Book created by: Aditya,Alefiya, Ammar, Aditya,Alefiya, Ammar, Anushka, Disha, Anushka, Disha, Nikhil and Prbhav

. Prbhav.

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Contents
Serial no.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nouns Personal Pronouns Adjectives Active and Passive Voice Subject Verb Agreement Tenses Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Assessment

Topic

Page no.
3 13 18 25 31 40 50

8.

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NOUNS
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Whatever exists, we assume, can be named, and that name is a noun.

Examples:
‡ Late last year our neighbours bought a goat. ‡Portia White was an opera singer. ‡The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes. ‡According to Plutarch, the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C. ‡Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving.
A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object and an indirect object. There are many types of nouns but we are going to learn only 3 types ; proper, common and abstract nouns.

Proper Nouns
You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun.

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In each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted:

‡The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in Halifax. ‡Beltane is celebrated on the first of May. ‡Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran.

Common Nouns
A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense - usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted:

‡According to the sign, the nearest town is 60 miles away. ‡The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moose crossing the road. ‡Many child-care workers are underpaid.
Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns, as in the following examples:

‡The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and sudden increase in their rent. ‡The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensive than meals in ordinary restaurants.
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‡Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times. ‡The Diary of Anne Frank is often a child's first introduction to the history of the Holocaust.

Abstract Nouns
An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns:

‡Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought. ‡Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood. ‡Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. ‡Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is transmitted genetically.

Collective Nouns
A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognize collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to an uncountable noun. 5

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a collective noun.

‡The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture. The collective noun "flock" takes the singular verb "spends." ‡The jury is dining on take-out chicken tonight. In this example the collective noun "jury" is the subject of the singular compound verb "is dining." ‡The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. Here the collective noun "committee" takes a singular verb, "meets." ‡The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. In this sentence the word "class" refers to students in a collective form and takes the singular compound verb "was startled."

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Exercises
A. Write down the nouns you notice.
The major thoroughfares were already lit by the new gas, but this was not the bright and even glare of the late Victorian period: the light flared and diminished ,casting a flickering light across the streets and lending to the houses and pedestrians a faintly unreal or even theatrical quality.

B. Form Abstract Nouns from the following.
scholar king know sell think beautiful wise brother lose great strong long

C. Fill in the blank s with suitable collective nouns.
1. A of birds flew high in the sky. 2. They saw a of lions at the zoo. of cattle on his farm. 3. The farmer has a 4. He ate a of grapes today.

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5. Our friend shows us a of stamps. 6. We saw a of sheep on our way home. 7. Police have arrested a of thieves. 8. She bought a of bananas from the market. of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher. 9. The 10. You can put the of tools in that box.

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PEOPLE
an army of soldiers a bevy of beauties/girls a band of musicians a band of robbers a board of directors a body of men a bunch of crooks a caravan of gypsies a choir of singers a class of pupils a class of students a company of actors a company of soldiers a congregation of worshippers a crew of sailors a crowd of spectators a crowd of people a dynasty of kings a galaxy of beautiful women a galaxy of film stars a gang of crooks a gang of labourers a gang of prisoners a gang of robbers a gang of thieves a horde of savages a host of angels a line of kings/rulers a mob of rioters a group of dancers a group of singers a pack of rascals a pack of thieves a party of friends a patrol of policemen a posse of policemen a regiment of soldiers a staff of employees a staff of servants a staff of teachers a team of players a tribe of natives a troop of scouts a troupe of artistes a troupe of dancers a troupe of performers a party of friends

THINGS
an album of autographs an album of photographs an album of stamps an anthology of poems an archipelago of islands a bale of cotton a basket of fruit a batch of bread a battery of guns a block of flats a book of exercises a book of notes a bouquet of flowers a bowl of rice a hail of bullets a hand of bananas (each a finger) a harvest of wheat/corn a heap of rubbish a heap of ruins a hedge of bushes a heap of stones a layer of soil/dirt a library of books a line of cars a list of names a mass of ruins/hair a necklace of pearls an outfit of clothes

