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SOCIOLOGY
Richard T. Schaefer

Socialization

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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4. Socialization
The Role of Socialization The Self and Socialization Socialization and the Life Course Agents of Socialization Social Policy and Socialization

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Role of Socialization


Social Environment:The Impact of Isolation
Interaction of heredity and environment shape human development
The Case of Isabelle Primate Studies

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Role of Socialization


The Influence of Heredity
Studies of Identical Twins
Intelligence tests show: Similar scores when twins are reared apart in roughly similar social settings

Quite different scores when twins are reared apart in dramatically different social settings

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Sociological Approaches to the Self
Self: distinct identity that sets us apart from others Cooley: Looking-Glass Self
We learn who we are by interacting with others Our view of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and our impressions of how others perceive us The self is the product of our social interactions with other people
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Sociological Approaches to the Self
Mead: Stages of the Self
Play Stage: children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role Game Stage: children of taking occurs about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasksPreparatory Stage: children and relationships simultaneously people around them. imitate
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Continued...

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The Self and Socialization


Sociological Approaches to the Self Mead: Stages of the Self
Symbols: gestures, objects, and language that form basis of human communication Role Taking: process of mentally assuming the perspective of another
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Generalized Others: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that child takes into account

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Sociological Approaches to the Self Mead: Stages of the Self
Self begins as privileged, central position in a persons world As person matures, the self Significant Others: changes and begins to Individuals most reflect greater concern important in the about reactions of others development of the self

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Sociological Approaches to the Self
Goffman: Presentation of the Self
Impression Management: individual learns to slant the presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences Face-work: Need to maintain proper image of self Goffmans view sometimes called Dramaturgical to continue social interaction performers in action Approach: people resemble
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Psychological Approaches to the Self
Freud
Self is a social product, however, natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraints Personality influenced by others (especially one s parents

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The Self and Socialization


Psychological Approaches to the Self
Piaget
Piaget emphasized the stages humans progress through as the self develops. Cognitive theory of development identified 4 stages in development of children s thought processes Social interaction key to development

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


The Life Course
Rites of Passage: Means of dramatizing and validating changes in a persons status
Ceremonies mark stages of development in life course Life-course Approach: Looks closely at social factors that influence people throughout their lives

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


The Life Course
We encounter some of the most difficult socialization challenges in later years

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


Table 4-1. Theoretical Approaches to Development of the Self

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


Table 4-2. Milestones in the Transition to Adulthood

Source: T. Smith 2003

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


Anticipatory Socialization and Resocialization
Anticipatory Socialization: processes of socialization in which person rehearses future occupations and social relationships Resocialization: process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as transition in one s life
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Socialization and the Life Course


Anticipatory Socialization and Resocialization
Total Institution: institutionprison, military, mental hospital, or conventthat regulates all aspects of a persons life under a single authority
Degradation Ceremony: ritual where individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in overbearing social environment
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Family
Role of family in socializing a child cannot be overestimated Cultural Influences The Impact of Race and Gender
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Gender Roles: expectation regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
School
Teach children values and customs of the larger society Traditionally socialized children into conventional gender roles

Peer Group
As children grow older, peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead s significant others
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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Table 4-3. High School Popularity

Source: Suitor et al. 2001:445

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Mass Media and Technology
Technology socializes families into multitasking as the social norm
47% of parents reported at least one child has a TV in his/her bedroom

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Figure 4-1. Internet Usage, Ages 10 17

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation/San Jose Mercury News 2003

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Workplace
Learning to behave appropriately within occupational setting is fundamental aspect of human socialization Socialization in workplace involves four phases:
Career choice Anticipatory socialization Conditioning Continuous commitment

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agents of Socialization
Religion and State
Government and organized religion impacted life course by reinstituting some rites of passage

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Social Policy and Socialization


Child Care Around the World
The Issue
In 2002, 55% of women who had given birth the previous year were back in the labor force 35% of all preschoolers with employed mothers attend group child care programs

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Social Policy and Socialization


Child Care Around the World
The Setting
Finding the right kind of day care challenges parents and pocketbook Researchers found high-quality child care centers do not adversely affect socialization of children

McGraw-Hill

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Social Policy and Socialization


Child Care Around the World
Sociological Insights
Studies assessing quality of child care outside of home reflect micro-level of analysis favored by interactionists Functionalists study child care from perspective of macro-level analysis of the family as a social institution

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Social Policy and Socialization


Child Care Around the World
Sociological Insights
Conflict perspective notes child care costs are an especially serious burden for lower-class families Feminist perspective raises questions about the low status and wages of day care workers

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Social Policy and Socialization


Child Care Around the World
Policy Initiatives
Policies regarding child care outside of the home vary throughout the world When policymakers decide that child care is desirable, they must determine degree to which taxpayers should subsidize it

McGraw-Hill

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.