EARLY EMBRYOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

Oral Histology Dent 206 Dr Ashraf Shaweesh

IntraIntra-uterine stages
Pre Pre-embryonic (proliferative period) 
   0 ± 2 weeks Fertilization Implantation Bilaminar embryonic disc 

Embryonic 
2 ± 8 weeks  Different types of tissues develop  Formation of organ systems 

Fetal 
8 weeks until birth  Increase in body wt & size

PrePre-embryonic period (1st week) 
Fertilization 
zygote, 0.1-0.2 mm 0.1 Cleavage (Mitotic) divisions 
2 cell (blastomere) stage  4 cell stage  12-16 cell stage (morula, 0.1120.10.2mm) 

Blastocyst
100100-150 cells, 0.1-0.2 mm 0.1Blastocoel Zona pellucida Inner cell mass  embryo proper  Outer cell mass  Future trophoblast  Attachment  Implantation    

PrePre-embryonic period (2nd week) Bilaminar Embryo 
Inner cell mass becomes 2 layered
disc (7-12 days) (7 Embryonic Epiblast  Columnar cells  Face the cytotrophoblast  Future ectoderm  Embryonic hypoblast  Flattened cells  Face the blastocoel  Future endoderm 

Amniotic cavity  Exocoelomic membrane 
Continuous with endoderm  With endoderm enclose: 

Primitive yolk sac (exocoelomic cavity)  Still 0.1-0.2 mm 0.1-

Bilaminar embryo 
Extra-embryonic Extramesoderm 
From cytotrophoblasts  Secondary yolk sac  Connecting stalks 

Placental circulation
established

Embryonic period (3rd week) 
Prochordal (cephalic) plate 
Slight thickening of endoderm  Indicates the future head end  Buccopharyngeal membrane later 

Caudal end (cloacal

membrane)  Intra-embryonic mesoderm Intra Appears from ectoderm at 17 days  Rounding up toward caudal midline  Spreading between ectoderm and endoderm  Formation leaves  Primitive streak  Primitive (Hensen¶s) node

Trilaminar embryo (Gastrula) 

Three germ layers 
Ectoderm  Mesoderm  Endoderm 

Primitive streak & node  Notochordal process 
   BlindBlind-ended tube From primitive node Up to the prochordal plate Progenitor of the backbone and the vertebral column 

Mesoderm separates
ectoderm & endoderm except in 
Prochordal plate  Notochord  Cloacal membrane

Germ layers 
These cells are considered pluripotent: each is capable of pluripotent:
producing descendants representing all of the hundreds of differentiated cell types

Ectoderm

Mesoderm
Bone & Muscle

Endoderm
Lingual tonsils

Skin and appendages Oral and anal mucosa Linings of nose and sinuses Enamel Nervous system Pituitary & mammary glands Lens of the eye

Connective tissue All dental tissues except enamel Lymphatic tissue & spleen Blood cells, heart & lungs Reproductive system Excretory system

Linings of lungs Digestive system Linings of excretory system

Notochordal process 
From the primitive knot,    

mesoblastic cells migrate toward the prochordal plate Acts as a template for the notochord Cannot go through the prochordal plate Some cells migrate around the prochordal plate (cardiogenic area) In prochordal plate, the embryonic endoderm and ectoderm layers are fused

Further development 
Notochord 
Fusion with endoderm  Rounding up and separation from endoderm 

Mesoderm 
Paraxial mesoderm (Somites)  Pairs on each side of
notochord  Cuboidal masses, mould the ectodermal surface  42 ± 45 pairs by the end of 5th week 

Intermediate mesoderm  Urinary system  Adrenal cortex  Much of reproductive system  Lateral plate mesoderm

Further development 
Lateral plate mesoderm 
More widespread than somites  Spreads cephalic (ahead) to prochordal plate 

Intraembryonic coelom 
Forms by coalescence of vacuoles within lateral plate mesoderm  U shaped  Anterior part  Primitive pericardial cavity  Cephalic (ahead) to primitive

pericardial cavity lies what will become septum transversum in which liver later develops 

Lateral part is primitive pleural & peritoneal cavities

Somites 
Differentiation of somites 
Dermatome  Dermis of the skin  Lamina propria of oral mucosa  Myotome  Vertebral musculature  Intercostal musculature  Some limb musculature  Sclerotome  Vertebrae, ribs and sternum 

Head somites 
Prootic somites (3 pairs)  Myotome - eye muscles  Metotic (occipital) somites  Myotome of 3rd -6th metotic somites ± tongue
muscles