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a bunch of bananas a bunch of flowers a bunch of grapes a bunch of keys a bundle of rags/old clothes a bundle of firewood/sticks a bundle of hay a catalogue of prices/goods a chain of mountains a chest of drawers a cluster of coconuts a cluster of grapes a cloud of dust a clump of bushes a clump of trees a collection of coins a collection of curiosities a collection of pictures a collection of relics a collection of stamps a column of smoke a comb of bananas a compendium of games a constellation of stars a cluster of diamonds a cluster of stars a clutch of eggs a crate of fruit a crop of apples a fall of rain a fall of snow a fleet of motor-cars/taxis a fleet of ships a flight of aeroplanes a flight of steps a forest of trees a galaxy of stars a garland of flowers a glossary of difficult words/phrases a group of islands a grove of trees

an orchard of fruit trees a pack of cards a pack of lies a packet of cigarettes a packet of letters a pair of shoes a pencil of rays a quiver of arrows a range of hills a range of mountains a ream of paper a reel of thread/film a roll of film/cloth a rope of pearls a row of houses a series of events a set of china a set of clubs a set of tools a sheaf of arrows a sheaf of corn a sheaf of grain a sheaf of papers a sheaf of wheat a shower of blows a shower of rain a stack of arms a stack of corn a stack of hay a stack of timber a stack of wood a stock of wood a string of beads a string of pearls a suit of clothes a suite of furniture a suite of rooms a tuft of grass a tuft of hair a wad of currency/notes a wreath of flowers

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ANIMALS
an army of ants a bevy of quail a brood/flock of chickens a catch of fish a cloud of flies a cloud of insects a cloud of locusts a colony of gulls a drove of cattle a drove of horses a flight of birds a flight of doves a flight of locusts a flight of swallows a flock of birds a flock of geese a flock of sheep a gaggle of geese a haul of fish a herd of buffaloes a herd of cattle a herd of deer a herd of elephants a herd of goats a herd of swine a hive of bees a host of sparrows a kindle of kittens a litter of cubs a litter of piglets a litter of kittens a litter of puppies a menagerie of wild animals a muster of peacocks a nest of ants a nest of mice a nest of rabbits a pack of hounds a pack of wolves a plague of insects a plague of locusts a pride of lions a school of herrings/other small a afish a school of porpoises a school of whales a shoal of fish a skein of wild geese in flight a string of horses a stud of horses a swarm of ants a swarm of bees a swarm of insects a swarm of locusts a team of horses a team of oxen a train of camels a tribe of goats a troop of lions a troop of monkeys a zoo of wild animals

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SOME ABSTRACT NOUNS«
ability adoration adventure amazement anger anxiety apprehension artistry awe beauty belief bravery brutality calm chaos charity childhood clarity coldness comfort communication compassion confidence contentment courage crime curiosity customer service death deceit dedication defeat delight democracy despair determination dexterity dictatorship disappointment disbelief disquiet disturbance education ego elegance energy enhancement enthusiasm envy evil excitement failure faith faithfulness faithlessness fascination favouritism fear forgiveness fragility frailty freedom friendship generosity goodness gossip grace graciousness grief happiness hate hatred hearsay helpfulness helplessness homelessness honesty honour hope humility humour hurt idea idiosyncrasy imagination impression improvement infatuation inflation insanity intelligence jealousy joy justice kindness knowledge laughter law liberty life loss love loyalty luck luxury maturity memory mercy motivation movement music need omen opinion opportunism opportunity pain patience peace peculiarity perseverance pleasure poverty power pride principle reality redemption refreshment relaxation relief restoration riches romance rumour sacrifice sadness sanity satisfaction self-control sensitivity service shock silliness skill slavery sleep sophistication sorrow sparkle speculation speed strength strictness stupidity submission success surprise sympathy talent thrill tiredness tolerance trust uncertainty unemployment unreality victory wariness warmth weakness wealth weariness wisdom wit worry

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS
The personal pronouns in the English language can have various forms according to gender, number, person, and case. Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on: number: singular (eg: I) or plural (eg: we). person: 1st person (eg: I), 2nd person (eg: you) or 3rd person (eg: he). gender: male (eg: he), female (eg: she) or neuter
(eg: it).

case: subject (eg: we) or object (eg: us). We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on. When we are talking about a single thing, we almost always use it. However, there are a few exceptions. We may sometimes refer to an animal as he/him or she/her, especially if the animal is domesticated or a pet. Ships (and some other vessels or vehicles) as well as some countries are often treated as female and referred to as she/her.

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In each of the following examples the pronouns representing the object is highlighted.

