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Initials And surname CA Oosthuizen BG Douberendt CT Hitchcock CF Jacobs Student number 210002786 210019891 210503459 209503467
Table of contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Definition of PFC Theory Behind PFC Power Triangle Improving PF Disadvantages of PFC Advantages of PFC Methods of PFC PFC Example Conclusion
The ideal power factor is 1. Power Factor correction therefore is the adjustment of the power factor of a system to the desired typical industrial power factor of 0. Power factor correction is usually done by adding capacitance to the system.8.Definition of PFC Power factor is simply a name given to the ratio of active power to the power which is apparently being drawn from the mains. .65-0.
In these purely resistive circuits. Resistive Loads Devices containing only resistance e. heaters. 1. the current and voltage sine wave peaks occur simultaneously and are said to be in phase . The power factor is therefore unity or 1. The current drawn from the supply is directly converted into heat or light.Theory behind PFC Two basic categories of load are encountered in alternate current (AC) networks. incandescent lamps. .g.
Pure Resistive Load .
The current drawn from the supply is made up of two separate kinds of current power producing current and magnetizing current . Inductive Loads In AC motors and transformers a permanent magnet cannot be used and the necessary magnetism is produced by electrical means. In inductive circuits the current and voltage sine wave peaks occur 90° apart and are said to be out of phase . . 2. Having produced the magnetic force. the current flows back to the power station again.
Pure Inductive load .
What does Cos mean? .
Power Triangle KVA Apparent Power KVAR Inductive reactive Power KW Active power .
By careful selection of capacitance required. . In this instance. Capacitors on the other hand produce capacitive reactive power. which is the exact opposite of inductive reactive power. all inductive loads produce inductive reactive power (lagging by a phase angle of 90°). As stated previously.Improving Power Factor The most practical and economic power factor improvement device is the capacitor. the current peak occurs before the voltage peak. it is possible totally cancel out the inductive reactive power when placed in circuit together. leading by a phase angle of 90°.
Phasor diagram of PFC Cos 1 Cos 2 Capacitor kVAr Required .
transformers and distribution lines within a plant. Reduces load handling capability of the plants electrical system .Disadvantages of Low Power Factor Increased authorities cost since more current has to be transmitted Causes overloaded generators. resulting in greater voltage drops and power losses. all representing waste. inefficiency and needless wear and tear on industrial electrical equipment.
etc. Improved starting torque of motors Reduce fuel requirements to generate power due to lower losses. transformers.Advantages of Low Power Factor Reduced kVA charges Improved plant efficiency Additional loads can be added to the system Reduced overloading of cables. . switchgear.
Types of PFC Synchronous condensers Phase advancers Static capacitors .
Phase advancers are mounted on the shaft of the main rotor. By providing more Ampere-turns than needed the motor can be made to run on leading current. Thus improving the PF .Power Factor Correction using phase advancers Phase advancers are used to improve the PF of induction motors.
. An over excited synchronous motor running on no load is known as a synchronous condenser.Power Factor Correction using synchronous Condensers A synchronous motor takes leading current when over excited. therefore behaving like a capacitor.
group power factor correction. automatic power factor correction.Power Factor Correction using Capacitors According to the location modalities of the capacitors. combined power factor correction. . the main methods of power factor correction are: distributed power factor correction. centralized power factor correction.
Calculations of PFC .
Calculate kVAR? Calculate amount of capacitance in kVAR needed to correct to a 0. Power Factor is 0.Power Factor example Facility has peak demand of 1000 kW Load.9 PF. How much is capacitance in microfarads? .707 lagging.
Power waves before PFC .
Combined power triangle .
Power waves after PFC .
759 microfarads Note: 480 volts was the assumed voltage. .Capacitance needed C = ( kVAR×103) / (2 f ) (kV)2 = ( 500 ×103) / (2 60 ) (0.480)2 = 5.
480 ×1.What is the reduction in amps supplied by the utility? kVA before was 1414 kVA after pf correction is 1111 Reduced kVAis 303 kVA Reduced amps is 303 / ( 0.732 ) = 364 amps .
Power factor correction pays for itself in time . Theoretical data refers to the reducing of reactive current and practical calculations proved the theory.Conclusion Power factor correction proves to be more advantageous to both consumer and supplier.