for character come from the mind. he cannot accomplish anything in the ordinary sense of the word. The ordinary man who is popular with everyone behaves well.

.Conti.  For personality.  A man with personality will be open-minded. He won¶t be bound by his opinions or have rigid preferences. for the achievement of the ideal is where it differs from character.  He will prefer what is best at that moment and be willing to change his habits if necessary. the capacity of the mind to take an idea to an idealistic level.

the pure components of personality are: ‡ In the mind -.  To sum up.steadiness and equality. ‡ In the vital -. clarity. ‡ In the heart -.conservation. understanding.Conti.perseverance and endurance for work. .presence of mind. ‡ In the will -. ‡ In the physical -. expansiveness and magnetism.

e. self mastery): ‡ Habit 1: Be Proactive Synopsis: Take initiative in life by realizing that your decisions (and how they align with life's principles) are the primary determining factor for effectiveness in your life.Habits of effective people in organizations  The First Three Habits surround moving from dependence to independence (i. . Take responsibility for your choices and the subsequent consequences that follow.

‡ Habit 3: Put First Things First Synopsis: Plan. Evaluate whether your efforts exemplify your desired character values. . and execute your week's tasks based on importance rather than urgency.Conti. Envision the ideal characteristics for each of your various roles and relationships in life. prioritize. ‡ Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind Synopsis: Self-discover and clarify your deeply important character values and life goals.

 The next three have to do with Interdependence (i. ‡ propel you toward goals.Conti.e. and enrich the roles and relationships. Value and respect people by understanding a "win" for all is ultimately a better long-term resolution than if only one person in the situation had gotten his way. working with others): ‡ Habit 4: Think Win-Win Synopsis: Genuinely strive for mutually beneficial solutions or agreements in your relationships. .

which compels them to reciprocate the listening and take an open mind to being influenced by you. respect. Then to be Understood Synopsis: Use empathetic listening to be genuinely influenced by a person.Conti. ‡ Habit 5: Seek First to Understand. This creates an atmosphere of caring. . and positive problem solving.

Conti. ‡ Habit 6: Synergize Synopsis: Combine the strengths of people through positive teamwork. and modeling inspirational and supportive leadership. Get the best performance out of a group of people through encouraging meaningful contribution. . so as to achieve goals no one person could have done alone.

and health to create a sustainable. long-term. . energy.  The Last habit relates to self-rejuvenation: ‡ Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw Synopsis: Balance and renew your resources.Conti. effective lifestyle.

endurance and perseverance in the physical. warmth and expansiveness in the heart. . independent of a second person.Conclusion  What personality requires is pure understanding.  The general endowments of personality are: pure intelligence in the mind.  If these things are there on their own. dynamism in the vital. they will include all the capacities of character.

 Mind acts according to fixed habits and preferences. Their preference is always for refined living and their habits are good habits.  Their mental constructions are of a high level of accomplishment. But they are bound by their opinions. .  There are great men of very high character.Conti.

good opinions.Conti. Ideas are potential. but personality must include the capacities of character and not be limited by them. All men of high character will have strong. strength of will.  The capacity for the mind to act on an idea gives you character.  Character cannot include personality.  Character requires understanding. and energy. perseverance. powerful and supported by the society. .

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