‡This is our dog Rusty. He's an Alsation. ‡The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage. ‡My first car was a Mini and I treated her like my wife.
We often use it to introduce a remark:

‡ It is nice to have a holiday sometimes. ‡ Is it normal to see them together?
We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:

‡ It's raining. ‡ It will probably be hot tomorrow.

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EXERCISES :
A. Use the correct personal pronouns. Watch the words in brackets.
Example: ___ often reads books. (Lisa) Answer: She often reads books. 1) ____________ is dreaming. (George) 2) ____________ is green. (the blackboard) 3) ____________ are on the wall. (the posters) 4) ____________ is running. (the dog) 5) ____________ are watching TV. (my mother and I) 6) ____________ are in the garden. (the flowers) 7) ____________ is riding his bike. (Tom) 8) ____________ is from Bristol. (Victoria) 9) ____________ has got a brother. (Diana) 10) Have ____________ got a computer, Mandy?

B. Rewrite the sentences replacing the underlined words by a personal pronouns. Don·t use contractions (aren't, isn't, he's, she's, etc)
1. Mary and I are students. Ans: _____________________________________________ 2. Melissa isn't an engineer. Melissa is an architect. Ans: _____________________________________________ 3. Bob is my classmate. Ans:__________________________________________ 15

4. My teachers are from the USA and are very experienced. Ans:_________________________________________ 5. Are Melissa and Pamela from England? Ans:_________________________________________ 6. Tommy, Bob and I are neighbors and very good friends. Ans: _____________________________________________ 7. Are you sure that Is Paul a dentist? Ans: _____________________________________________ 8. You and Fred aren't from Italy. Ans: _____________________________________________ 9. Louise is not my mother's friend. Ans: _____________________________________________ 10. Are you and I good friends? Ans: _____________________________________________

C. Fill in the correct pronouns.
1. My sister Jane loves books. This novel is for _________ . 2. My children like Disney films. The video is for __________ . 3. My brother Matt collects picture postcards. These postcards are for __________ . 4. My parents like Latin music. The CD is for __________ .

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5. I like watches. This nice watch is for __________ . 6. My wife and I love sweets. These sweets are for ___________ . 7. My nephew likes cars. The toy truck is for ____________ . 8. My neighbor wants to go to California next year. The guide book is for ____________ . 9. Here is another souvenir. I don't know what to do with __________ . 10. Mother nature is getting destructed! We need to save ___________ .

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ADJECTIVES
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a word that describes a noun or a pronoun. Example: Bianca·s cute monkey ate the yellow banana.

Tim washed the dirty dishes. Gary plucked the beautiful flowers.

The Adjective Questions?
Which one What kind How many Whose tall candles scented candles seven candles Beth s candles

Comparatives and Superlatives
Many adjectives can have different degrees. By this I mean that something can have more or less of an adjective's quality. For instance, you may find the weather in California to be hot, Dubai s weather to be hotter, and the Sahara Desert's to be the hottest. See how there are different degrees of the adjective hot? We've just used the comparative and superlative forms of the word hot to show this adjective's different degrees. Here are the different degrees of some other words: 18

Positive good little

Comparative better less

Superlative best least

Positive degree of adjective
An adjective that describes only 1 object. Possible formats: ‡Keep the word as it is. (Sean is an excellent student.) ‡With + word (With intense concentration I·ve been able to

understand this topic.) ‡Word + -fully (Sarah sang the song emotionally.)

Comparative degree of adjective
An adjective used to compare 2 objects Possible formats: Adjective + -er (The suns rays seem to shine brighter today.) More + adjective (Science is more difficult than Math.) Less + adjective (Bianca is less attractive than her sister.)

Superlative degree of adjective
An adjective used to compare 3 or more objects Possible formats: Adjective + -est (Sean is the rudest of his friends.) Most + adjective (Mariya is the most graceful dancer of our

grade.) Least + adjective (The stand is least needy apparatus in this experiment.)

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Exercises
A. Fill in the comparative and superlative degrees of the corresponding adjectives.
Positive cheap late much Beautiful cruel broad expensive hard angry poor fit great important big dull hungry few clever obnoxious outrageous Comparative Superlative

B.Underline a and identify the Adjective.
1. The two fat birds chirped. 2. The cutest baby was abducted from the maternity ward. 3. 4. The largest box of those three fell on the floor. 5. The lovely, scented candle burned. 6. Walter quickly ran home. 7. The large book was kept on the table. 8. Peter is slow than Jack in writing. 9. The brown dog was sleeping.

