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Learning Goals

1. Understand the key assumptions, the basic concept, and the specific sources of capital associated with the cost of capital. 2. Determine the cost of long-term debt and the cost of preferred stock. 3. Calculate the cost of common stock equity and convert it into the cost of retained earnings and the cost of new issues of commons stock.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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4. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and discuss alternative weighting schemes. 5. Describe the procedures used to determine break points and the weighted marginal cost of capital (WMCC). 6. Explain the weighted marginal cost of capital (WMCC) and its use with the investment opportunities schedule (IOS) to make financing and investment decisions.

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The cost of capital acts as a link between the firms long-term investment decisions and the wealth of the owners as determined by investors in the marketplace. It is the magic number that is used to decide whether a proposed investment will increase or decrease the firms stock price. Formally, the cost of capital is the rate of return that a firm must earn on the projects in which it invests to maintain the market value of its stock.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Business Riskthe risk to the firm of being unable to cover operating costsis assumed to be unchanged. This means that the acceptance of a given project does not affect the firms ability to meet operating costs. Financial Riskthe risk to the firm of being unable to cover required financial obligationsis assumed to be unchanged. This means that the projects are financed in such a way that the firms ability to meet financing costs is unchanged. After-tax costs are considered relevantthe cost of capital is measured on an after-tax basis.

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Why do we need to determine a companys overall weighted average cost of capital?

Assume the ABC company has the following investment opportunity: - Initial Investment = $100,000 - Useful Life = 20 years - IRR = 7% - Least cost source of financing, Debt = 6% Given the above information, a firms financial manger would be inclined to accept and undertake the investment.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Why do we need to determine a companys overall weighted average cost of capital?

Imagine now that only one week later, the firm has another available investment opportunity - Initial Investment = $100,000 - Useful Life = 20 years - IRR = 12% - Least cost source of financing, Equity = 14% Given the above information, the firm would reject this second, yet clearly more desirable investment opportunity.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Why do we need to determine a companys overall weighted average cost of capital? As the above simple example clearly illustrates, using this piecemeal approach to evaluate investment opportunities is clearly not in the best interest of the firms shareholders. Over the long haul, the firm must undertake investments that maximize firm value. This can only be achieved if it undertakes projects that provide returns in excess of the firms overall weighted average cost of financing (or WACC).

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The pretax cost of debt is equal to the the yield-to-maturity on the firms debt adjusted for flotation costs. Recall that a bonds yield-to-maturity depends upon a number of factors including the bonds coupon rate, maturity date, par value, current market conditions, and selling price. After obtaining the bonds yield, a simple adjustment must be made to account for the fact that interest is a tax-deductible expense. This will have the effect of reducing the cost of debt.

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Net Proceeds

Duchess Corporation, a major hardware manufacturer, is contemplating selling $10 million worth of 20-year, 9% coupon bonds with a par value of $1,000. Because current market interest rates are greater than 9%, the firm must sell the bonds at $980. Flotation costs are 2% or $20. The net proceeds to the firm for each bond is therefore $960 ($980 - $20).

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Long-Term Debt (cont.) Before-Tax Cost of Debt The before-tax cost of debt can be calculated in any one of three ways:

Using cost quotations Calculating the cost Approximating the cost

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Long-Term Debt (cont.) Before-Tax Cost of Debt

Using Cost Quotations When the net proceeds from the sale of a bond equal its par value, the before-tax cost equals the coupon interest rate. A second quotation that is sometimes used is the yield-to-maturity (YTM) on a similar risk bond.

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Long-Term Debt (cont.) Before-Tax Cost of Debt

Calculating the Cost This approach finds the before-tax cost of debt by calculating the internal rate of return (IRR). As discussed in earlier in the text, YTM can be calculated using: (a) trial and error, (b) a financial calculator, or (c) a spreadsheet.

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Long-Term Debt (cont.) Before-Tax Cost of Debt

Calculating the Cost

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Before-Tax Cost of Debt

Calculating the Cost

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Long-Term Debt (cont.) Before-Tax Cost of Debt

Approximating the Cost

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Find the after-tax cost of debt for Duchess assuming it has a 40% tax rate:

ri = 9.4% (1-.40) = 5.6%

This suggests that the after-tax cost of raising debt capital for Duchess is 5.6%.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

11-18

Duchess Corporation is contemplating the issuance of a 10% preferred stock that is expected to sell for its $87-per share value. The cost of issuing and selling the stock is expected to be $5 per share. The dividend is $8.70 (10% x $87). The net proceeds price (Np) is $82 ($87 - $5). rP = DP/Np = $8.70/$82 = 10.6%

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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There are two forms of common stock financing: retained earnings and new issues of common stock. In addition, there are two different ways to estimate the cost of common equity: any form of the dividend valuation model, and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The dividend valuation models are based on the premise that the value of a share of stock is based on the present value of all future dividends.

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Using the constant growth model, we

rS = (D1/P0) + g

We can also estimate the cost of common equity using the CAPM:

rE = rF + b(rM - rF).

