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Betty Neumans Systems Model

Health is a condition in which all parts and subparts are in harmony with the whole of the client.

METAPARADIGM

Person


an open system that works together with other parts of its body as it interact with the environment a dynamic composite of the interrelationship of five variables: (1.) physiological, (2.) psychological, (3.) sociocultural, (4.) developmental, and (5.) spiritual has protective mechanisms for the basic structure, and maintains clients system stability: (1.) flexible line of defense, (2.) normal line of defense, and (3.) lines of resistance

Flexible Line of Defense Normal Line of Defense


CORE CORE

Lines of Resistance

Health


dynamic condition equated with stability of normal line of defense Wellness exists when all the part or system of person works harmoniously

Health

Flexible Line of Defense Normal Line of Defense

CORE CORE

Lines of Resistance

Health

Environment


can be internal, external, and created force (stressors) that interacts with a persons state of health has the potential to alter or improve stability of systems

Interpersonal S Intrapersonal T Extrapersonal R


Flexible Line of Defense

S T R E

E S S Interpersonal O R S Intrapersonal
CORE CORE

S
Normal Line of Defense

S
Lines of Resistance

O R S

Extrapersonal

Nursing


a unique profession hat requires holistic approach considers all factors affecting a clients health aims to promote optimal wellness to its client through retention, attainment, or maintenance of the stability of clients system

Nursing (cont.)


nurse helps the different levels of clientele: individual, family, and groups in achieving and maintaining an optimal wellness through intervention with the goal of reducing stress factors and its adverse effects to the optimal functioning of an individual in any given situation nursing consists of intervention modalities of prevention which can be: (1.) primary, (2.) secondary, (3.) tertiary

Health

Flexible Line of Defense (Primary Prevention) Normal Line of Defense (Secondary Prevention)
CORE CORE

Lines of Resistance (Tertiary Prevention)

Health

Once an individual is exposed to stress, the flexible line of defense will be alarmed to protect the normal (solid) line of defense to keep the system free from stressor reactions. However, if this individual is continuously exposed to stress and if the flexible line of defense is unable anymore to cope up with the stressors, the normal line of defense will be altered. If this happens, there will be a threat to the wall that protects the basic structure of the individual and therefore causing instability of the systems and illness develops.

Flexible Line of Defense

Normal Line of Defense


CORE CORE

STRESSORS
(Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Extrapersonal)

Lines of Resistance

ILLNE S S

Sample Situation:
Mr. Yoso is a 38 year-old business executive. His colleagues describe him as hard working, perfectionist, and very dedicated to work. His day starts by leaving the house very early from Laguna to Makati and begins work by delegating various tasks with firm expectations and deadlines that somewhat impossible to meet. He usually responds with pressure and intimidating remarks for works not perfectly done. He smokes and drinks alcohol whenever he is stressed. Recently, the company experienced continuous dropped in their sells and his bosses started to put blame to him.

continuation
Mr. Yoso began exhibiting weird mannerisms and behaviors that appear strange to his family and people around him. He misses breakfast and lunch very often and sleeps very late at night while doing work. He has no time anymore for his family and focuses to hard on meeting deadlines and his preconceived objectives. Because of these weird changes in him, the company decided to temporarily relieve him from his position as executive manager. A week later, he started to have periods of mania and depression. His family becomes worried and called up the hospital to seek assistance after he locked himself in the room, refusing to eat, and most of the time quiet and staring blankly on the wall. Later, he developed pneumonia.

Using Neumans System Model in the above situation, the identified possible stressors that contributed to Mr. Yosos condition were as follows: work, personality, and attitude. Mr. Yoso is not anymore able to handle the stressors and that had caused the breakdown of his lines of defense. Without seeking help from his family and friends, he was not able to maintain his flexible line of defense and brought instability to his system. (The diagram on the next page shows the effect of the stress in his lines of defense and the corresponding prevention that might have or may be done to prevent illness/or complications from occurring.)

Primary Prevention: Stress management activities Relaxation techniques Anger-management techniques Smoking cessation Effects on Flexible Line of Defense: sleeps very late at night misses breakfast and lunch responds with pressure and intimidating remarks for works not perfectly done smokes and drinks alcohol whenever he is stressed

Tertiary Prevention Re-assessing patients ability to independently perform and maintain variables of health. Regular consult to psychologist. Maintaining clients support system

CORE CORE

Effects on Lines of Resistance: weakened immune response developed pneumonia

Work-related stressors

Effects on Normal Line of Defense: exhibiting weird mannerisms and behaviors periods of mania and depression

Secondary Prevention Medication (to treat symptoms) Opportunities to verbalize feelings and concerns

Health is a condition in which all parts and subparts are in harmony with the whole of the client.

Thank you!!!