C. Fill in the blanks with adjectives.
My house is _________ than yours. (big) This flower is __________ than the other one. (beautiful) This is the _____________ book I have ever read. (interesting) Non-smokers usually live ______ than smokers. (long) Which is the __________ animal in the world. (dangerous) A holiday in Dubai is ________ than a holiday in Afghanistan. (good) 7. A coke is often __________ than a beer. (expensive) 8. Who is the _________ man on the earth. (rich) 9. The weather this summer is _________ than the weather last summer. (bad) 10. He was the ________ thief of all. (clever) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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D. Frame sentences using the following adjectives:
1. Obnoxious:

2. Most adventurous:

3. Cautious :

4. Impossible:

5. Enchanting:

6. Mysterious:

7. Abundant:

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Appearance Appearance Contd. adorable adventurous aggressive alert attractive average beautiful blue-eyed bloody blushing bright clean clear cloudy colorful crowded cute dark drab distinct dull elegant excited fancy Filthy glamorous gleaming gorgeous graceful grotesque handsome homely light

Condition

long alive magnificent annoying misty bad motionless better muddy beautiful old-fashioned brainy plain breakable poised busy precious careful quaint cautious shiny clever smoggy clumsy sparkling concerned spotless crazy stormy curious strange dead ugly different ugliest difficult unsightly doubtful unusual easy wide-eyed expensive famous fragile frail gifted helpful helpless horrible important

Feelings (Bad) Contd. impossible angry grumpy inexpensive annoyed helpless anxious innocent homeless inquisitive arrogant hungry ashamed modern hurt awful mushy ill bad odd itchy bewildered jealous open outstanding black jittery blue poor lazy bored powerful lonely clumsy prickly mysterious combative nasty puzzled condemned naughty real confused rich nervous crazy flipped- nutty shy out sleepy obnoxious creepy stupid outrageous cruel super panicky dangerous repulsive talented defeated tame scary defiant tender selfish depressed sore tough uninterested disgusted tense disturbed vast terrible wandering dizzy testy embarrassed thoughtless wild envious wrong tired evil troubled fierce upset foolish uptight frantic weary frightened wicked grieving worried 22

Condition Contd.

Feelings (Bad)

Feelings (Good)

Feelings (Good) Contd. happy healthy helpful hilarious jolly joyous kind lively lovely lucky nice obedient perfect pleasant proud relieved silly smiling splendid successful thankful thoughtful victorious vivacious witty wonderful zealous zany

Shape

Size

Sound

Time

agreeable amused brave calm charming cheerful comfortable cooperative courageous delightful determined eager elated enchanting encouraging energetic enthusiastic excited exuberant fair faithful fantastic fine friendly funny gentle glorious good

broad chubby crooked curved deep flat high hollow low narrow round shallow skinny square steep straight wide

big colossal fat gigantic great huge immense large little mammoth massive miniature petite puny scrawny short small tall teeny teeny-tiny tiny

cooing deafening faint harsh high-pitched hissing hushed husky loud melodic moaning mute noisy purring quiet raspy resonant screeching shrill silent soft squealing thundering voiceless whispering

ancient brief Early fast late long modern old old-fashioned quick rapid short slow swift young

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Taste/Touch

Taste/Touch Contd. melted nutritious plastic prickly rainy rough scattered shaggy shaky sharp shivering silky slimy slippery smooth soft solid steady sticky tender tight uneven weak wet wooden yummy

Touch

Quantity

bitter delicious fresh juicy ripe rotten salty sour spicy stale sticky strong sweet tart tasteless tasty thirsty fluttering fuzzy greasy grubby hard hot icy loose

boiling breezy broken bumpy chilly cold cool creepy crooked cuddly curly damaged damp dirty dry dusty filthy flaky fluffy freezing hot warm wet

abundant empty few heavy light many numerous substantial

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Active and Passive Voice
Verbs are also said to be in voices either active voice or passive voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. In an active sentence, the subject is doing the action. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb.

subject verb

object

The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb and is at times unimportant.

object

verb

subject

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The passive is particularly useful in two situations: In each of the following cases the Voice has been highlighted. ‡If the action is more important then the agent.(This draws a person s attention.) : The unidentified

victim was apparently struck during the early morning hours.
‡When the doer or agent in the situation is not important: The aurora

borealis can be observed in the early morning hours.