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Common Stock (cont.) The CAPM differs from dividend valuation models in that it explicitly considers the firms risk as reflected in beta. On the other hand, the dividend valuation model does not explicitly consider risk. Dividend valuation models use the market price (P0) as a reflection of the expected risk-return preference of investors in the marketplace.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Although both are theoretically equivalent, dividend valuation models are often preferred because the data required are more readily available. The two methods also differ in that the dividend valuation models (unlike the CAPM) can easily be adjusted for flotation costs when estimating the cost of new equity. This will be demonstrated in the examples that follow.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Common Stock (cont.) Cost of Retained Earnings (rE)

Constant Dividend Growth Model

rs = D1/P0 + g For example, assume a firm has just paid a dividend of $2.50 per share, expects dividends to grow at 10% indefinitely, and is currently selling for $50.00 per share. First, D1 = $2.50(1+.10) = $2.75, and rS = ($2.75/$50.00) + .10 = 15.5%.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Cost of Retained Earnings (rE)

Security Market Line Approach rs = rF + b(rM - rF). For example, if the 3-month T-bill rate is currently 5.0%, the market risk premium is 9%, and the firms beta is 1.20, the firms cost of retained earnings will be: rs = 5.0% + 1.2 (9.0%) = 15.8%.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Common Stock (cont.) Cost of Retained Earnings (rE)

The previous example indicates that our estimate of the cost of retained earnings is somewhere between 15.5% and 15.8%. At this point, we could either choose one or the other estimate or average the two. Using some managerial judgment and preferring to err on the high side, we will use 15.8% as our final estimate of the cost of retained earnings.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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Specific Sources of Capital: The Cost of Common Stock (cont.) Cost of New Equity (rn)

Constant Dividend Growth Model

rn = = D1/Nn - g Continuing with the previous example, how much would it cost the firm to raise new equity if flotation costs amount to $4.00 per share? rn = [$2.75/($50.00 - $4.00)] + .10 = 15.97% or 16%.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

The weights in the above equation are intended to represent a specific financing mix (where wi = % of debt, wp = % of preferred, and ws= % of common). Specifically, these weights are the target percentages of debt and equity that will minimize the firms overall cost of raising funds.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

One method uses book values from the firms balance sheet. For example, to estimate the weight for debt, simply divide the book value of the firms long-term debt by the book value of its total assets. To estimate the weight for equity, simply divide the total book value of equity by the book value of total assets.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

A second method uses the market values of the firms debt and equity. To find the market value proportion of debt, simply multiply the price of the firms bonds by the number outstanding. This is equal to the total market value of the firms debt. Next, perform the same computation for the firms equity by multiplying the price per share by the total number of shares outstanding.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

Finally, add together the total market value of the firms equity to the total market value of the firms debt. This yields the total market value of the firms assets. To estimate the market value weights, simply dividend the market value of either debt or equity by the market value of the firms assets .

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

For example, assume the market value of the firms debt is $40 million, the market value of the firms preferred stock is $10 million, and the market value of the firms equity is $50 million. Dividing each component by the total of $100 million gives us market value weights of 40% debt, 10% preferred, and 50% common.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC = ra = wiri + wprp + wsrr or n Capital Structure Weights

Using the costs previously calculated along with the market value weights, we may calculate the weighted average cost of capital as follows: WACC = .40(5.67%) + .10(9.62%) + .50(15.8%) = 11.13% This assumes the firm has sufficient retained earnings to fund any anticipated investment projects.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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The Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC)

The WACC typically increases as the volume of new capital raised within a given period increases. This is true because companies need to raise the return to investors in order to entice them to invest to compensate them for the increased risk introduced by larger volumes of capital raised. In addition, the cost will eventually increase when the firm runs out of cheaper retained equity and is forced to raise new, more expensive equity capital.

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The Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC)

Finding Break Points

Finding the break points in the WMCC schedule will allow us to determine at what level of new financing the WACC will increase due to the factors listed above. BPj = AFj/wj where: BPj = breaking point form financing source j AFj = amount of funds available at a given cost wj = target capital structure weight for source j

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Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

The Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC)

Finding Break Points

Assume that in the example we have been using that the firm has $2 million of retained earnings available. When it is exhausted, the firm must issue new (more expensive) equity. Furthermore, the company believes it can raise $1 million of cheap debt after which it will cost 7% (after-tax) to raise additional debt. Given this information, the firm can determine its break points as follows:

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The Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital (WMCC)

Finding Break Points

BPequity BPdebt = $2,000,000/.50 = $4,000,000 = $1,000,000/.40 = $2,500,000

This implies that the firm can fund up to $4 million of new investment before it is forced to issue new equity and $2.5 million of new investment before it is forced to raise more expensive debt. Given this information, we may calculate the WMCC as follows:

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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WACC for Ranges of Total New Financing

Range of total New Financing $0 to $2.5 million Source of Capital Debt Preferred Common Weight 40% 10% 50% Cost 5.67% 9.62% 15.80% WACC 7.00% 9.62% 15.80% WACC 7.00% 9.62% 16.00% WACC Weighted Cost 2.268% 0.962% 7.900% 11.130% 2.800% 0.962% 7.900% 11.662% 2.800% 0.962% 8.000% 11.762%

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11.76% 11.75% 11.66% 11.50% WMCC

11.25% 11.13%

$2.5

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

$4.0

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Investment Opportunities Schedule (IOS) Now assume the firm has the following investment opportunities available:

Initial Project A B C D E IRR 13.0% 12.0% 11.5% 11.0% 10.0% $ $ $ $ $ Ivestment 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 $ $ $ $ $ Cumulative Investment 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000

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13.0% 12.0% 11.66% 11.5% C This indicates that the firm can accept only Projects A & B. D $1.0 $2.0 $2.5 $3.0 $4.0

Copyright 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

A B

WMCC

11.13% 11.0%

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Table 11.4 Summary of Key Definitions and Formulas for Cost of Capital (cont.)

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Table 11.4 Summary of Key Definitions and Formulas for Cost of Capital

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Table 11.1 Calculation of the Weighted Average Cost of Capital for Duchess Corporation

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Table 11.2 Weighted Average Cost of Capital for Ranges of Total New Financing for Duchess Corporation

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