Neurulation 
Formation of CNS 
Neural plate: thickened mass forms in plate: the overlying ectoderm. and becomes known as the  Neural groove  A crease or fold soon appears in this
plate  Rapidly deepens - precursor of the embryo¶s CNS, the first organs to develop 

Neural folds: arch over and fuse with folds: each other at several points along the length of the neural tube  Neural tube: ³zippered closed´ as by the neural folds, concomitant with the budding somites  Anterior & posterior neuropores  The entire embryo is lengthening as this happens

Neural crest 
Junction of neural plate with ectoderm  Unite then pinched off as neural tube separates from ectoderm  Neural crest cells migrate within mesoderm 

So far embryo is 1.5-3 1.5mm

Neural crest 
Ectomesenchyme tissue in head region  Dermis of head region  All dental tissue except enamel  Branchial arches 
Skeleton  Part of musculature 

Pigment cells 
Melanocytes 

   

Meninges Spinal & cranial nerve ganglia Sympathetic & parasympathetic systems Adrenal medulla Schwann cells

Folding of embryonic plate 
Embryonic plate bulges upwards into amniotic cavity  Folding turns the plate into a portion of a spheroid  Causes 
Most of growth happens in the upper surface  Neural tube growth exceeds that of the rest of the embryonic plate 

Consequences 
Buccopharyngeal & cloacal membranes  Folded under cephalic & caudal ends, respectively  Their ventral surfaces become dorsal  Part of the yolk sac becomes incorporated in the embryo as foregut, midgut and hindgut  Primitive pericardial cavity lies beneath the foregut  The most cephalic lateral plate mesoderm (septum transversum) lies caudal to the pericardial cavity in which liver will form

Folding

Development of epithelial structures 
Epidermis ± surface ectodermal cells  Dermis ± underlying mesoderm of somites  Ectodermal cells thicken into 4 layers by 11-12 11weeks 
Basal layer ± superficial layer of epithelium  Melanocytes invade epidermis 

Structures developing from a combination of
dermal and epidermal tissues 
Mammary, sebaceous, salivary glands  Teeth, nails, hair

Development of connective tissue 
CN develop from somites as migrating from
either side of neural tube  Somite 
Sclerotome  Medial portion ± mesenchymal cells 
Osteoblasts, chondroblasts, fibroblasts 

Myotome  Skeletal muscles  Smooth muscles & mesenteries  Dermatome  Dermis  Visceral mesoderm ± lamina propria of GIT

Development of cartilage & bone 
Cartilage is the initial skeletal component 
Functions in supporting the soft embryo  Maintains its 3-D configuration 3- 

Cartilage migrate to surround notochord froming spinal
column  Cartilage growth 
Appositional ± new layers on the surface  Interstitial ± proliferation & expansion of cells 

Hyaline ± elastic ± fibrous cartilage  Bone formation 
Intramembranous  Endochondral  E.g. long bone

EndoEndo-chondral bone Formation
Deposition of bone matrix on a pre-existing cartilage matrix pre-

Mesenchymal tissue

Cartilage

Bone

The primary transitional cartilage is a hyaline cartilage whose shape resembles a small version of the bone to be formed

IntraIntra-membranous Bone Formation
Direct mineralisation of matrix secreted by osteoblasts

Mesenchymal tissue
(Condensed)

Bone

Epiphyseal growth
EndoEndo-chondral ossification in a long bone Intra Intra-membranous bone collar forms within the perichondrium of the cartilage model Cartilage degeneration (by hypertrophy) and calcification starting at the central portion of diaphysis Blood vessels penetration bringing osteoblasts Continuous primary bone deposited over calcified cartilage Calicified cartilage resorbed by giant mutinucleated cells Primary ossification center Secondary ossification centers at the epiphyses in a similar pattern In secondary ossification centers cartilage remains in 2 regions 
The articular cartilage  Protection and mobility  The epiphyseal plate  Growth until closure at 20 ys 

     

Development of muscle 
By 10th week, myoblasts migrate from
myotomes  Muscle 
Skeletal  Smooth  Cardiac

Development of CVS 
Originate from angioblasts  Angioblasts are from angiogenic clusters in the walls of
the yolk sac  Angiogenic clusters 
Outer cells ± elongating tubes  Inner cells ± blood cells 

Nutrition of embryo 
At first - vatelline vascular system  Then ± umbilical vascular system 

Hearts beats by 4th week 
Starts as a tube ± internal partitioning  An opening between atria remain until birth

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