An example of passive voice in each tense : Tense Present Past Future Subject The car/cars The car/cars The car/cars Auxiliary Singular / Plural is / are was will be / / were will be Past Participle designed. designed. designed.

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To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above. 1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the active sentence's direct object slot.

2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verb's form if needed

3. Place the passive sentence's object of the preposition by into the subject slot.

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As the examples below illustrate, a sentence in active voice flows more smoothly and is easier to understand than the same sentence in passive voice. The examples also show you the conversion from active voice to passive voice.

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A. Identify the voices.
1. They listen to music.

Exercises

2. Lots of houses were destroyed by the earthquake. 3. You should open your workbooks. 4. The report must be completed by next Friday. 5. 'Red Sunset was painted in 1986 by Smithers. 6. The students will finish the course by July.

B. Change to passive.
Peter will build a house as soon as he is able to arrange for the money required. He has decided to hand over the contract to a gullible friend of his who is a renowned builder. He wants a huge mansion, with a beautiful hall coated with marble floors and 3 bedrooms designed sophistically. He wants it the way he dreams it to be.

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Active

C. Change the voices.

Passive

Tom cleans the house once a week. The car was repaired by Sam. Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Professor Villa gave Jorge an A. The students handed in the reports. A piece of plastic was swallowed by the child. Bicycles must not be left in the driveway. They built that skyscraper in 1934. Did the plan interest you? Someone will speak Japanese at the meeting.

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Subject verb agreement
Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural. In present tenses, nouns and verbs form plurals in opposite ways: . nouns ADD an s to the singular form, BUT Verbs REMOVE an s from the singular form.

Here are nine subject-verb agreement rules: 1. A phrase or clause between subject and verb does not change the number of the subject.
Examples:

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2. Indefinite pronouns as subjects ‡Singular indefinite pronoun subjects take singular verbs.

‡Plural indefinite pronoun subjects take plural verbs. Plural: several, few, both, many.

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‡ Some indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural: with uncountable, use singular; with countable, use plural. Either singular or plural: some, any, none, all, most

Sugar is uncountable; therefore, the sentence has a singular verb.

Marbles are countable; therefore, the sentence has a plural verb. 3. Compound subjects joined by and are always plural.

4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it.

In this example, the singular verb are agrees with the nearer subject director. 33

In the above example, the plural verb is agrees with the nearer subject actors. 5. Inverted Subjects must agree with the verb.

6. Collective Nouns (group, jury, crowd, team, etc.) may be singular or plural, depending on meaning.

In this example, the jury is acting as one unit; therefore, the verb is singular.

In this example, the jury members are acting as twelve individuals; therefore, the verb is plural. 34

7. Titles of single entities (books, organizations, countries, etc.) are always singular.

8. Plural form subjects. Plural form subjects with a singular meaning take a singular verb. (e.g. news, measles, mumps, physics, etc.)

‡Plural form subjects with singular or plural meaning take a singular or plural verb, depending on meaning. (e.g. politics, economics, etc.)

In this example, politics is a single topic; therefore, the sentence has a singular verb.

In this example, politics refers to the many aspects of the situation; therefore, the sentence has a plural verb. 35

‡Plural form subjects with a plural meaning take a plural verb. (e.g. scissors, trousers)

Note: In this example, the subject of the sentence is pair; therefore, the verb must agree with it. (Because scissors is the object of the preposition, scissors does not affect the number of the verb.) 9. With subject and subjective complement of different number, the verb always agrees with the subject.

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Exercises
A. Underline the answer which you think is correct.
1. Emily and Greg (comes, come) to my house every Friday for lunch. 2. There (is, are) time to watch the movie. 3. My friends who are in the band (wants, want) me to play a musical instrument. 4. My father or my brothers (is, are) coming with me to the ball game. 5. Everyone (needs, need) time to relax. 6. That bag of oranges (looks, look) fresh. 7. The lacrosse team (hopes, hope) to win the tournament next week. 8. Your trousers (needs, need) to be cleaned. 9. Some of the books on the shelf (is, are) dusty. 10. Even though the students like the class, a few (thinks, think) that it is too complicated. 11. Mumps (is, are) not common among adults. 12. Viruses from third world countries (is, are) a major concern. 13. Most of the sand (is, are) wet from the high tide. 14. Either the two kittens or the puppy (sits, sit) in my lap while I watch television. 15. A subject of great interest (is, are) rainforests. 16. Hansel and Gretel (is, are) a famous children's story. 17. The team members (is, are) arguing over the defense tactics. 18. The economics of the trip (was, were) pleasing. 19. Why (is, are) your parents going to Africa for a vacation? 20. The mayor and the governor (hopes, hope) that the bill will soon become a law.

