By Amit Sharma

What is a VPN?
A virtual network overlaid on top of the ubiquitous interconnection of the Internet and a private network for confidential communications and exclusive usage.

In a virtual private network (VPN), "virtual" implies that there is no physical network infrastructure dedicated to the private network. Instead, a single physical network infrastructure is shared among various logical networks In VPNs, various networking technologies are applied toward the goal of providing private communications within the public Internet infrastructure

Private Networks

eparate Private Networks.

Why VPNs?
Separate private networking solutions are expensive and cannot be updated quickly to adapt to changes in business requirements. The Internet is inexpensive but does not by itself ensure privacy.

The Internet

Virtual Private Networking: the collection of

technologies applied to a public network²the Internet²to provide solutions for private networking needs.



Ubiquitous Coverage - wider coverage compared with the private data network infrastructures offered by telecommunication providers Cost Reduction - based on the system's economy of scale Security ± using cryptographic technology E-Commerce - VPNs provide both interconnectivity and security.

The VPN MarketPlace
VPN Products: Hardware and Software that make VPNs possible ± A VPN gateway is a stand-alone device that enables authorized access to the protected network resources. The resources are not located on the same physical device with the VPN gateway ± A VPN client, on the other hand, is installed on the same network device it is supposed to protect. Usually, the client is a software package installed on the host computer.

The VPN MarketPlace
VPN SERVICES: Contracted VPN service Service level agreements (SLAs)



Lack of interoperability of IPSec* implementations. ???????? Lack of widely used quality of service (QoS) standards, as well as the sparse deployment of QoS-capable infrastructures Security services in support of VPNs must be constructed from additional hardware and software components as Internet infrastructure is still largely focused on providing connectivity and does not yet offer services beyond connectivity. *IPSec: Internet Security standards established by IAB

VPN Technologies

Tunneling ± using encapsulation Authentication Access Control Data Security

VPN Solutions
VPN solution consists of multiple, appropriately configured VPN devices that are placed in the appropriate locations within the network. VPN Gateway Interface

The VPN client is software used for remote access for a single computer or user. VPN Network and Service Management.

VPN Vendors
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP): utilizing Cisco Systems´ Layer-2 Forwarding and Microsoft¶s Point-o-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) ± Supports IP, IPX, AppleTalk, frame relay, ATM, S.25 and Sonet IBM Nways Multiprotocol Routing Services (MRS), Nways Multiprotocol Access Services(MAS) and Access Integration Services(AIS) ± Supports IP, APPN,TN3270 And there are many more«««

Types of VPNs
Site to Site VPNs
± Using ISDN, Frame Relay or ATM ± Designed to replace a WAN

Remote Access VPNs
± Using the Internet ± Provide remote access to mobile or branch employees

Site-to-Site VPN
VPNs Based on ISDN, Frame Relay or ATM

Site-to-Site VPN vs WAN

Remote Access VPN
VPNs Based on IP Tunnels/ Internet VPNs

What are the costs?
Monthly Cost Savings for Site-to-Site VPN
800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0

Cost Savings $$


134055 0 2000 4000 6000 Number of users

Using the Cisco website calculator a comparison of three scenarios was made. Not for small enterprises!!




Integration of VPN and firewall functions into a single device. Incorporating routing and quality of service features into the VPN device will make it even more versatile and more attractive to businesses. Adding intelligence to the network ± Currently the routers and switches merely forward the packets without knowing what is inside them or how to process them accordingly. ??


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