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B. Pick out the answer which you think is correct.
1. There ____________ several reasons why you should reconsider your decision. (are/is) 2. Howard and Vincent, who ____________ a copy center in town, have decided to expand their business. (run/runs) 3. Both of the statues on the shelf ____________ broken. (are/is) 4. The fishing boat that has been tied up at the pier for three days ____________ finally on its way this morning. (was/were) 5. The chairman, along with his two assistants, ____________ to attend the annual convention. (plan/plans) 6. The issues of inflation and tax reform ____________ to be on everyone's mind. (continue/continues) 7. Juan or Julian ____________ the conference room each week. (prepare/prepares) 8. Not one of the performers ____________ at the party after the concert. (were/was) 9. The results of the election ____________ not available for two days. (were/was) 10. When there _______ thunderstorms approaching, we are always reminded of the threat of tornadoes. (is/are) 11. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator ____ going to have to make a decision. (is/are) 12. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance? (is/are) 13. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted. (seem/seems) 14. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance. (are/is)

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15. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time. (have/has) 16. Kara Wolters, together with her teammates, _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court. (presents/ present) 17. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done before he can graduate. (are/is) 18. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday's flood. (have/has) 19. Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the tuition hike.(is/are) 20. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the new school. (is/are)

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Verbs
A verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state of being. The verb is the heart of a sentence every sentence has one. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence. In the sentence The dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word which shows the action of the sentence. Verbs present the actions of a doer or a happening.

Simple Present Tense
Habits

The simple present tense is used for two main types of action:
Actions which happen regularly (for example, every day or every week) Things which do not often change (for example, opinions and conditions) Examples Explanations Every day is a habit. This means that it rains often. When we like something, usually we will always like it. Beliefs and opinions are states. They don't often change.

States Type of action

Habit

Young-Mi goes to class every day. It rains a lot in Vancouver. Martin likes chocolate.

State

Anna believes in God.

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Facts, Generalizations and Universal Truths. We use the simple present tense to talk about universal truths or things we believe are, or are not, true. In the following examples the verbs are highlighted.

Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. (universal truth) It is a big house. (fact) Dogs are better than cats. (generalization) Berlin is the capital city of Germany. (fact) The Elephant doesn't fly. (fact)

Simple Past Tense
The simple past tense is one of the most common tenses in English. It is usually formed by adding -ED to the verb. However, with some verbs, you need to add -D or change the ending a little. This page will explain the rules for forming the tense with regular verbs.
Verb ending in... e Consonant +y One vowel + one consonant (but NOT w or y) anything else including w How to make the simple past Add -D Change y to i, then add -ED Examples

live - lived date - dated try - tried cry - cried tap - tapped commit - committed boil - boiled fill - filled hand - handed 41 show - showed

Double the consonant, then add -ED

Add -ED

The three most important irregular verbs. The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO. The simple past forms for BE are different depending on the subject.
Pronoun I You He / she / it We They BE was were was were were HAVE had had had had had DO did did did did did

Other irregular verbs Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories:
Category Verbs which don't change

Examples cut - cut hit - hit fit - fit get - got sit - sat drink - drank catch - caught bring - brought teach - taught

Verbs which change their vowel

Verbs which change completely

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Simple Future Tense
In English, there are many ways of expressing future time. One of the most common is using the modal auxiliary verb will . This page will explain the main meanings of will and show you how to form the future with will . Using will with verbs Will , like all modal verbs in English, does not change its form, and it is followed by the simple form of the main verb. Will is NOT usually used in first person questions. Note also that will is often shortened to ll. This diagram should make the situation clearer:
Subject I You

Statement I will stop smoking. I'll stop smoking. You will stop smoking. You'll stop smoking. He will stop smoking. He'll stop smoking. She will stop smoking. She'll stop smoking. It will be hard to stop. It'll be hard to stop. We will stop smoking. We'll stop smoking. They will stop smoking. They'll stop smoking.

Question [not usually used] Will you stop smoking?

He

Will he stop smoking?

She

Will she stop smoking?

It

Will it be hard to stop?

We

[not usually used]

They

Will they stop smoking?

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The meaning of will future forms Will is usually used in three situations:
Situation
Volunteering to do something

Example
Will someone open the window for me? I'll do it! I've made up my mind. I'll go to Whistler for my vacation. Dad, I don't want to clean my room! You'll do it, and you'll do it NOW!

Deciding to do something

Forcing someone to do something.

In the following examples on simple present, past and future the verbs are highlighted.

‡The Earth rotates around the Sun. ‡If we do not change now, there are no hopes for our future. ‡The meeting starts at 3 PM. ‡Shauna studied Japanese for five years. ‡Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? ‡She worked at the movie theater after school. ‡We are saying what we think will happen. ‡People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. ‡Who do you think will get the job?
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The Simple Tense Simplified.

VERB To see To do To go To take To give To eat To know To break To write To steal To sing To fall To try To watch

SIMPLE PRESENT He sees He does He goes He takes He gives He eats He knows He breaks He writes He steals He sings He falls He tries He watches

SIMPLE PAST He saw He did He went He took He gave He ate He knew He broke He wrote He stole He sang He fell He tried He watched

SIMPLE FUTURE He will see He will do He will go He will take He will give He will eat He will know He will break He will write He will steal He will sing He will fall He will try He will watch

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Exercises.
A. Write down the form of tense for each of the following sentences.

B. Pick out and write the correct answer.
1. Which is not a past form of a verb? was had looked spoke hear ________________________________________ 2. Which is not a present form of a verb? are saw has talk speak ________________________________________ 3. Which is not a plural form of a verb? are were am have do ________________________________________ 4. Which is not a 3rd person singular form of a verb? goes has was are does _______________________________________ 5. Which is in the simple past tense? look saw is speak will hear ________________________________________

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6. Which is not a future tense of a verb? will move heard will speak will talk will see ________________________________________ 7. Which is not used as an auxiliary of a verb? was have did will sees ________________________________________ 8. Which verb can be both singular and plural? sees has do am is ________________________________________ 9. Which verb can be both singular and plural? was does have comes hears ________________________________________

C. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of verb from the brackets.
1. I my homework everyday after school. (Do) how to swim. (Know) 2. He 3. I a movie every Friday. (Watch) 4. Jill to visit his granddad often. (Go) very well and so is in the choir. (Sing) 5. Sue 6. Jack to do his best at school. (Try) down the stairs while climbing them. (Fall) 7. Tim 8. The robber the money from a bank. (Steal) 9. The doctor the child a medicine for his cold. (Give) 10. Steve the Eiffel Tower on his trip to France. (Saw) to swim everyday. (Go) 11. He 12. Tom harder in his next project. (Try) little because she is on a diet. (Eat) 13. The lady 14. The student for his test. (Study)

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D. Fill in the correct form of verb provided in the bracket.
1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. (rain) . 3. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It 4. The business cards (be) normally printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. 5. This delicious chocolate (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland. (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 6. I 7. After I (find) the wallet full of money, I (go) for shopping. 8. The doctor (say) that Tom (be) too sick to go to work and that he (need) to stay at home for a couple of days. (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 9. Sebastian (be) not there. PM, but she 10. I (call) you last night after dinner, but you (be) not there. Where were you? (watch) a mystery movie on TV when the electricity 11. I went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends. 12. Sharon (be) in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because she was sleeping. (call) me right now. 13. It's strange that you 14. I (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out.

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15. After I (find) the wallet full of money, I (go) for shopping. 16. The doctor (say) that Tom (be) too sick to go to work and that he (need) to stay at home for a couple of days. (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 17. Sebastian 9:00 PM, but she (be) not there. 18. I (call) you last night after dinner, but you (be) not there. Where were you? (call) me right now. 19. It's strange that you 20. The firemen (rescue) the old woman who was trapped on the third floor of the burning building.

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What is a transitive verb ?
Example: ‡The students write composition. What do the students write? Compositions. ‡Peter loves Mary. Who does Peter love? Mary. Formula: Subject + Verb + Object

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

A transitive verb requires an object in the form of a noun or pronoun to complete its meaning. This object answers to the questions who(m) or what.

What is an intransitive verb ?

An intransitive verb is one that does not require an object to complete its meaning. The sentence may end with the verb, an adjective, or an adverb. The questions one may ask with these forms are when, where, how, or why. Example: The children sat. ‡The children sat at 7:30 pm. ‡The children sat at the table. ‡The children sat uietly. ‡The children sat because their mother told them to. 50

Exercises
A. Let·s see if you can identify the verbs in the following examples. Draw a line under the verb and in the blank space, write transitive or intransitive.
1. The math professor explains the lesson. 2. I drive my car to work everyday. 3. Many students sleep late on the weekends. verb. 4. Louise finally got her license. 5. Does your family live in Minnesota? verb. verb.

verb. verb.

B. Underline the verb in each sentence and indicate whether it is being used as a transitive verb or an intransitive verb.
1. Many contemporary television programs expose children to violence and vulgar language. 2. My exam grade will exclude me from the soccer game. 3. Alice imagined a world full of fascinating creatures. 4. James ran in the park every afternoon. 5. The tornado destroyed entire buildings when it struck. 6. I raked the yard on Saturday. 7. The boiling water scalded my hand. 8. We talked about the news all evening. 9. My mother washes clothes every Saturday. 10. I opened the door for the lady with the stroller

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C. Tell which of the following verbs are transitive and which are intransitive.
1. Anne loves her mother. 2. The golden gate opened. 3. The moon silvers the distant hills. 4. Mary found her ring. 5. James writes poetry. 6. The snow melts. 7. The icy chains break. 8. The innocent lamb died. 9. The children played. 10. The children played a game. 11. Doris was elected president of the class. 12. Dan is the first baseman.

D. WRITE AN APPROPRIATE SUBJECT AND OBJECT FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING For the verbUSING THE FOLLOWING MODEL: VERBS to ring, write: rings the church bell (object).
1. to learn 2. to find 3. to hide 4. to fear 5. to remember 6. to inflict 7. to receive 8.to lift 9.to hear 10. to renew

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E. STATE WHETHER THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES ARE TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE. NAME THE OBJECT OF EACH TRANSITIVE VERB.
1. The dog barks. 2. He raised his hands. 3. The information proved false. 4. The child has fallen asleep. 5. The donkey kept braying. 6. The tea is hot. 7. The results are out. 8. She called again and again. 9. We are human beings. 10. They arrived here via metro.

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Assessment
Find 5 adjectives and 5 nouns .

x k n z u e l c h a i r t y l e w s y p n v d u l l

a m

d n p t b l v r d o n m a u z q k a e g s b a f p y m c t r t q r u b q n a o s e k b y a s c k a h c t o z b y md l p m z p f e mr h i a o l p o o r z s q l a t wb t x e g s t r s n q i s p n

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Comprehension
Learning something new; swimming. Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I've ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn't realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person. New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn't seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease. We got into the pool, and the teacher had us put on brightly colored water wings to help us stay afloat. One of the other students, May, had already taken the beginning class once before, so she took a kickboard and went splashing off by herself. The other student, Jerry, and I were told to hold on to the side of the pool and shown how to kick for the breaststroke. One by one, the teacher had us hold on to a kickboard while she pulled it through the water and we kicked. Pretty soon Jerry was off doing this by himself, travelling at a fast clip across the short end of the pool.

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Things not quite that easy for me, but the teacher was very patient. After a few more weeks, when I seemed to have caught on with my legs, she taught me the arm strokes. Now I had two things to concentrate on, my arms and my legs. I felt hopelessly uncoordinated. Sooner than I imagined, however, things began to feel "right" and I able to swim! It was a wonderful free feeling - like flying, maybe - to be able to shoot across the water. Learning to swim not easy for me, but in the end my persistence paid off. Not only did I learn how to swim and to conquer my fear of the water, but I also learned something about learning. Now when I faced with a new situation I am not so nervous. I may feel uncomfortable to begin with, but I know that as I practice being in that situation and as my skills get better, I feel more and more comfortable. It a wonderful, free feeling when you achieve a goal you have set for yourself.

A. Investigate the meanings of the following words :
ExperienceTimidlyEmbarrassedUncoordinatedPersistenceConquerAchieveConfidentSituationConcentrate-

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B. Pick out any five pronouns from the passage.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C. Write down 2 sentences that are passive and two sentences that are active.

D. In the last 2 paragraphs fill in the correct forms of verbs keeping in mind the rules of subject verb agreement.

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